There has been a dramatic change in our country in recent years, one that has affected us profoundly and will continue to affect us and our children and our children’s children. We’re going to follow the money and see where it leads.
We’re going to look at how much we spend on the military, where it goes, and how that is affecting us. Let’s start with how much we spend.
We’re going to look at how much we spend on the military, where it goes, and how that is affecting us. Let’s start with how much we spend.
This chart shows Pentagon spending from 1945 to 2010—the blue line is total military spending, including the wars. Do you think, looking at this chart, that there is room for major cuts?
This chart shows Pentagon base budget spending (i.e., without any war funding included)-- the brown line is what the Pentagon now projects through 2016 and the green line shows what Pentagon spending would be with sequestration. A real cut—but is it even enough?
The point is, of course, that these are choices. We are choosing to fund the military at a huge level and not to fund other things.
So, we’re spending a lot of money on the military. Now let’s look at where some of it is going. We’re going to examine 3 categories.
The wars have represented a little less than one quarter of the spending—a substantial amount. That is declining now. For 2013, the war budget is still over $88 bn.
While the war in Afghanistan represents a relatively small part of our total Pentagon budget—only about 10%--the amount we are spending there this year is more than any other country will spend in total on its military. China is the country that has the second largest military budget in the world, after the U.S. Here, you can compare what we spent in 2011 on the war in Afghanistan to the total military budget of China. War spending is finally starting to go down, but it still almost equals total military spending in China.
[Read slide] Linda Bilmes & Joseph Stiglitz estimate that the costs of these wars are likely to be between $4 and $6 trillion. This includes long-term medical care and disability compensation for service members, veterans and families, military replenishment and social and economic costs. The largest portion of that bill is yet to be paid. The peak year for paying disability compensation to World War I veterans was in 1969 - more than 50 years after Armistice. The largest expenditures for World War II veterans were in the late 1980s. Payments to Vietnam veterans are still climbing. Imagine that you spent $1 million/day beginning with the birth of Jesus—to spend a trillion dollars, you’d need to keep spending $1 million/day until mid-way through the 28 th century. If you laid out $1 trillion end-to-end in $100 bills, you could circle the Earth at the equator 39 times.
[Read slide] [Officially, the Pentagon counts 865 base sites, but this number omits all our bases in Afghanistan, as well as some other secret bases. So, many people believe that the correct number is about 1,000.] http://www.fpif.org/articles/too_many_overseas_bases Cost of foreign bases: more than double the cost for this year of the war in Afghanistan. Service members not infrequently go off the bases and behave in ways that infuriate locals: drinking, committing crimes, even rape, as in a base in Japan a couple of years ago. The U.S. has agreements with host countries to prevent service members from being tried for crimes in these countries. The bases generate pollution, confiscate land, and serve as a daily reminder of foreign control. They generate anger among people all over the globe. Think how we would feel if there were a Chinese military base just outside Baltimore, and if the soldiers from that base were exempt from all US laws and if that base was a major polluter of the Chesapeake Bay.
This map shows the locations of some of the bases the U.S. maintains around the world.
Jeju Island is a World Heritage Site– with a fragile ecosystem. Local people have been struggling for over 4 years to prevent a new US military base from being built there. In addition to making enemies abroad, the dollar costs of serving as the world’s policeman is very high for us. The Declaration of Independence criticizes the British "for quartering large bodies of armed troops among us" and "for protecting them . . . from punishment for any murders which they should commit on the inhabitants of these States.“ Foreign bases create enemies and make us less safe.
Profits have increased dramatically over the last decade, much of that profit attributable to the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. In 2012, LM increased its dividend by 15%, representing the 10th consecutive annual double-digit percentage increase in dividends. In fact, LM has profited the most of any company in the world from the wars. (http://247wallst.com/2013/03/06/ten-companies-profiting-most-from-war-2/3/ )
Costs/plane have doubled since first contract. Plane is unsafe, currently grounded. Does not address any enemy. Imagine that you spent $1 million/day beginning with the birth of Jesus—to spend a trillion dollars, you’d need to keep spending $1 million/day until mid-way through the 28 th century. If you laid out $1 trillion end-to-end in $100 bills, you could circle the Earth at the equator 39 times. Due to “sequestration,” Maryland will provide nutritional supplements to 10,000 fewer high-risk pregnant and nursing women and their babies through the WIC program. To fly one F-35 plane for 10 hours equals the cost of all WIC cuts in MD for one month. WIC cuts in MD from this source: http://www.chn.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/All_Letters1.pdf *For the cost of purchasing one F-35 , Baltimore City can build or renovate 13 elementary schools.
Deployed are those currently operational and on missiles, submarines, bombers. Def of deployed nukes: When used in connection with the transfer of weapons between the Department of Energy and the Department of Defense, this term describes those weapons transferred to and in the custody of the Department of Defense
Is all this money increasing our security? What is security, anyway, and how do we get it? Enough food? 740,000 people in MD are food insecure. Adequate shelter? Over a year, 2.1 million people in the US experience homelessness. Medical care? Future based on an educated population? Rule of law—not “state secrets”?
Such high levels of military spending harm women. For one thing, we need that money to be spent at home in other ways.
Because women are more likely to be poor, they are more reliant on safety net programs
10,000 women and babies in MD lose WIC Paul Ryan’s new budget plan would get at least 66 percent of its $5 trillion in non-defense budget cuts over ten years (relative to a continuation of current policies) from programs that serve people of limited means, [Center on Budget and Policy Priorities]
2,189 people will lose rental housing vouchers in MD due to sequestration. Most of these families will be headed by women.
SSI: provides income support for low-income individuals who are elderly or living with disabilities [Coalition on Human Needs]
Out of all age groups, children experience the highest poverty, especially infants and toddlers. The poverty rate for young children under 6 remained nearly unchanged at 24.5 percent in 2011 (latest year for data) http://www.clasp.org/news_room/news_releases?id=0071 MD has cut funding for child care assistance from 30,000 served in 2002 to 25,000 in 2010 http://www.clasp.org/admin/site/publications_states/files/2010-Child-Care-Assistance-Profile-Maryland.pdf Most likely, that has been cut more since then but needs have increased. http://www.nwlc.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/state_child_care_assistance_policies_report2011_final.pdf
MD cut higher ed funding by 18% 2008-2013 http://www.cbpp.org/cms/index.cfm?fa=view&id=3927 It costs almost $6,000 per year to attend Mont college full time (tuition, fees, and books). http://cms.montgomerycollege.edu/EDU/Department2.aspx?id=20121 Books & supplies: $847 (2 semesters) $2523 x 2 semesters = $5046 + 4847 = $5893 Average student loan at MC: $4,000/year
[Read slide] Linda Bilmes & Joseph Stiglitz estimate that the costs of these ware are likely to be between $4 and $6 trillion. This is a choice. We have chosen war in Iraq and Afghanistan over the education of our children.
Women have been particularly hard hit with the job cuts to the public sector over the last couple of years. http://www.nwlc.org/resource/stronger-jobs-recovery-reaching-women Some people believe that a side benefit of military spending is that the military creates jobs and so that alone is a reason to maintain a large military., good for the economy. However, a recent analysis found that other sectors created more jobs than the military, as this chart shows. The same study also found that military jobs are among the lowest paid of all the sectors analyzed. If we want to have a national jobs program, that’s good. But we should debate it as such and see what brings us the most benefit. Spending so much on the military means that we have fewer jobs in this country. The war spending itself provided less stimulus to the economy than other forms of spending—giving money to foreign contractors working in Iraq and Afghanistan neither stimulated the economy in the short term (compared to investments in education, infrastructure, or technology) nor did Iraq and Afghanistan spending provide a basis for long term growth.
All of us suffer from inadequate attention to infrastructure.
Most European countries have much greater levels of social supports for women than the U.S.– medical care, child care, family supports, etc. Maybe that’s because they spend so much less on the military than does the U.S.
We have pressing needs at home, serious threats to our communities, such as poverty, unemployment, and climate change. When we spend so much on war and on military spending at the Pentagon, we take away the option of addressing these other needs. And women suffer disproportionately.
But high levels of military spending inevitably lead to war. And war is very bad for women.
Other tools: Development, diplomacy, international cooperation ---These are other ways to seek peace in the world than through war and they tend to work better. Research has indicated that investing early to prevent conflicts from escalating into violent crises is, on average, 60 times more cost effective than intervening after violence erupts. But these other tools tend to get crowded out by military spending.
With inadequate resources going to the things that work to prevent conflict, war is more likely.
In addition to the fact that other ways of dealing with conflict that work better are underfunded, too much military spending fosters war for other reasons.
When war comes, women suffer.
Not only do many women die in war. They also suffer when their husbands and children die.
Women & children are the first to be affected by infrastructure breakdown. Women struggle to keep families together and care for the wounded.
Refugee center in Kabul. Families living without water, sewage, heat, income. Last year, about 18 babies froze to death in this camp. This is the outcome for families in a country in which we have spent many billions over more than a decade.
An Afghan girl who lost her arm in an American bombing. Family moved to Kabul refugee camp.
Women in war-torn countries often forced to turn to sexual exploitation in order to survive and support their families. Prostitutes in Kabul wear burqas. Others beg. Over 70,000 war widows in Afghanistan, and most have no way to live.
Sexual violence common in war: Lal Bibi with her mother in Kunduz, Afghanistan. Lal Bibi was kidnapped, locked in a room, beaten, tortured and raped repeatedly by local militiamen, including several identified as members of the American-trained Afghan Local Police. Few such victims come forward—most in Afghanistan are killed by their families since the rape was a family dishonor. Read more: http://www.rawa.org/temp/runews/2012/11/12/women-in-afghanistan-a-human-rights-tragedy-a-decade-after-september-11.html#ixzz2PDF81t48 Even after conflict has ended, the impacts of sexual violence persist, including unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections and stigmatization. Sexual and gender-based violence persists in some countries long after the end of conflict.
Widespread sexual violence itself may continue or even increase in the aftermath of conflict, as a consequence of insecurity and impunity. This is a Vietnamese woman, impregnated by an American soldier, who was killed by him when she confronted him and cut him with a piece of broken glass.
Women and the children they deliver suffer from the poisons of war for many years after war. Top 2 pix from a Ramadi photojournalist, attributed to depleted uranium. If children survive, mostly women who care for them. Bottom 2 pix: from Vietnam, Agent Orange
Top: legless Rabia, 70, living in a Kabul refugee camp; husband and son were killed by NATO forces Bottom: Having lost part of her arm during a US attack in Helmand, Farzana and her family now live at the refugee camp, displaced by the violence in Afghanistan. Read more: http://www.rawa.org/temp/runews/rawanews.php?id=938#ixzz2PDIua4n9
In addition to misspent money in our own country & horrific outcomes for women and their children in the countries we attack, militarism also has a more subtle effect, that serves to maintain male dominance of women.
Agree or disagree?
What does this picture convey to you? What does it mean to be male? George Bush thought he’d nailed it! Mission accomplished.
What is the message from this poster?
What messages do you get from these?
What’s being suggested here? E.g., bravery, excitement, strength, brotherhood, sexual attractiveness
What are these pictures about?
Rape: “Because some men rape, all men benefit”— protecting women from violence of other males is how to control women
What we have tried to show --- war is a women’s issue. It is important for women to take a stand against war and militarism. We ask you to do that by working with our coalition.
The Fund Our Communities coalition is designed to fight against militarism and war. It is a grassroots coalition--to make it politically imperative to make serious cuts in the military budget. We want far more cuts in military spending than sequestration calls for. We want a complete reassessment of what security means. This will not be easy. The forces arrayed against us are formidable, which is why we need everyone to take a stand, in whatever way makes most sense for that particular organization or group. We are part of a newly emerging national campaign across the nation, the New Priorities Network.
Matthew Hoh on why cutting the military budget is an important strategy: “Congress is addicted to the military. It’s like a drug addiction: if you weaken the supplier, the source, you can prevent the wars. That is, cutting the military budget is like cutting off drugs to an addict.” If we changed our military strategy to one of defense of the American people rather than global power projection, we could use that money for the things that are important to us in our community. And we would not be less secure.
Lockheed Martin hotel and conference center in Bethesda: Center for Learning Excellence
I ask you now to imagine a world where conflict is resolved through nonviolent means, and justice, equity and compassion describe human relations. A world where American taxpayers invest billions of dollars in education and health care, instead of occupation and weapons of war. A world where creative, interdependent, sustainable communities are the norm....and war is a memory. That world is possible—it’s our choice to make.
Costs of Militarization to Women
The Militarization of America A Women’s Issue PREPARED BY FUND OUR COMMUNITIES NOT THE PENTAGON ANDPEACE ACTION MONTGOMERY HTTP://OURFUNDS.ORG
The Militarization of America A Women’s Issue 2 IS THERE A PROBLEM? MILITARY SPENDING IN THE US WOMEN’S NEEDS VS. MILITARISM VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN AND MILITARISM MILITARISM AND SEXISM MARYLAND ADVOCACY: FUND OUR COMMUNITIES
Is There a Problem?Military Spending in the U.S. 3
Montgomery County Citizens’ Shareof Pentagon Expenditures, FY2012 Budget 12 About $2.4 billion or $2,000 per person Source: National Priorities Project
With $2.4 Billion, Montgomery County Could Instead Have Paid For: 13All expenses at a public university for four years for every 18-year-old in the County, andRenewable electricity for three years for all the homes in the county, andOver 5,000 new affordable housing units. Source: Computed from National Priorities Project and census
Where Does the Money Go? 15•War costs•Foreign military bases•War profiteers & weapons
Military Budget, 2011 16 Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation
Afghanistan War vs. World Military Spending 17In 2011, the United States spent more on the war in Afghanistan than any other country in the world spent in total on the military. US: Afghanistan 122 China: Total Military 92 0 50 100 150 Billions of Dollars, 2011 Billions of Dollars, 2010 Source: Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation; Reuters
Total Estimated Costs of Iraq & Afghanistan: $4 to $6 Trillion 18 Source: Bilmes
U.S. Foreign Military Bases 19The US maintains about 1,000 foreign military basesForeign bases cost taxpayers about $250 billion per year Source: Foreign Policy in Focus, Anita Dancs
War Profiteers Example: Lockheed Martin 2382% Percent of L/M profits derived directly from US tax payers, 2012: plus about 8% indirectly (foreign “aid”)$5 billion Amount of profit derived from tax-payers, 2012$16.9 million Total compensation of Lockheed Martin CEO, 2012. For 2013: golden parachute for him of $36.6 million Sources:LM Annual Report 2012 and Proxy Statement 2013
24 F-35Joint Strike FighterCost/plane: $163 millionCost for production of planeson order: $397 billionRevenue to Lockheed Martinfrom F-35 in 2012: $6.5billionCost to fly one F-35 for onehour (operating costs only):$51,000Cost to develop, build, fly andmaintain all the F-35s onorder for 55 years — the lives The F-35: Most Expensiveof the planes: $1.5 trillion Boondoggle in Human History Source: ProPublica
25Nuclear WeaponsNumber nuclear weaponsin US arsenal: 5,113Number US deployednuclear weapons: 1,722Nuclear weapons-relatedcosts: “triad” (planes,submarines, missiles),unproven missile defense,cleanup, weaponsmaintenanceTotal estimated cost ofUS nuclear arsenalover next decade:$640 billion We Spend $64 Billion/Year So We Can Do This Again? Sources: Ploughshares; Arms Control Association
26DronesReaper drone costs overlife of program: $11.8billionCost of one weaponsload for a Reaper:$320,000 Global Hawk DroneCivilian deaths: numberdisputed, range from 9 $30,000:to several thousand Cost per flight hour to operate a Global HawkCan a democracy have asecret “kill list”? Drone (operational costs, not cost of drone itself)Blowback—a real Cost of Montgomery County’s entire Communitysecurity issue for us Development and Housing program budget for three years. Sources: Know Drones; FCNL and Montgomery County
Women and Poverty 29Overall Poverty Rate: Women: 15% Men: 11%Poverty rate for families with children: Female-headed: 41% Male-headed: 22%Elderly: Women are over 2/3 of the elderly poor Source: National Women’s Law Center
30 In FY 2011: Temporary Assistance for Needy FamiliesWomen who (TANF):head families: 85% of TANF adult recipients were womenRely on Medicaidgovernment 70% of non-elderly adult recipients were women—programs for mostly pregnant women and low-income parentslow-incomepeople Section 8 Rental Assistance (HUD) 82% of households served by this program were headed by women Source: National Women’s Law Center
Dollars and Sense 31 $500,000The cost of flying one F-35 plane for 10 hoursThe cost of nutritional supplements to 10,000 babies and high-risk pregnant and nursing women in MD for one month, cut off the WIC program through “sequestration” Sources: Coalition on Human Needs; US Dept of Agriculture; Time
Dollars and Sense 32 $18 millionCost to maintain the U.S. nuclear arsenal for one dayCost to provide over 1,200 low income families in Montgomery County affordable housing vouchers for one year Source: Waging Peace
33 Medicaid: About 70% of elderly recipients areElderly women: women.Rely onprograms for Supplemental Security Income:low-income Over 2/3 of elderly SSI beneficiaries arepeople. women. Social Security: Only source of income for nearly 30% of female beneficiaries Average Social Security benefit Women : $12,700/year Men: $16,700/year Source: National Women’s Law Center
34 Child Care Assistance 86% of families served by the Child Care & Development Block Grant program inOther 2011 were single-parent households. Allgovernment were poor.programswomen need Education Assistance 66% of Pell grant recipients are women Sources: CLASP; National Women’s Law Center
The Pentagon is Taking Your Education! 35If the U.S. cut its spending on nuclear weapons by one third (by $22 billion)and used that money for education, we could cover all expenses for everycommunity college student in the country. Chart Source: Maryland Budget & Tax Policy Institute
The Pentagon is Taking Your Education! 36In 2006, economists estimated total Iraq war costs at $3.5 trillion. With $3.5 trillion, we could have done this:For the next 133 years, send every 18-year-old in the U.S. to a state university: tuition, fees, room and board--for Latest total estimated cost of wars four years. in Iraq & Afghanistan: $6 trillion Source: Bilmes; computations
The Pentagon is Taking Your Job! War is a Lousy Jobs Project 37 U.S. Job Creation with $1 Billion SpendingNumber of Jobs Created Education Health Care Clean Energy Consumption Military Source: U of MA, Political Economy Research Institute
The Pentagon is Taking Your FutureLet’s Spend Money on Wars, Not Infrastructure! 38
Defense Expenditures Per Capita, 2008 39 Source: Friedman and Preble
40SummaryThe diversion of suchhuge sums to thePentagon means greaterpoverty for women andchildren, unmet socialneeds, and a poorerfuture for all of us.
It’s a Choice:Militarism or a Peace Economy 41
Militarism and Violence:Death and Injury of Women 42
Military Recruiting Budget Compared to Peace Corps Total Budget7,000,000,0006,000,000,0005,000,000,0004,000,000,000 Military Recruiting Budget3,000,000,000 Peace Corps Total Budget2,000,000,0001,000,000,000 0 44
A Huge Military Budget Fosters War 45 Material brake on going to war eliminated. No reason for weapons to sit in warehouses! War justifies previous purchases and budget decisions. Effective ways of preventing conflict crowded out. The huge profits of military contractors used to promote more wars. With major political donations, thousands of lobbyists.
War is Bad for Women It is Mainly About Civilians 4610 civilian deaths to 1 soldier?Vietnam: Over 58,000 American combat deaths; 2 million Vietnamese deaths?Iraq: About 4,800 American deaths. 122,000 Iraqi civilians? Over one million?Afghanistan: About 2,200 American deaths. No civilian counts before 2007; for 2007-2011: U.S. says 12,000 civilians killed during that time period.Wounded? No data.
Propositions: Agree or Disagree? 64Glorifying war normalizes and glorifies male violence generally.The more militaristic a society, the more violence against women.A syllogism:Male sexual violence is a key enforcer of sexism.Militarism increases male violence, including sexual violence.Thus, the more militaristic a society, the more sexism and gender inequality.
Militarism is a Women’s Issue! 65Militarism and war divert money at home thatwomen needWar causes untold deaths and injuries of womenMilitarism leads to violence against women, athome and abroadMilitarism entrenches sexism
Fund Our Communities: Not the Pentagon 66LaborCivil RightsImmigrant RightsEnvironmental GroupsReligious CongregationsSocial Service GroupsCommunity OrganizationsAdvocacy Groups
Fund Our Communities: Goals 67 Significant increases in domestic spending Major reductions in the Pentagon budget
Strategies to Build Power 68Growing our coalition— showing strength in numbersProviding information— gaining public supportPolitical engagement— taking action for change
71A LegislativeCampaign:No CorporateWelfare forLockheedMartin inMontgomeryCounty Lockheed Martin’s Center for Learning Excellence
http://ourfunds.org Fund Our Communities Not the Pentagon 72
Sources 73 Administration for Children and Families: http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/ofa/resource/character/fy2010/fy2010-chap10-ys-final American Forces Press Service, http://www.smallgovtimes.com/2009/05/proposed-military-recruiting-cuts-reasonable American Friends Service Committee, http://www.countdowntowithdrawal.org/ Amnesty International, http://www.amnesty.org.uk/uploads/documents/doc_20012.pdf Arms Control Association: http://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/Nuclearweaponswhohaswhat Bacevich, Andrew, Washington Rules, America’s Path to Permanent War, Metropolitan Books, 2010. Bilmes, Linda: https://research.hks.harvard.edu/publications/workingpapers/citation.aspx?PubId=8956&type=WPN Center for Arms Control and Non Proliferation, 2009 Briefing Book, http://www.armscontrolcenter.org/assets/pdfs/fy09_dod_request_briefing_book.pdf Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation, “Putting Afghanistan Troop Increases in Perspective,” Dec. 2. http://www.armscontrolcenter.org/policy/securityspending/articles/120209_afghanistan_costs_in_perspe http://www.armscontrolcenter.org/policy/securityspending/articles/102109_c111_fy10_authconf/ Center for Arms Control and Nonproliferation: http://www.armscontrolcenter.org/
Sources, continued 74 Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation: http://armscontrolcenter.org/policy/securityspending/Fiscal_Year_2012.pdf Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, http://www.cbpp.org/cms/index.cfm?fa=view&id=1258 Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, http://www.cbpp.org/cms/index.cfm?fa=view&id=3925 Center for Economic and Policy Research: http://www.stwr.org/global-conflicts-militarization/report-shows-increased-us-military-spending-slows-eco Chalmers Johnson, America’s Empire of Bases. http://www.tomdispatch.com/post/1181/chalmers_johnson_on_garrisoning_the_planet CLASP: http://www.clasp.org/admin/site/publications_states/files/2010-Child-Care-Assistance-Profile-Maryland.p Coalition on Human Needs: http://www.chn.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/All_Letters1.pdf Coalition on Human Needs: http://www.chn.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/All_Letters1.pdf Commission on Wartime Contracting in Iraq and Afghanistan, Interim Report, June 2009: http://www.wartimecontracting.gov/docs/CWC_Interim_Report_At_What_Cost_06-10-09.pdf Conetta, Carl, Project on Defense Alternatives, http://www.comw.org/pda/fulltext/1110bm50.pdf CNN , Congress to Probe Private Military Contractors in Afghanistan: http://www.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/asiapcf/12/17/afghanistan.contractors.probe/
Sources, continued 75 Congressional Joint Economic Committee Majority Report. War At Any Price?: http://jec.senate.gov/index.cfm?FuseAction=Reports.Reports&ContentRecord_id=c6616188-7e9c-9af9-716 = Congressional Research Service Report RL 33110, September 28, 2009 http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/RL33110.pdf Congressional Research Service Report R40764, September 21, 2009, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/R40764.pdf Congressional Research Service Report RL 33222, US Foreign Aid to Israel, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/RL33222.pdf Congressional Research Service: http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/129342.pdf Daily Kos: “Our Taxes Are off to War,” March 8, 2010: http://www.dailykos.com/story/2010/3/8/123728/5092 Anita Dancs, Mary Orisich, Suzanne Smith, The Military Costs of Securing Energy (National Priorities Project – October 2008) http://www.nationalpriorities.org/auxiliary/energy_security/executive_summary.pdf
Sources, continued 76 Experts Letter on Defense Spending, Nov. 18, 2010, http://www.comw.org/pda/fulltext/NCFRRexpertsletter.pdf Fastweb: http://www.finaid.org/educators/ProfileofPellGrantRecipients.pdf FCNL: http://fcnl.org/issues/foreign_policy/understanding_drones Forbes: http://people.forbes.com/profile/robert-j-stevens/49897 Foreign Policy in Focus: Anita Dancs, The Cost of the Global U.S. Military Presence, July 2009: http://www.comw.org/qdr/fulltext/0907dancs.pdf Foreign Policy in Focus, A Unified Security Budget: http://www.ips-dc.org/reports-list.php?start=6 http://multinationalmonitor.org/mm2003/03jan-feb/jan-feb03corp2.html Friends Committee on National Legislation, “Keeping Military Spending in Balance with the Nation’s Priorities,” March 16, 2009. http://www.fcnl.org/issues/item.php?item_id=3538&issue_id=19 Friends Committee on National Legislation: http://fcnl.org/issues/checkbook/where_your_taxes_go/ Benjamin Friedman and Christopher Preble, “Budgetary Savings from Military Restraint,” Policy Analysis, Cato Institute, Sept. 23, 2010: http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/PA667.pdf William Hartung and Michelle Ciarrocca, “ Corporate Think Tanks and the Doctrine of Aggressive Militarism,” The Multinational Monitor, Jan/Feb. 2003. Huck Gutman, http://www.redrat.net/BUSH_WAR/mercenaries/index.htm#mercs
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