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International Competition in Services: Banking, Building ... International Competition in Services: Banking, Building ... Document Transcript

  • Index
  • Index ADP (Automatic Data Processing, Inc.), 182 Basel Committee, 83-84, 351-352 Adult Education Act, 1984, 358 Bidding, engineering and construction, 123 Adult education and training, 356-359 “Big Bang,” U. K., 114, 313, see also Deregulation technologies, 359-361 Biotechnology, 120 vocational and paraprofessional, 359 engineering and construction, opportunities, 145, Affiliates, overseas, revenues, 191, see also Foreign 146 affiliates overseas licensing, 210, 212 Alvey program, U. K., 306, 307-309 Brazil American universities: perspective on liberalization, 70 engineers, scientists, 198, 199 telecommunications, regulation, 174-175 Antitrust enforcement, U. S., see also AT&T breakup Bretton Woods Agreement, 77 and licensing agreements, 203 Bridging, international competition, 143 illegal licensing practices, 215-216 British Telecom, 174 Arms-length licensing, 193-194 Bundespost, 172 U.S. to Japan, 201-203 Bureau of Economic Analysis Army Corps of Engineers improved trade data, 337 construction technology R&D, 148-151 international banking data, 349, 350 Artificial intelligence, 261, see also Expert systems licensing, data, 195-197 expert systems in construction, 139 procedures, 25 Assets, world’s largest banks, 86 royalties data, 191 AT&T breakup, 18, 29, 30, 158, 216, 244, 313, 352, services, U.S. imports and exports, 58 368 trade data, inadequacy, 341 impacts of antitrust policy, 216 Bureau of Labor Statistics, 228 international repercussions, 171 Automation, and services employment, 229 Canada, U.S. banks in, 100-101 Baker Plan, loans to developing countries, 111 Capital Banker’s acceptances, 98 commercial v. investment banking, 108 Banking and financial services external markets, 82 congressional options, 27, 348-351 Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act, 1984, 356, expert systems, 91 357 fee-earning services, 87, 96-99 Carter Administration, antitrust standards, 215-216 foreign regulatory policies, 312, 314 Cash management services, banks, 92-93 innovations, 94-95 computers, 113 international competition, 79-116 restrictions, 93 international, data for analysis, 111-112 Center for Building Technology, National Bureau of major banks, international assets, 11 Standards, 29 new and growing product markets, 94-99 Federal support, 149 policy, U. S., and international competitiveness, Center for Fire Research, Federal support, 149 348-352, 349 Central office (CO) switching equipment, 157 retail, overseas, 100-101 New York Telephone, 244 trade and competition, summary, 10-13 “Channelization” or product organization, 281, U.S. banks, foreign branches, 87 282-283 U. S., international competitiveness, 12, 84 CHAPS, 91 U.S. international competitiveness, priorities, CHIPS (Clearing House Interbank Payments System), 349-351 91, 110 Banking regulations Claims adjustors, insurance, computer use, 264-265 international coordination, 13, 83, 110-113, 351-352 Coalition of Service Industries, 335 Banking regulations, U. S., 12, 108-111 Commercial banking, see also Banking and financial commercial v. investment banking, 108-109 services interstate, 109 competitive strategy, 101 Banking, U. S., infrastructure, 109-110 onshore retail banking, 100-101 Banks, income profitable markets, 100-103 fee v. interest, 93 Commercial lending, 101 profitability, 94 Japan, 101 391
  • 392 q International Competition in Services Commercial technologies, 361-365 trade data analysis, 339, 340-341 R&D diffusion, 216 USTR, 340-341, 343 support, Administration, 363, 364-365 Construction Communications systems, see also Telecommunica- international market, 130-132, 131 tions applications and use, 263-272 labor costs, 136 effects on international banking, 81 overview of the industry, 124-127 strategic applications, 269 productivity, 141-143 Competition U.S. competitiveness, 132 effects on U.S. employment, 231-232 U.S. firms as technology brokers, 143-144 Computer-aided design/manufacturing, 188, 274 U. S., new, 126 Computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) Construction technologies, 120 engineering and construction, applications, 120, R&D support, 148-151 139 Contingent workers, 227, 243-249, 255-256 partially automated fine grading, 141 manufacturing, 247 piping in construction, 125 part-time, 246, 248-249 Computer hardware self-employment, 246, 248 international standards, 271 Contractors Computer industries international, 126, 129 foreign government support, 309-310 U. S., largest, 131 Computer-integrated production, new model, 261, see costs also New-model firms computer applications, strategy, 267-269 implications, 285-286 determining international competitiveness, 47-49 macro level, 268, 269, 269-272 shifts, in new-model organizations, 284 macro level, U.S. firms, 271 Counterfeiting of products, 318-321 micro level, 268, 269, 272 Credit card services, international, 100 Computer languages Credit-generating innovations, 50-51 international standards, 316 Credit-risk-transferring instruments, 50 Computers Cross-1 licensing agreements, 209, 211 applications in engineering and construction, Currency, home, advantages of dealing in, 97 139-141 Custom programming, Japan, 163-164 management decisions on, 260-261 technology/science base for the services, 38-39 Database and information services, 183-186, 183, 184, technology, uses, 39-41 186 Computer software, see Software Data processing, 181-186 Computer systems Citibank, 282-283 applications and use, 39, 139-141, 263-272 corporate, early years, 266 business applications, 265-266 firms, examples, 182 corporate networks, 270, 270 industry revenues, 159, 181, 183 in banking, 91-93 international opportunities, 181-183 insurance industry, 263, 264-265 services, industry, 181-183 links between firms, 268-269 strategic applications of systems, 269 occupations, characterization, 275, 277, 278, 278 technological advances, 267 systems design and people’s skills, 272-278 Dematuration of industries, 188 technological advances, 267 Department of Defense Computer technology, effects on international R&D funding, 305 banking, 81 R&D in construction, 138 Comsat, 170 Deposit insurance, 110-111 Concrete technologies, 143 Deregulation, 22 Congress and U.S. policymaking, 340 domestic banking legislation, 111 forcing new technologies, 72 education, reevaluation, 356 Deregulation, financial industries, 11 education and training, 356-361 and bank profitability, 94 international banking, 348-352 and innovation in banking, 50, 51, 95-96 involvement in trade negotiations, 335-337 barriers between commercial and investment ISDN, 369 banking, 109 policy options, 327-376 effects on international banking, 81 R&D and technology development, 362-369 financial markets, 114 recent trade bills, 334, 373 impacts, 373 summary, 330, 331 Japanese banks, 96, 114-115 telecommunications, 353-354 limits of, 108
  • Index . 393 Deregulation, telecommunications, 158, 170, 171-175, temporary, 247-248, 247 188 trends, 225-256, 229 New York Telephone reorganization, 244-245 women, 231, 253 Design and construction, examples of American Engineering and construction, 7, 13-16 projects, 122 competitive future, summary, 13 Design-bid-build contracts, 122-123, 143 competitive strategies, 136-148 technical qualifications, 138 contract linkages, 127-128 Design-construct contracts, 122-123 foreign firms, computer use, 139 Design firms foreign firms in the U. S., 120, 135-136, 136 international business, 124, 126, 133, 134 industry structure, 121-136 U. S., computer use in international competition, international competition, 119-153 139-141 international market, 124, 128-136 U. S., overseas work, 132-133, 132, 134 new technologies, examples, 140-141 Design, in engineering and construction, 121 specialization, 121 Design of work Engineering and construction, U.S. firms rigid v. adaptive, 275, 277, 278, 278 competitiveness, 13-16, 119-153 Development strategies, 302 contracting practices, 147-148 policy tools, 311-321 international consortia, 120 Doctoral degrees, science and engineering, 198, 199 managerial expertise, 120 Dollar new products, 146 role in international banking, 97 professional services, 119 projects, examples, 122 Earnings, 233, 235, 236 strategies, 144, 145-147, 150-153 by industry, 238 tax policies, U. S., impacts, 374-375 pay scales in new-model organizations, 281 technology, competitiveness, 14, 150 service jobs, 253 Engineering Research Centers, National Science unreported, see Underground economy Foundation, 29, 365 Economic adjustment, service industries, 76-78 Equity, stock government policies, 77 onshore markets, 87, 88 EDS (Electronic Data Systems) ESPRIT (European Strategic Program for Research in General Motors corporate computer network, 178 Information Technology), 306, 307, 309-310 Education, see also Adult education and training Eureka, 306, 310 and career mobility, 253-254 Eurobonds, 10, 96 and earnings, 234 by country, 97 career prospects for service workers, 236 Euroequity, 87 credentials for new service industries, 287 Euromarket, 81, 87, 95, 99 entry-level employees, 240-243 Euronotes, 96 foreign engineering students in U. S., 198, 199 Europe, technology development, 200-203, 205-206 future demands, 261 European Community instructional technologies, 359-361 technology development, 305-306 Japan, engineering graduates, 204-205 U.S. service exports, 60 R&D, funding, 360-361 European Patent Convention, 206 reevaluation, 355-359 Euroyen market, 104 training for high-skill jobs, 275 Expert systems, 161, 267 Education and Training for American Competitive- application to design and construction, 139 ness Act, 1987, 358 investment decisions, 261 Electronic databases, 159-160 Export financing, 346-347 Electronic funds transfer, 81 Export-led growth, national development, 302 automated clearinghouses, U. S., 92 Export-Import Bank of the U. S., 137, 346-347 Electronic networks, banking, 91-93 Exports, U.S. Employment, U. S., 223-256 BEA figures, 58-59, 59 career prospects for new service workers, 240 composition, figures, 61 characteristics by occupation, 239 confusion with foreign revenues, 63 dependence on trade in services, 5 controls, 215 growth by industry and sex, 231 promotion, 345 immigrants, mobility, 251, 252 External patenting, 205-206, 206 mobility, 238-243 part-time workers, 248-249 Fabricated steel structures, international competition, self-employment, 246, 248 143 shifting patterns, 255 Feasibility studies, 121
  • 394 • International Competition in Services Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, 83 technology licensing, 218-219 deposit insurance, 110-111 trade and investment barriers, 74-75, 296-298 dual role in U.S. banking, 109-111 Foreign nationals, in U.S. engineering work force, services to U.S. banks, 109-110 198-200 Federal Highway Administration, construction tech- Foreign-owned banks in the U. S., 90, 114 nology research, 149 lending, 88 Federal Republic of Germany, see West Germany reasons for investment in U. S., 90 Federal Reserve Board, 83, 109, 113 Foreign revenue services, OTA estimates, 63, 67 decisions, investment banking, 99-100 Foreign students, engineering degrees in U. S., 198, monetary policy, 108 199 Federal Technology Transfer Act, 1986, 29, 360, 362, Foreign technology 365 licensing by U.S. firms, 18-20, 214 FedWire, 92, 110 payments by U.S. firms, 197 Fiber-optics, 175, 180 purchase by U.S. firms, 192 competition for satellite circuits, 170 Fourth-generation software, 161, 285 Fifth-generation computer project, Japan, 163, France 165-166, 217 technology development policies, 306, 309-310 Financial services firms, see Banks telecommunications, regulations, 172-173 Financial services, U.S. tax policies, impacts, 374 Franchising, foreign, in U. S., 54 Financial system, safety and stability, 110-111 Financing engineering and construction, 136-137 GEISCO (General Electric Information Services Co.), FIRE (finance, insurance, and real estate) industries 182 education of workers, 234 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), 4, new jobs, 233, 234 25, 46 Flexibility, organizational Agreement on Government Procurement, 311-312 competitiveness, 260 escape clause, 77 computer systems design, 273 problems of non-tariff barriers, 74 contingent workers, hiring, 243-246 services discussions, opposition, 298-300 Floating rate notes, 96, 108 strengthening by Uruguay Round, 339 Floats, 92 U.S. concessions, 332 Food and Drug Administration, 212 U.S. services initiative, 298-300 Foreign affiliates General Motors, 33 in service industries, 35 corporate computer network, 178 revenues, 191 Glass-Steagall Act, 99, 100, 108, 109 sales, 62-65 Goods, U.S. to serve foreign markets, 46 exports, for overseas construction projects, 127-128, Foreign bonds, onshore markets, 87 128 Foreign direct investment, 194, 201 Grade-Way Construction Co., 140-141 coverage in GATT, 299 Greene, Harold, U.S. District Court Judge, 315, 353 government objectives and policies, 299 Japanese expansion in international banking, 106 Health services, job creation, 233 negotiations in GATT, 338-339 High technology, Uruguay Round, 295-296 risks and technical licensing, 208-209, 211 Human capital, 287, 332-333 Foreign government policies, 22, 293-325 U.S. competitiveness in services, 20-22, 260, and international construction market, 132 354-361 and U.S. licensing strategies, 208 Human resources developing world, strategies, 302 policies, 23, 24, 334-361 economic policymaking structures, 31 effects on U.S. trade policy, 334 Illegal immigration, 251-252 foreign direct investment, 218-219 I-Match, 345 intervention in engineering and construction con- Immigrants in the U.S. labor force tracting, 135, 137, 147-148 by occupation and industry, 250-251 Japanese Government, banking concessions, 102 illegal aliens, 250, 251-252 procurement, European telecommunications equip- professionals, 250 ment market, 171, 175 Immigration and Nationality Act, 250 regulatory policies, 312-315 Import substitution, national development, 302 technical standards in services industries, 316-318 Imports, U.S. technological innovations, 303-306 BEA figures, 60-61, 61 technology, 305 Independent contracting, 248
  • Index . 3 9 5 — — — India, software industry, 168 Japan Industry Sector Advisory Committees, 23, 343 banking deregulation, 96 InfoBase Corp., 185-186 challenge to U.S. banks, 82-83 Information flows, computer application, 269-270, competition in the financial services industry, 84-85 270 computer utilization, 260 Information services, 16-18, 159-160, see also Data- external patent applications, 205-206, 206 base and information services; Information future competition in services, 7-9 technology information technology, government support, new markets, 185-186 309-311 products, 183 international technical licensing, 204 U.S. markets, 183 licensing from U. S., 202-203 U.S. tax policies, impacts, 375 services deficit, 70 Information technology, services industries, 157-188 software industry and market, 163-166 Innovation, financial services industry, 50-51, 114 software technology, 164-165 Institute of New Generation Computer Technology technology development, 200-208 (lCOT), Japan, 165 technology imports, 201 Insurance industry technology imports into U. S., 220 automation, 231 technology, policymaking, 303-305 computer systems, 263, 264-265 telecommunications equipment, 173 Integrated production systems, 262, 285-287 telecommunications, regulation, 173-174, 314 new model, 278-282 trade barriers, software, 166 Integrated Services Digital Networks (lSDN), 17-18, Japanese banks 29, 158, 177, 187, 267 banker’s acceptances, 98 congressional options, 363, 367-369 expansion abroad, 106 international standards, 316-317 international competitiveness, 104, 106 Integration and expansion, 53-55 scenarios for future competition, 102-108 common management structure, 54 Japanese corporations global, U.S. firms as leaders, 54 computer applications, 271-272 Intellectual property protection, 196, 215 computer integration, micro level, 272 international, 318, 321, 324 desire for deregulation, 104 software, 318-321 expansion abroad, 106 trade issue, 319-320 financing, 102 Intelsat, 170 multinationals, 54-55 Inter-American Development Bank, financing of de- work organization, 284 sign contracts, 122 Japanese Government, see also Ministry of Interna- International Banking Act, 1978, 90, 112, 312-313 tional Trade and Industry; Ministry of Finance International competitiveness, U.S. financial liberalization questions, 107 determinants, 45, 47-52 role in competitiveness of Japanese banks, 103-108 service industries, major influences, 49 telecommunications regulation, 173-174 International consortia, U.S. engineering and con- Japanese language, software difficulties, 164-165 struction firms in, 147-148 Japanese Technical Literature Act, 1986, 29, 362, International financial services, 10-13, 81-116 365-366 assets of largest world banks, 86 Job creation, 253 growth and competition, 85-94, 101-102 by industry, 232, 233-237 growth compared to world trade, 85 by occupation, 237-238 International Organizations for Standardization (ISO), competition and structural change, 231-232 315 dynamics, 232-233 International Telecommunication Union (ITU), 18, Job Training Partnership Act, 1982, 356 25, 170, 316 Joint development, engineering/construction and International Trade and Investment Act, 335, 370 manufacturing, 147-148 Interstate banking, 109 Joint ventures, U.S. firms Investment banking, 99-100 in construction, 137 Glass-Steagall Act, 99 motives, 213-214 growth, 84 separation from commercial banking, 108-109 Kiosque, 172-173 investment income, 6 5 Knowledge-based industries Invisibles foreign revenues, 63, 67 account, components, 59, 62, 64 integrated production systems, 278 account, contribution to total U.S. exports, 32 new-model organizations, 278-282 surplus, 58 poor services trade data, 63-64 Involuntary part-time employment, 225-226 stratification in jobs, 254
  • 396 • International Competition in Services Knowledge-based services characteristics, 36, 37 Licensing, U.S. firms, 189-221 jobs, compared with high-technology manufactur- circumstances of overseas licensing, 209, 210-212 ing, 262 complex strategies, 220-221 OECD nations, 71 illegal practices, 215-216 shift in U.S. strength toward, 46 newly industrializing countries in Asia, 206-207, 207 policy environment, 215-216 Labor pricing, 202-203 constraints on U.S. construction firms, 144-145 response to Japanese competition, 212 construction costs, 136 revenues, 210 overseas hiring for construction projects, 127 revenues and R&D spending, 210, 211 Labor force, U.S. strategies, see Licensing strategies characteristics, 233, 235, 238, 239 to Japan, 202-203 contingent workers, 227, 243-249, 255-256 U.S. receipts and payments, 191-192, 195-197, 197 demands of flexibility and efficiency, 261 Liquidity-enhancing products, 50 growth, 231 Litigation immigrants, 250-252 and cross-licensing, 211-212 job creation, 230-238 Local area networks (LANs), 158 jobs in the services, 223-256 mobility, 238-243 Macy’s, restructuring and employment, 242-243 Labor unions Management technologies and new forms of work organization, 282 construction, 125 decline, 225 consulting, 57 non-manufacturing employees, 236 in transition, MetroBank example, 288-291 representation by industry, 236 strategies for U.S. engineering and construction Less developed countries (LDCs) firms, 146 concerns over services liberalization, 300 Manufacturing jobs, 253, 262-263 construction financing, 136-137 vertical/lateral mobility, 238-243 economic growth, 128-130, 130 worker earnings by age, sex, and education, engineering and construction firms, 119 233-236 engineering and construction market, 128-130 Merchandise, downstream linkages in design and intellectual property protection, 318-321 construction, 127-128 lending risks, 85 Mercury, U.K. telecommunications, 174 lending to, history, 102 MetroBank, reorganization, 263, 283, 288-291 Letters of credit, 97 changing jobs, 288-289 Liberalization, trade in services computer enhancement of people’s skills, 273 and national development strategies, 302 new products, 288-289 benefits, 46, 72-73 Microwave transmission, 158 Brazil’s perspective, 70 Ministry of Finance, Japan effects on U.S. current account, 71 liberalization of financial markets, 104 indirect benefits to U. S., 75-76 Ministry of International Trade and industry (MITI), possible gains through, 70-75 Japan, 104, 301 sectoral questions, 71-73 and technological innovation, 303-305 Licensing, technical, 191-221 technology support, 310-311 arms-length, 193-194, see also Arms-length licensing Ministry of Research and Technology, West international, 194-197 Germany, 306 pricing, 195, 196 Mixed credits, 346-347 protection for intellectual property, 196 construction financing, 137 revenues, reasons for increase, 195 Models, mathematical, in service industries, 38 the license agreement, 196 Monetary Control Act, 1980, 110 U.S. international competitiveness, 192-194 Multinational corporations Licensing agreements cash management services, banks, 92-93 management attention, 196 computer applications, 267-269 restrictive clauses and antitrust enforcement, foreign direct investment and foreign governments, 215-216 218-219 Licensing, European firms, 201 information flows, 270 Licensing fees licensing, 191, 192-194, 208-214 U. S., international, 191-192, 191 U.S.-based, competitive advantages, 55 Licensing strategies, 208-214, 220-221 integration, 208-212 National Science Foundation, 29, 217 joint ventures, 213-214 construction technology, support, 149 licensing foreign technologies, 214 R&D statistics, 308
  • Index q 397 -. National security and technology trade, U.S. policy, growth in international banking, 8 5 215 services exports and imports by member nations, Naturalized citizens in U.S. engineering work force, 66, 69 198 telecommunications issues, 304 Negotiatiions world service exports, 65, 68 international forums, 321-323, 323 objectives, banking, 111-112 Packaged software, 157-158 New Austrian Tunneling Method, 140 benefits, 160 Newly industrializing countries (NICs) Packet switching, 304 Asia, technology development and licensing, Partially automated fine grading, 140-141 206-208 Part-time work, 248-249, 249, see also Contingent concerns over services liberalization, 300 workers engineering and construction firms, 119 by industry, 249 intellectual property protection, 318-321 involuntary, 248 lending risks, 85-86 Macy’s, 242 R&D spending on technology, 207-208 Passenger fares services in development strategy, 302 export figures, 59 New-model organizations, 278-282, 283 imports, 60, 64, 65 characteristics, 261, 279-281 Patents cost structure, changes, 284 international, 205, 206, 206 impacts on competitiveness, 282-283 in U.S. by foreigners, 200 knowledge/skill requirements, 279-280 in U.S. by Americans, 200, zoo macro, micro levels, 285 licensing rights, 196 manufacturing firms, 279 software, 320-321 New York Telephone, organizational changes and Pay and benefits, 225 employment, 244-245 service jobs, 225 Nippon Telegraph & Telephone Corp., 166 Personal computers, 259 preferential purchasing policies, 311 business purchases, 266 regulation, 173-174 market in Europe, 168 Non-tariff trade barriers, 9, 74-75, 296-298 software, 157-158 and negotiations, 297, 345 Piping, management technologies, construction, 125 effects on transfer of knowledge, 72 Pharmaceutical industry, licensing, 210 examples, 296-297 Policy, foreign government, see Foreign government professional licensing, 317-318 policies rationales, 297 Policy, trade, see Trade policy regulations as, 312-313, 312 Policy, U. S., 22-31, 327-376 standards and licensing requirements, 315, 315 affecting U.S. competitiveness in international types, 74-75, 297-298 banking, 82-83 U. S., as trade issues, 338 banking, future, 111-113 consistent position in negotiations, 322-323 development and integration, alternatives, 371 Off-balance-sheet items, banking, 99 development of human capital, 287 Office of International Banking and Portfolio Invest- domestic and trade, linkage, 296 ment, 350 financing of engineering and construction projects, Offshore banking, 87-89 120-121 definition, 87 handicaps, 325 Offshore production, 231, 232 industrial and technology, 361-369 Offsite prefabrication construction, 141-143 information technology, 186-188 Oil prices and engineering and construction projects, institutional memory, 341 119 linkage of foreign and domestic, 322-323 Onshore banking, 82, 87-89 linkages with international competitiveness, 23, 24, definition, 87 27, 49, 52, 108, 330, 333, 348-354, 373 direct investment, 88-89, 88 organization and effectiveness, 369-372 retail, 100-101 R&D, technology, 193, 197, 216-217, 361-367 Open Systems Interconnection (OSI), 316-317, 368 services, coordination, 332, 336, 370 Operations and maintenance services, opportunities short-term view, effects, 339-340 for engineering and construction firms, 145 subsidized financing for international projects, 152 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Develop- tax, examples, 374-376 ment (OECD), 9, 15, 25 technical licensing, 215-217 design and engineering, market among members, technology development, options, 23, 24, 30, 203, 133 215-217, 305
  • 398 . International Competition in Services telecommunications, 353-354 U.S. policy, 361-367 trade, services in, 333-348 U.S. military, 30, 148-151, 216-217, 366-367 Post, telegraph, and telephone authorities (PTTs), 18 Responsibility, employee and new-model organiza- competition from, 179-180 tions, 279-281, 285-287 telecommunications tariffs, 304-305 MetroBank example, 289-291 Postal savings system, Japan, 104, 115 Retailing, career paths, 242 Postwar period Royalties and licensing fees foreign investments by U.S. firms, 195 data needed, 342 growth of international banking, 81, 113 regulation by foreign governments, 218-219 Pound, British, 97 U. S., international, 191-192, 191, 202-203 Price-risk-transferring products, 50 Problem loans to developing countries, 111 Second-sourcing, microelectronics, 210-211 Procurement, Federal Government, 366-367, 369 Securities Industry Association, 99 and U.S. competitiveness, 367 Securitization, 10-11, 82, 89, 93 Product-centered organizations, 281 changes in competitive environment, 84 Citibank, 282-283 reduced demand for traditional financial services, Production costs, and international competitiveness, 89 47 Self-employment, 246, 248 Productivity Service industries and employment, services, 229-230 competitiveness, 47-57 computer software, 161 economic adjustment, 76-78 construction, 141-143 employment, 225-256 Professional jobs, services, 226 employment stratification, 241-245 v. manufacturing, 262 growth and new jobs, 254 Professional services, engineering and construction, high-growth, 234 Us., 119 U.S. national study for GATT, 298 Protection for intellectual property, see Intellectual vertical/lateral job mobility, 238-243 property protection, Patenting Service occupations employment, 225-256 Qualitative comparisons, services, 48 Services deindustrialization, 301 Reagan Administration development strategies, policy tools, 296, 311-321 R&D funding, commercial v. military, 217 dominance in new jobs, 232-233, 232 R&D support, 149 exports, expansion, 58 Reciprocal market access, Japan, 107 external purchases, 56-57 Regulatory policies, foreign government, 312-315 foreign revenues, 63 Relationship banking, 102 government monopolies, 75 Reputation heterogeneity, 35-36 advantages in integration and expansion, 54 imports, by region, 65 in selling services, 48 in the world economy, 43-78 Research and development leading exporters, 66, 69 comparative funding, U.S. and foreign firms, 19 leading importers, 69 construction-related technologies, Federal support, need for a foreign presence in marketing, 52-53 149 negotiation forums, 4, 321-323 construction technology, Japan, 144 OTA import/export estimates, 62, 66 construction technology, U. S., 144 policies affecting, 296 engineering and construction, 15, 121, 138 post-industrial view, 301 engineering and construction consortia, 151 providers, classified by markets, 36 foreign, 200-208, 217, 307 public procurement, 311-312 international cooperation, 324-325 R&D spending in U. S., 308, 309, 361-367 international joint ventures, 213 trends in employment, 228-230 joint industry/government, Japan, 165-166 U.S. balance of payments surplus, 61 productivity, 193, 200 U.S. comparative advantage, 70 proprietary technology, 192-193 U.S. political agenda, 334-335 services, U.S. spending, 39, 308, 309 world trade, 65-69, 68, 69 software, 161-162 Services and goods spending, Japan, 201, 203-205, 205 evolving industrial structure, 31-42 spending, other nations, 201-205, 205, 306-311 Service sector advisory committees, 343-344 tax credits, 363-364 Services exports U. S., 198-200, 199, 216-217, 361-367 definition, 57
  • Index q 399 distribution by region, 60, 63 Specialized skills OTA estimates by industry, 62, 66 hiring patterns, 240 Services trade new-model organizations, 279 balance, U. S., 65 Standby letters of credit, 98, 99, 110 barriers, 73-75 Stevenson-Wydler Technology innovation Act, 1980, data, 61, 63, 112, 341-342 29, 360, 364-365 data, OTA estimates, 61-65 Strategic Defense Initiative, 188, 306 database, options, 341-342 Stratification measuring, 57-59 knowledge-based service industries, 254 Service workers labor market, services, 226 earnings by age, sex, and education, 233-236 new-model organizations, 261, 287 skills, 237-238 Supercomputers, 267 Sheltered industries, effects of liberalization, 72 data processing, 181 Site management, construction, 123-124 Super-regional banks, 109 Skills, 276-277 Swaps, 98, 99 computers, job deskilling, 273 SWIFT (Society of Worldwide Interbank Financial computers, job upskilling, 273-275 Telecommunications), 91, 177, 179, 316 data gatekeeper jobs, 278, 279 Systems design, 285 lateral job movement, 240 and people’s skills, 272-278 Macy’s restructuring example, 242-243 MetroBank example, 289 Tax payments, foreign, 374 new-model organizations, 261 Tax policy, U. S., effects on international competitive- service jobs, 226, 237-238 ness in services, 374-376 social, 276 Tax Reform Act, 1986, provisions, 374-376 Small businesses Technical licensing, 18-20, 191-221 {commercial lending to, 101 U.S. tax policies, impacts, 375-376 overseas licensing strategies, 208 Technology Societe International de Telecommunications computer applications in the services, 257-291 Aeronautiques (SITA), 177, 179 construction productivity, 141-143 Software, 10, 157-169 engineering and construction, 14, 138-144 benefits of liberalization for U. S., 71-73 foreign, access to, 365-366 copyrights, 166 in banking, 50, 81, 91-93 European market and industry, 166-168, 167 international standards, 315-317, 324 foreign competition, 162-163 military R&D and civilian benefits, 366-367 France, market, 166, 167 R&D, U.S. policies, 361-367 intellectual property protection, 166, 318-321 science base in the services, 37-38 international standards, 271 standards, U.S. policy, 363, 367-369 Japanese language, 164-165 U.S. advantages, 37-42, 197, 198-208 Japan’s industry and market, 158, 163-166 use, summary, 37-42 pirating, 318, 320-321 Technology brokering productivity in generation, 161-162 U. S., (construction, 143-144 R&D, 161-162 Technology trade, 189-221 standardized applications packages, 157-158, 266 licensing strategies, 208-214 technological advances, 39, 267 [J. S. licensing overseas, 204 trade barriers in Japan, 166 U.S. licensing with Asia, 206-207, 207 U.S. competitiveness, 16-18, 73 U.S. receipts and payments, 195-197 U.S. firms in Europe, 166-168 TELEBRAS, 174 [J. S. industry, 162-163, 162 Telecommunications, 169-180 West Germany, market, 166-167, 167 banking, 89, 91-93 world market, competition, 168-169 benefits of liberalization for U. S., 73 South Korea competitive environment, 169-175 engineering and construction, 119, 132, 133 domestic policy and international competitiveness, technology development and licensing, 206-207 349, 352-354 U.S. joint ventures, 213 deregulation, 158, 170 U.S. technical licensing, 212 equipment market, Japan, 173 Specialists foreign regulatory policies, 172-175, 313-315, 314 external, services purchased, 56 General Motors/EDS planned network, 178 Specialization international tariffs, 304-305 purchases of overseas technology, 214 international standards, 354 U.S. engineering and construction firms, 138 management decisions, 260-261
  • 400 . International Competition in Services market changes and New York Telephone, 244 Uruguay Round, 3, 4, 23, 32, 70 multinational banks, 92 foreign direct investment, 299 pricing, volume-based v. time-based, 304-305 foreign government policies, 293-325 revenues, international, 169 intellectual property protection, 215, 318 suppliers, procurement policies, 171, 175 trade barriers in the services, 73 technology, history, 176 U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service (US&FCS), 23, U.S. trade policy, 180 26, 345-346 Temporary employment, 56, 247-248, see also Contin- U.S. balance of payments, 58-61 gent workers history, 58 by industry, 247 OTA estimates, 61 Federal Government, 247 services v. goods, 6, 8 Telenet, 176, 179 U.S. banking regulations Teletel/Minitel, 159, 171, 172-173 impacts on U.S. international competitiveness, 82 Teletext, 159, see also Videotex shifts, 83 Tertiary services, 20, 36, 37 U.S. banks foreign revenues, 63, 67 future outlook, 115-116 industries, 228 restriction abroad, 112 technology, 262 U.S. construction firms, international market, work reorganizations, 286 130-132, 131 Texas Instruments, 211-212 U.S. economy cross-licensing with Japan, 220 employment and structural change, 228-238 Tokyo Round negotiations, 4 jobs, 225-226 congressional involvement, 335 occupations, 230 non-tariff barriers for goods, 75 U.S. International Trade Commission, 127, 212 Tokyo Stock Exchange, 312, 313 U.S. Trade Representative, 10, 25, 26, 322, 325 Tourism, 53 congressional options, 336-337 import figures, 60, 64 resources for Uruguay Round, 342-345, 344 Trade and Development Program, 26, 345, 347-348 Trade and Tariff Act, 1984, 335 policy, 16 Trade barriers, see also Non-tariff barriers Value-added networks (VANS), 159, 176-180 licensing strategies, 208 foreign government restrictions, 179-180 lower, adjustment to, 77 in banking, 91 services, effects, 73-75 markets, 176-180 Trade financing, 96-99 ties with database services, 183 letters of credit, 96-97 United Kingdom, 174 standby letters of credit, 98 U.S. firms, 177-179 Training technologies, 359-361 Value-added services, 176-180 Department of Defense, 359-360 Videotex, 159, 180, 183 Transborder data flows, 17, 187 Teletel/Minitel, 171, 172-173 international issues, 304-305 United Kingdom, 174 Transportation U. S., 180 export figures, 59 Travel Western Electric, 171 export figures, 59 West Germany Turn-key projects, 122 services deficit, 70 telecommunications regulations, 172, 314 Word processors, Japanese language, 165 Underground economy, 249, 252-253 Work organization, 257-291 categories, 252 and deskilling/upskilling, 278 size, 252-253 groups, supervisory control, 280-281 United Kingdom macro level, 260 Alvey program, 306, 307-309 micro level, 260 technology policies, 306 rigid v. adaptive, 275, 277, 278, 278 telecommunications regulations, 174 tasks, jobs, and skills, 276-277 United Nations Industrial Development Organization, trends, 285-286 300 Work reorganization United Nations Council on Trade and Development, Citibank, 282-283 300 insurance industry, 264 Universal banks, 99 Macy’s, 242-243 Unreported earnings, see Underground economy MetroBank, 263, 288-291 Up/Down construction, 140 New York Telephone, 244-245
  • Index • 401 World Bank, 111 World services trade, 65-69, 68, 69 disbursements for construction, 133, 135 exports, by type, 69 financing of design contracts, 122 exports, origin by region, 68 World economy individual countries, 66, 68, 69 benefits of reductions in trade barriers, 4 6 change, effects on U.S. trade policy, 333-334 Yen, 97 services in, 43-78 growing prominence, 107 World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), 9, in international transactions, 104 25, 319-320