Chapter 1--Organization and General Plan of the Body
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Chapter 1--Organization and General Plan of the Body

on

  • 3,429 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
3,429
Views on SlideShare
3,429
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
32
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Chapter 1--Organization and General Plan of the Body Chapter 1--Organization and General Plan of the Body Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 1 ORGANIZATION ANDGENERAL PLAN OF THE BODY OVERVIEW AND TERMINOLOGY
  • Summary Definitions Organization of the human body Metabolism and Homeostasis  Negative feedback  Positive feedback Anatomical position and descriptive terms Body cavities Planes and sections
  • Definitions Physiology – Anatomy – ***These 2 are intimately linked – structures designed for particular functions.?Pathophysiology-
  • Organization of the Human Body Chemicals combine to form… Cells, similar cells combine to form… Tissues, two or more tissues combine to form an… Organ, two or more work together as an… Organ system, all organ systems work together to support the… Organism
  • Figure 1.1
  • Chemicals Simplest chemical is an element, 20 are found in the human body. Each element is composed of unique atoms. Atoms combine to form molecules and compounds:  Inorganic –  Organic –
  • Chemicals Molecules & compounds combine to form macromolecules. Organic macromolecules in living organisms:
  • Cells Smallest living structural and functional units. Composed of organic macromolecules.
  • Tissues Groups of cells with similar structure and function. 4 basic groups:  Epithelial tissue –  Connective tissue –  Muscle tissue -  Nerve tissue –
  • Organs 2 or more tissues that combine to form a structure that performs a particular function. Examples -  Heart  Lungs  ????
  • Organ System Group of organs that all contribute to a certain body function.  Cardiovascular system  ????? 11 organ systems: study Table 1-1, p.7 and Figure 1-2, pp. 8-9.
  • Organ Systems Integumentary system: skin; protects us from chemicals, sun, and pathogens. Skeletal system: bones and ligaments; protects internal organs, provides framework for muscles, supports the body. Muscular system: muscles and tendons; moves the skeleton, produces heat, moves blood and food.
  • Organ Systems Nervous system: brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, sensory organs; collects and interprets sensory information, regulates body functions. Endocrine system: glands, produce hormones that regulate body functions.
  • Organ systems Circulatory system: heart, blood vessels and blood; transports oxygen and nutrients to tissues. Lymphatic system: lymph glands and vessels; destroys pathogens and returns tissue fluid to circulatory system.
  • Organ Systems Respiratory system: lungs, trachea, etc.; exchanges O2 and CO2 between the body and the atmosphere. Digestive system: stomach, intestines, liver, etc.; breaks down food into nutrients and absorbs them into the blood stream.
  • Organ Systems Urinary System: kidneys, urinary bladder, urethra; removes waste products from the blood. Reproductive system: ovaries, testes, uterus, prostate gland; produces eggs or sperm, female provides site for developing offspring.
  • MetabolismSum of all chemical reactions and processes in the body. Anabolism – Catabolism –Causes changes internally and externally. Ex. Digestion can cause an increase in blood glucose, etc.
  • Homeostasis A state of relative stability within the body despite changes in the external and internal environment. Maintenance Mechanisms:  Negative feedback – blood sugar and temperature regulation.  Positive feedback – fever, blood clotting and labor.
  • Negative FeedbackSequence: Stimulus is “sensed” by a receptor Receptor relays information to a control center Control center evaluates and creates a plan of action Plan sent to effector Effector eliminates the stimulus (corrects problems)
  • Figure 1.4
  • Negative Feedback – TemperatureControl Figure 1.5
  • Positive Feedback Sequence  Same as for negative feedback except effector does NOT eliminate the stimulus, it increases it.  Requires an external “brake”.
  • Anatomical Position andDescriptive Terms Anatomical position: standing upright, facing forward, arms at the sides palms facing forward, feet slightly apart. Table 1-2 Descriptive Terms and Table 1-3 Terms of Location and Position ***Know these terms and how to use them for the quiz and test 1.
  • Table 1.1.1
  • Table 1.1.2
  • Body Cavities and Membranes 2 major body cavities  Dorsal (posterior) cavity – 2 sections  Cranial –  Vertebral or spinal –  The two sections are continuous and lined by membranes called meninges.
  • Body Cavities and Membranes 2 body cavities cont’d  Ventral (anterior) Cavity – two major compartments separated by the diaphragm.  Thoracic cavity –  Abdominal cavity  Pelvic cavity
  • Body Cavities and Membranes 2 body cavities cont’d  Ventral (anterior) Cavity Membranes  Thoracic cavity:  Parietal pleura lines the chest wall, visceral pleura covers the lungs  Visceral pericardium covers the heart and the parietal pericardium lines the sac around the heart.
  • Body Cavities and Membranes 2 body cavities cont’d  Ventral (anterior) Cavity Membranes  Abdominal cavity:  The peritoneum is a membrane the lines the abdominal wall and continues into the ...  The mesentery covers the outer surfaces of the abdominal organs.
  • Planes and Sections Use: to describe internal anatomy, orientation points, increase visibility. Plane: an imaginary flat surface that separates two portions of the body, fig 1-6.
  • Planes and Sections Sections: cuts in a body or organ or plane that make the structures more easily visible.  Frontal or coronal section – separates the body into front and back sections.  Sagittal section – separates the body into right and left portions.  Transverse section – separates the body into upper and lower sections.
  • Planes and Sectionso Other terms that usually refer to organs: o Cross section o Longitudinal section
  • Areas of the Abdomen Division into 4 quadrants, fig 1-7  RUQ  LUQ  RLQ  LLQ
  • Areas of the Abdomen 9 regions, fig 1-7  Upper areas: left hypochondriac, epigastric, right hypochondriac.  Middle areas: left lumbar, umbilical, right lumbar.  Lower areas: left iliac, hypogastric, right iliac.