Figurative language 1[1]


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Figurative language 1[1]

  1. 1. Language Types <ul><li>We’re going to look at two types of language: </li></ul>Joyet 2004 figurative language and literal language
  2. 2. Figurative vs. Literal <ul><li>To understand </li></ul>Joyet 2004 figurative language figurative one has to understand the difference between and literal
  3. 3. More on Literal <ul><ul><li>My meaning is exactly what I say. </li></ul></ul>Joyet 2004 To be literal is to mean what you say. For example: If I tell you to sit down! I mean it literally : “sit down,” as in: “sit in your seat now, please.”
  4. 4. and more on Literal <ul><li>I mean exactly what I say. </li></ul>Joyet 2004 Here’s another example. I’m tired and going home. This means “I’m tired and I’m going home” there is no other meaning other than what is said.
  5. 5. Figurative <ul><ul><li>I’m not suggesting we get into the freezer. </li></ul></ul>Joyet 2004 To be figurative is to not mean what you say but imply something else. For example: If, I tell you: “ let’s go chill !”
  6. 6. Figurative continued <ul><ul><li>It has nothing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to do with temperature. </li></ul></ul>Joyet 2004 “ let’s go chill ” … … means let’s relax together and do something fun.
  7. 7. Figurative vs. Literal <ul><li>Confused? </li></ul><ul><li>Think of it this way: </li></ul><ul><li>Literal as real </li></ul><ul><li>Figurative as imaginary </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  8. 8. Why Figurative Language? <ul><li>Also known as descriptive language, or poetic language, figurative language helps the writer paint a picture in the reader’s mind. </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  9. 9. Truman Capote In True Blood Joyet 2004
  10. 10. Barbara Kingsolver The Poisonwood Bible Joyet 2004
  11. 11. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows <ul><li>“ Harry hurried back to the entrance to find Ron face-to-face with a most eccentric looking wizard. Slightly cross-eyed, with shoulder length hair like shards or mis-bundled wheat, he wore a cap thats tassel dangled in front of his nose and robes of an eye-watering shade of egg-yolk yellow. An odd symbol like a triangular eye glistened from a golden chain around his neck.” </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  12. 12. Breaking Dawn Stephanie Meyer <ul><li>“ The boat slowed dramatically, drawing with precision into position against a short dock constructed of wooden plank, bleached into whiteness by the moon. The engine cut off, and the silence that followed was deafening. There was nothing but the waves, slapping lightly against the boat, and the rustle of the breeze dancing with the palms. The air was warm, moist, and fragrant-like the steam left behind after a hot shower.” </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  13. 13. Why Figurative Language? <ul><li>You know descriptive, that’s when you describe something. </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  14. 14. Why Figurative Language? <ul><li>Poetic language, that’s what poets do. </li></ul><ul><li>Figurative language helps paint a picture in the reader’s mind. </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  15. 15. Again: Figurative Language <ul><li>Figurative Language does not always mean what is being said or read, but serves to make it more interesting. </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  16. 16. 12 Techniques of Figurative Language <ul><li>There are 12techniques that we’re going to look at, and yes, you’ll need to learn all 12. </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  17. 17. 12 Techniques of Figurative Language <ul><li>You will need to: </li></ul><ul><li>understand them </li></ul><ul><li>identify them </li></ul><ul><li>use them in your writing </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  18. 18. <ul><li>The 10 techniques to know: </li></ul><ul><li>onomatopoeia Allusion </li></ul><ul><li>alliteration </li></ul><ul><li>simile </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolism </li></ul><ul><li>Assonance </li></ul><ul><li>oxymoron </li></ul>12Techniques of Figurative Language Joyet 2004 <ul><li>metaphor </li></ul><ul><li>personification </li></ul><ul><li>idiom </li></ul><ul><li>hyperbole </li></ul><ul><li>consonance </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Let’s look at the techniques one at a time. </li></ul>12Techniques of Figurative Language Joyet 2004
  20. 20. Onomatopoeia <ul><li>Examples of the onomatopoeia : </li></ul><ul><li>Bang, went the gun! </li></ul><ul><li>Swoosh went the basketball </li></ul><ul><li>through the hoop. </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  21. 21. Onomatopoeia <ul><ul><li>The formation or use of words such as buzz , murmur or boo that imitate the sounds associated with the objects or actions they refer to. </li></ul></ul>Joyet 2004
  22. 22. Onomatopoeia in practice <ul><li>Onomatopoeia is the use of words whose sounds make you think of their meanings.  </li></ul><ul><li>For example; buzz, thump, pop . </li></ul><ul><li>Many comic strips use onomatopoeia.  </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  23. 23. Poetry Example <ul><li>RUNNING WATER (Onomatopoeia) </li></ul><ul><li>water plops into pond splish-splash downhill warbling magpies in tree trilling, melodic thrill whoosh, passing breeze flags flutter and flap frog croaks, bird whistles babbling bubbles from tap </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  24. 24. Alliteration <ul><li>A poetic device which repeats the same beginning sound for effect. Examples of Alliteration: </li></ul><ul><li>   S ally S ells S eashells By The S ea S hore </li></ul><ul><li>   R olling, R acing, R oaring, R apids             </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  25. 25. Alliteration <ul><li>Alliteration is a sentence or phrase that begins with the same letter and sound.  Tongue twisters are generally alliterations. </li></ul><ul><li> For example:  busy batters bat baseballs by bases. </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  26. 26. Alliteration <ul><li>Alliteration is the repetition of the beginning sounds in two or more words. Remember alliteration as a tongue twister, such as: </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers.&quot; </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  27. 27. Poetry Example <ul><li>Dewdrops Dancing Down Daisies By Paul Mc Cann Don't delay dawns disarming display . Dusk demands daylight . Dewdrops dwell delicately drawing dazzling delight . Dewdrops dilute daisies domain. Distinguished debutantes . Diamonds defray delivered daylights distilled daisy dance . </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  28. 28. Simile <ul><li>Examples of similes: </li></ul><ul><li>She is like a rainy day. </li></ul><ul><li>He is as busy as a bee. </li></ul><ul><li>They are like two peas in a pod. </li></ul>Joyet 2004 A simile is a figurative language technique where a comparison is made using like or as .
  29. 29. Simile <ul><li>A figure of speech in which two essentially unlike things are compared, often in a phrase introduced by like or as, as in: “ How like the winter hath my absence been ” or “ So are you to my thoughts as food to life ” (Shakespeare). </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  30. 30. Complete your custom simile <ul><li>The cat was as scary as a ____. </li></ul><ul><li>The night is like a ____. </li></ul><ul><li>The moon is like a ____ </li></ul><ul><li>The scarecrow was as scary a ____. </li></ul><ul><li>Her eyes shown like ___________. </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  31. 31. Poetry Example <ul><li>Dream Deferred   What happens to a dream deferred? Does it dry up Like a raisin in the sun? Or fester like a sore-- And then run? Does it stink like rotten meat? Or crust and sugar over-- like a syrupy sweet? Maybe it just sags like a heavy load. Or does it explode? </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  32. 32. Symbolism <ul><li>The use of symbols, or to a set of related symbols. </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols-anything that stands for or represents something else beyond it </li></ul><ul><li>Flags and crosses are symbols and words are symbols as well </li></ul>Joyet 2004
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  39. 39. C O L O R S <ul><li>RED </li></ul><ul><li>GREEN </li></ul><ul><li>BLACK </li></ul><ul><li>WHITE </li></ul><ul><li>PURPLE </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  40. 40. Poetry Example <ul><li>The caged bird sings with fearful trill of the things unknown but longed for still and is tune is heard on the distant hillfor the caged bird sings of freedom The free bird thinks of another breeze an the trade winds soft through the sighing trees and the fat worms waiting on a dawn-bright lawn and he names the sky his own. But a caged bird stands on the grave of dreams his shadow shouts on a nightmare scream his wings are clipped and his feet are tied so he opens his throat to sing </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  41. 41. Assonance <ul><li>The repetition of identical or similar vowel sounds in the stressed symbols of neighboring words. </li></ul><ul><li>And r ou nd ab ou t the keel with f a ces p a le, </li></ul><ul><li>Dark f a ces p a le ag ai nst th a t rosy fl a me, </li></ul><ul><li>The m i ld- eye d melancholy Lotos-eaters came. </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  42. 42. Poetry Example <ul><li>. We Real Cool- The Pool Players. Seven at the Golden Shovel. </li></ul><ul><li>We real cool. We    </li></ul><ul><li>Left school. We </li></ul><ul><li>Lurk late. We </li></ul><ul><li>Strike straight. We </li></ul><ul><li>Sing sin. We    </li></ul><ul><li>Thin gin. We </li></ul><ul><li>Jazz June. We    </li></ul><ul><li>Die soon </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  43. 43. Oxymoron <ul><li>Oxy is Greek for “sharp” </li></ul><ul><li>Moron is Greek for “dull” </li></ul><ul><li>A figure of speech that combines two usually contradictory terms </li></ul><ul><li>“ Why then, O brawling love, O loving, hate, </li></ul><ul><li>O anything of nothing first create; </li></ul><ul><li>O heavy lightness, serious vanity, </li></ul><ul><li>Misshapen chaos of well-seeming forms, </li></ul><ul><li>Feather of lead, bright smoke, cold fire, sick health, </li></ul><ul><li>Still waking-sleep, that is not what it is!” Milton </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  44. 44. Joyet 2004 Living-dead
  45. 45. Joyet 2004 Jumbo shrimp
  46. 46. Peace riot Joyet 2004
  47. 47. Joyet 2004 Evaporated milk
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  53. 53. Allusion <ul><li>An indirect or passing reference to some event, person, place, or artistic work, the nature and relevance of which is explained by the writer but relies on the reader’s familiarity with what is being mentioned. </li></ul><ul><li>My father told me to never do tomorrow what I can do today, for if Noah would have waited a day to build the ark, he would have found himself all wet. </li></ul><ul><li>Mark, our town’s Shakespeare, was in the newspaper. </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  54. 54. Literary Example <ul><li>The title of the short story “By the Waters of Babylon,” by Steven Vincent Bent is a Biblical Allusion because this phrase, “By the Waters of Babylon alludes to Psalm 137 and the capture of the Jews. In Psalm 137, the Jews mourn over the loss of their homeland and consider themselves, “by the waters of Babylon,” a foreign land. </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  55. 55. Metaphor <ul><li>A poetic comparison that does not use the words like or as. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of metaphors: </li></ul><ul><li>She is a graceful swan. </li></ul><ul><li>He is a golden god. </li></ul><ul><li>They are honey from the honeycomb. </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  56. 56. Metaphor <ul><li>A figure of speech in which a word or phrase that ordinarily designates one thing is used to designate another, thus making an implicit comparison, as in “a sea of troubles” or “All the world's a stage” (Shakespeare). </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  57. 57. <ul><li>Brian was a wall, bouncing every </li></ul><ul><li>tennis ball back over the net. </li></ul><ul><li>This metaphor compares Brian to a wall because __________. </li></ul><ul><li>a. He was very strong. b. He was very tall. c. He kept returning the balls. d. His body was made of cells. </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  58. 58. <ul><li>We would have had more pizza to eat if </li></ul><ul><li>Tammy hadn’t been such a hog. </li></ul><ul><li>Tammy was being compared to a hog because she __________. </li></ul><ul><li>a. looked like a hog b. ate like a hog c. smelled like a hog d. was as smart as a hog </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  59. 59. <ul><li>Cindy was such a mule. We couldn’t </li></ul><ul><li>get her to change her mind. </li></ul><ul><li>The metaphor compares Cindy to a mule because she was __________. </li></ul><ul><li> a. always eating oats b. able to do hard work c. raised on a farm d. very stubborn </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  60. 60. <ul><li>The poor rat didn’t have a chance. Our old cat, a bolt of lightning, caught his prey. </li></ul><ul><li>The cat was compared to a bolt of lightning because he was _______. </li></ul><ul><li>a. very fast b. very bright </li></ul><ul><li>c. not fond of fleas d. very old </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  61. 61. <ul><li>Even a child could carry my dog, </li></ul><ul><li>Dogface, around for hours. He’s </li></ul><ul><li>such a feather. </li></ul><ul><li>This metaphor implies that Dogface: </li></ul><ul><li>a. is not cute b. looks like a bird </li></ul><ul><li>c. is not heavy d. can fly </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  62. 62. Poetry Example <ul><li>I am a mountain, I am a tall tree, I am a swift wind sweepin' the country I am a river, down in the valley, I am a vision, and I can see clearly I'm that star up in the sky I'm that mountain peak up high Hey, I made it I'm the world's greatest And I'm that little bit of hope When my back's against the ropes </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  63. 63. Personification Joyet 2004 Personification is a figurative language technique in which human characteristics are given to nonhuman things.
  64. 64. Personification <ul><li>The leaves danced in the wind </li></ul>Joyet 2004 Example of personification: The heat ripped the breath from her lungs.
  65. 65. Personification <ul><li>A figure of speech in which inanimate objects or abstractions (things that are not human) are endowed with human qualities or are represented as possessing human form. </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  66. 66. Personification <ul><li>Examples of Personification : </li></ul><ul><li>Hunger sat shivering on the road </li></ul><ul><li>Flowers danced about the lawn. </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  67. 67. Personification <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>The sleeping water reflected the evening sky. </li></ul><ul><li>Humidity breathed in the girl's face and ran its greasy fingers through her hair. </li></ul><ul><li>The tree arrested the oncoming car. </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  68. 68. Poetry Example <ul><li>The Train </li></ul><ul><li>I like to see it lap the miles, And lick the valleys up, And stop to feed itself at tanks; And then, prodigious, step </li></ul><ul><li>Around a pile of mountains, And, supercilious, peer In shanties by the sides of roads; And then a quarry pare </li></ul><ul><li>To fit its sides, and crawl between, Complaining all the while In horrid, hooting stanza; Then chase itself down hill And neigh like Boanerges; Then, punctual as a start its own, Stop-docile and omnipotent- A stable door. </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  69. 69. Idiom <ul><li>An idiom is a figurative language technique that does not mean what is being said. </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  70. 70. Idiom <ul><li>Remember what literal means? This is the opposite. </li></ul><ul><li>Think about it. When you tell your hommie “ chill ,” are you suggesting they walk into a freezer? No. </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  71. 71. Idiom <ul><li>The expression “chill,” is an idiom that means: relax, take it easy or don’t worry. There are tons of idioms. I’m sure you use several all the time, without thinking about it. </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  72. 72. Idiom <ul><li> An idiom is a speech form or an expression of a given language that is peculiar to itself grammatically or cannot be understood from the individual meanings of its elements . </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  73. 73. Idiom <ul><li>Idioms are known as regional speech, dialect, slang, jargon, or legal idiom. </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  74. 74. Idioms <ul><li>More examples of idioms : </li></ul><ul><li>We were chewing the fat. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s raining cats and dogs. </li></ul><ul><li>She’s as sharp as a tack. </li></ul><ul><li>I wish he would kick the bucket. </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  75. 75. “ This cellphone cost an arm and a leg.” Joyet 2004
  76. 76. Joyet 2004 “ It’s raining cats and dogs.”
  77. 77. “ My sister has a serious sweet tooth!” Joyet 2004
  78. 78. Joyet 2004 “ There’s a fork in the road.”
  79. 79. Joyet 2004 “ Knock on wood.”
  80. 80. Joyet 2004 “ I was saved by the bell!”
  81. 81. “ It’s a piece of cake.” Joyet 2004
  82. 82. Joyet 2004 “ Money doesn’t grow on trees.”
  83. 83. Hyperbole Joyet 2004 <ul><li>Is when one exaggerates. </li></ul><ul><li>We use hyperbole all the time when we want to impress or stress. </li></ul>
  84. 84. Hyperbole <ul><li>“ He never speaks to her.” </li></ul><ul><li>Never? That is a very long time. </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperbole means to exaggerate. </li></ul>Joyet 2004 Take for example:
  85. 85. Hyperbole <ul><li>We have a ton of work. </li></ul><ul><li>A ton is a lot of work. A ton is also a thousand pounds. </li></ul>Joyet 2004 Hyperbole example:
  86. 86. Hyperbole <ul><li>I ate a thousand pounds of pasta. </li></ul><ul><li>A thousand pounds is also known as a ton, this person must be really obese. </li></ul>Joyet 2004 Hyperbole example:
  87. 87. Hyperbole <ul><li>I told you a million times. </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t mind repeating myself, but a million times? That’s a lot. </li></ul>Joyet 2004 Hyperbole example:
  88. 88. Consonance <ul><li>The repetition of identical or similar consonants in neighboring words whose vowel sounds are different. </li></ul><ul><li>The b l eak, mi l d chi ll wi ll owed through the l ast of the l anyards. </li></ul><ul><li>Pitter patter </li></ul><ul><li>Riff raff </li></ul><ul><li>“ Whose woods these are I think I know. His house is in the village though; He will not see me stopping here, To watch his woods fill up with snow.” </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  89. 89. Poetry Example <ul><li>God’s Grandeur  </li></ul><ul><li>The world is charged with the grandeur of God. It will flame out, like shining from shook foil; It gathers to a greatness, like the ooze of oil Crushed. Why do men then now not reck his rod? Generations have trod, have trod, have trod; And all is seared with trade; bleared, smeared with toil; And wears man's smudge |&| shares man's smell: the soil Is bare now, nor can foot feel, being shod. And for all this, nature is never spent; There lives the dearest freshness deep down things; And though the last lights off the black West went Oh, morning, at the brown brink eastward, springs -- Because the Holy Ghost over the bent World broods with warm breast |&| with ah! bright wings. </li></ul>Joyet 2004
  90. 90. We’ve looked at <ul><li>Literal vs. Figurative </li></ul>Joyet 2004 Remember: Real vs. Imaginary
  91. 91. We’ve looked at <ul><li>12 Figurative Language techniques: </li></ul><ul><li>onomatopoeia Allusion </li></ul><ul><li>alliteration </li></ul><ul><li>simile </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolism </li></ul><ul><li>Assonance </li></ul><ul><li>oxymoron </li></ul>Joyet 2004 <ul><li>metaphor </li></ul><ul><li>personification </li></ul><ul><li>idiom </li></ul><ul><li>hyperbole </li></ul><ul><li>consonance </li></ul>
  92. 92. State Content Standards for 9 th and 10 th Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text 3.7 Recognize and understand the significance of various literary devices, including figurative language, imagery, allegory, and symbolism, and explain their appeal. Joyet 2004