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Visual disability for finals
 

Visual disability for finals

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Eye/ ophthalmology lectures for final MBBS by Dr.Saman Senanayake

Eye/ ophthalmology lectures for final MBBS by Dr.Saman Senanayake

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    Visual disability for finals Visual disability for finals Document Transcript

    • Visual Disability Global Blindness 1990 38 million blind VA<3/60 in better eye 115 million with low vision VA<6/18 > 3/60 in better eye World Blindness: The Facts       An estimated 37 million people worldwide are blind Every year, an additional 1-2 million persons go blind 75% of this blindness is treatable and/or preventable 90% of the blind live in the poorest section of the developing world Without proper interventions the number of blind will increase to 75 million by 2020 Restoration of sight is one of the most cost-effective interventions in health care Visual disability        What is blindness and partial sight? What can blind and partially sighted people see? Visual disability and visual handicap Numbers and causes of blindness World blindness The “typical” blind person What help is available? What is blindness (severe sight impairment)?     High degree of vision loss even with glasses Inability to distinguish fingers at a distance of 3 metres or less May be able to see things directly in front but not at the sides, above or below Cannot do any work for which eyesight is essential  SOCIAL BLINDNEDD  ECONAMIC BLINDNESS Myths about blindness      “blind people see nothing” “blind people have special gifts” “blind people feel other people’s faces” “all blind people read braille” “all blind people own guide dogs” 1
    •  “blind people can’t do normal jobs” What is partial sight (sight impairment)?  A less severe loss of vision  Can see more than blind people but less than sighted people  Substantially and permanently handicapped by defective vision caused by congenital defect or illness or injury What can blind and partially sighted people see?     Very few blind people see nothing at all A minority can only distinguish light Some have no central vision, others have no side vision Some see everything as a vague blur, others a patchwork of blanks and defined areas What is visual disability?  Being unable to see or unable to see very clearly  How much one sees depends on a number of factors, not just the level of sight  The external environment may play a role What is visual handicap?  A disability caused by the environment or by other people rather than the person’s lack of sight  i.e. it is imposed from outside  e.g. a blind person trained to a job but cannot find work because sighted people won’t give that person a chance  LV patients were more likely to be ignored than blind patients  A patient with a treatable condition was more likely to be noticed than a patient with an untreatable condition  The overall level of knowledge about LV among doctors was found to be low and there was no indication of increasing knowledge with increasing experience Worldwide blindness  Four main causes o Cataract o Glaucoma o Trachoma o Vitamin A deficiency Where do most blind people live? 2
    • India Africa China 36.86% 52.02% 11.12% The Challenge  There are 37 million blind people and 124 million with low vision, comprising a total of more than 161 million people with some degree of visual impairment  Blindness has an enormous personal, social and economic cost, limiting the education and life choices of otherwise healthy people, and placing a significant weight on family, community, and social and health services  Blindness is associated with lower life expectancy  90% of the world's blind live in developing countries  There are at least 11.6 million blind people in the South East Asia Region, 9.3 million in the Western Pacific Region and 6.8 million in Africa  More than 82% of all blind people are at least 50 years old  1.4 million children under the age of 15 are blind  Females have a significantly higher risk of being visually impaired than males But Fortunately  75% of the world's blindness is avoidable  The treatments available for the prevention and cure of blindness are among the most successful and cost effective of all health interventions. “Will I go blind?”     Ophthalmologists definition of blindness is unable to see light (NPL) ARMD does not causes blindness (NPL) and is usually untreatable Cataract does not cause blindness (NPL) and is curable with surgery Glaucoma can cause blindness but can be treated What are the main causes of blindness?      In UK < 65 yrs is diabetic retinopathy In UK > 65 yrs is age related macular degeneration (ARMD) ARMD causes loss of central, reading and writing vision Glaucoma mainly causes loss of peripheral vision Cataract causes misty, cloudy vision 3
    • The “typical” blind person       Little old lady May be widowed Has ARMD Also hearing problems, arthritis, cardiovascular disease and diabetes Cannot read, write, recognise faces BUT Can still retain her independence What help is available?     Government benefits, but less if partially sighted Social worker, mobility officer, technical officer, rehabilitation worker Voluntary organisations . Low vision aids o magnifiers o CCTV RIGHTS OF THE DISABLED ?     ACT NO 28 OF 1996 A COMPREHENSIVE LEGISLATIVE PACKAGE EQUAL PARTNERSHIP IN DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES RESPONSIBILITY OF THE DEPT. OF SOCIAL SERVICES Vision care needs in Sri Lanka 4
    •  No of Blind estimated to be 100,000  No of individuals with low vision estimated to be 300,000 Low vision clinic- Kandy Children’s services  Identify & provide services to needy children  Provision of “Kit” for usage at the examinations [Reading-stand,Typhoscope, Table lamp, Extension cord ]  Disable benefits at exams  Re-modeling the school  screening program  Monitoring LV students 5