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- 1. Grids and GeographicCoordinates
- 2. Grids and grid coordinates The geographic grid system was created to locate all places on Earth. It uses latitude and longitude to describe the location of any place on Earth.
- 3. Grids and grid coordinates One way of mapping the world is on a globe, because Earth is a sphere, which is a 3D shape. A map is usually a 2D drawing, and shows an accurate image of a place. Most people find 2D maps easier to use than globes.
- 4. Grids and grid coordinates Grids and geographic Grids and geographic coordinates are used to coordinates are used to locate places on a map. locate places on a map. Grids are evenly spaced Grids are evenly spaced horizontal and vertical horizontal and vertical lines placed on a map. lines placed on a map. Letters or numbers are placed along the Letters or numbers are placed along the sides of a grid. They are combined to sides of a grid. They are combined to give grid coordinates for any location. give grid coordinates for any location.
- 5. Grids and grid coordinates Why is it useful to be able to quickly locate places on a map? When have you had to locate places on a map?
- 6. Grids and grid coordinates Maps in atlases and street directories are common examples of where you might use grid coordinates.
- 7. Grids and grid coordinates On this map, the grid coordinates are alphanumeric. Alphanumeric means Alphanumeric means aacombination of combination of letters and numbers. letters and numbers.
- 8. Grids and grid coordinates On this map, the grid coordinates are alphanumeric. What common type of map generally What common type of map generally uses alphanumeric coordinates? uses alphanumeric coordinates?
- 9. Grids and grid coordinates Locate the sports oval at Blair College. The grid coordinate is C3.The oval is easilylocated within thesquare bounded bythe grid coordinates.
- 10. Grids and grid coordinates Note that the coordinate for the horizontal grid lines is given first, and the vertical grid coordinate second.
- 11. Grids and grid coordinates List one or two features that appear at the grid coordinates. B4 Answer – Church, Blair Rd/High St intersection
- 12. Grids and grid coordinates List one or two features that appear at the grid coordinates. A2 Answer – Bowling alley, houses
- 13. Grids and grid coordinates List one or two features that appear at the grid coordinates. D1 Answer – Tent shop, houses
- 14. Grids and grid coordinates Give the grid coordinates for the doctor. Answer – B1
- 15. Grids and grid coordinates Give the grid coordinates for the fire station. Answer – F1
- 16. Grids and grid coordinates Give the grid coordinates for the hospital. Answer – C2
- 17. Grids and grid coordinates Give the grid coordinates for the corner of Brown Street and Blair Road. Answer – D4
- 18. Eastings, northings and area references This diagram uses a different type of grid system. It is made up of numerals located on grid lines.
- 19. Eastings, northings and area references The numbers that refer to the vertical grid lines are called eastings.
- 20. Eastings, northings and area references They increase in value as you move across in an easterly direction.
- 21. Eastings, northings and area references The numbers that refer to the horizontal grid lines are called northings. They increase in value as you move up in a northerly direction.
- 22. Eastings, northings and area references The two eastings numbers are joined with the two northings numbers to make a four-figure area reference.
- 23. Eastings, northings and area references For example, a % symbol is located at eastings 46 and northings 22, so its area reference is 4622.
- 24. Eastings, northings and area references Which symbol appears at these area references? 4124 Answer – 4425 Answer – 4323 Answer – 4120 Answer –
- 25. Grid references Grid references locate places on a map more accurately than area references. A grid reference is a six figure number, made up of a three-figure eastings reading and a three-figure northings reading. A grid reference is found by mentally subdividing each grid square into tenths. The third figure in each eastings and northings reading is found by estimating how many tenths across or up the exact location is.
- 26. Grid references What is the grid reference for the Post Office? Answer – 283579
- 27. Grid references Name the feature at 280570. Answer – An island
- 28. Grid references Name the feature at 258576. Answer – The river mouth
- 29. Grid coordinates – latitude and longitude To locate different places around Earth, we use geographic coordinates – measurements of latitude and longitude. Lines of latitude are imaginary parallel lines that circle the globe in an east–west direction.
- 30. Grid coordinates – latitude and longitude The Equator divides Earth into northern and southern hemispheres. Latitude measures how many degrees north or south a point on Earth lies from the Equator.
- 31. Grid coordinates – latitude and longitude What is the name given to the imaginary line of latitude at: 23.5O south of the Equator? Tropic of Capricorn
- 32. Grid coordinates – latitude and longitude What is the name given to the imaginary line of latitude at: 23.5O north of the Equator? Tropic of Cancer
- 33. Grid coordinates – latitude and longitude What is the name given to the imaginary line of latitude at: 66.5O south of the Equator? Antarctic Circle
- 34. Grid coordinates – latitude and longitude What is the name given to the imaginary line of latitude at: 66.5O north of the Equator? Arctic Circle
- 35. Grid coordinates – latitude and longitude Lines or meridians of longitude are imaginary lines between the North and South Poles.
- 36. Grid coordinates – latitude and longitude Longitude measures how many degrees east or west a point on Earth is from the Prime Meridian.
- 37. Grid coordinates – latitude and longitude The Prime Meridian is the meridian of longitude at 0 O. It divides Earth into eastern and western hemispheres.
- 38. Grid coordinates – latitude and longitude What is the name given to the imaginary line at 180 O from the Prime Meridian? International Date Line
- 39. Grid coordinates – latitude and longitude Find out why it is given this name. Suggest why it is this shape. International Date Line
- 40. Grid coordinates – latitude and longitude The exact location of any place on Earth is given by its geographic coordinates. You can find examples in the index of your atlas. Measurements for latitude and longitude are given in degrees (and minutes). Latitude is stated first, then longitude. Sydney’s geographic coordinates are: 33.52S 151.10E
- 41. Grid coordinates – latitude and longitude Tokyo’s geographic coordinates are: 35.40N 139.45E Tokyo
- 42. Grid coordinates – latitude and longitude Washington’s geographic coordinates are: 38.55N 77.00W Washington
- 43. Grid coordinates – latitude and longitude Cairo’s geographic coordinates are: 30.03N 31.15E Cairo
- 44. Grid coordinates – latitude and longitude Cape Town’s geographic coordinates are: 33.56S 18.28E Cape Town
- 45. Grid coordinates – latitude and longitude Geographic coordinates and alphanumeric references are used in the index of an atlas. One atlas gives Sydney’s reference as Map 50 J12 33.52S 151.10E. To locate a place in your atlas, check: • the map number • the grid • geographic coordinates – latitude first, then longitude.
- 46. Latitude and longitude quiz What is maximum number of degrees it is possible to move north of the Equator? Answer – 90O What is this point called? Answer – The North Pole
- 47. Latitude and longitude quiz What is maximum number of degrees it is possible to move south of the Equator? Answer – 90O What is this point called? Answer – The South Pole
- 48. Latitude and longitude quiz Fill in the gaps. latitude degrees time longitude east Prime Lines of longitude are used as the time basis of the world’s _____ zones. east They measure degrees _____ and Prime west of the ______ Meridian. latitude The _______ measurement is always given longitude first, followed by the _________ measurement. degrees Measurements are in _________ and minutes.
- 49. Atlas activities You need an atlas for these activities.
- 50. Atlas activity Name the continent that includes a place at these geographic coordinates: 30OS 120OE Australia Australia
- 51. Atlas activity Name the continent that includes a place at these geographic coordinates: 60ON 120OW North America North America Australia
- 52. Atlas activity Name the continent that includes a place at these geographic coordinates: 90OS 180O Antarctica North America Australia Antarctica
- 53. Atlas activity Name the continent that includes a place at these geographic coordinates: 0O 30OE Africa North America Africa Australia Antarctica
- 54. Atlas activity Use your atlas to find the capital cities of Australia’s states and territories. List the latitude and longitude for each one. Adelaide Brisbane Canberra Darwin
- 55. Atlas activity Use your atlas to find the capital cities of Australia’s states and territories. List the latitude and longitude for each one. 34.52S, 138.30E Adelaide Brisbane Canberra Darwin
- 56. Atlas activity Use your atlas to find the capital cities of Australia’s states and territories. List the latitude and longitude for each one. 34.52S, 138.30E Adelaide 27.25S, 153.02E Brisbane Canberra Darwin
- 57. Atlas activity Use your atlas to find the capital cities of Australia’s states and territories. List the latitude and longitude for each one. 34.52S, 138.30E Adelaide 27.25S, 153.02E Brisbane 35.15S, 149.08E Canberra Darwin
- 58. Atlas activity Use your atlas to find the capital cities of Australia’s states and territories. List the latitude and longitude for each one. 34.52S, 138.30E Adelaide 27.25S, 153.02E Brisbane 35.15S, 149.08E Canberra 12.25S, 130.51E Darwin
- 59. Atlas activity Use your atlas to find the capital cities of Australia’s states and territories. List the latitude and longitude for each one. Hobart Melbourne Perth Sydney
- 60. Atlas activity Use your atlas to find the capital cities of Australia’s states and territories. List the latitude and longitude for each one. 42.50S, 147.21E Hobart Melbourne Perth Sydney
- 61. Atlas activity Use your atlas to find the capital cities of Australia’s states and territories. List the latitude and longitude for each one. 42.50S, 147.21E Hobart 37.50S, 145.00E Melbourne Perth Sydney
- 62. Atlas activity Use your atlas to find the capital cities of Australia’s states and territories. List the latitude and longitude for each one. 42.50S, 147.21E Hobart 37.50S, 145.00E Melbourne 31.57S, 115.52E Perth Sydney
- 63. Atlas activity Use your atlas to find the capital cities of Australia’s states and territories. List the latitude and longitude for each one. 42.50S, 147.21E Hobart 37.50S, 145.00E Melbourne 31.57S, 115.52E Perth 33.53S, 151.10E Sydney
- 64. Atlas activity Order the capitals from north to south. North Adelaide 34.52S, 138.30E Brisbane 27.25S, 153.02E Canberra 35.15S, 149.08E Darwin 12.25S, 130.51E Hobart 42.50S, 147.21E Melbourne 37.50S, 145.00E Perth 31.57S, 115.52E Sydney 33.53S, 151.10E South
- 65. Atlas activity Order the capitals from north to south. North Adelaide 34.52S, 138.30E Darwin 12.25S, 130.51E Brisbane 27.25S, 153.02E Canberra 35.15S, 149.08E Hobart 42.50S, 147.21E Melbourne 37.50S, 145.00E Perth 31.57S, 115.52E Sydney 33.53S, 151.10E South
- 66. Atlas activity Order the capitals from north to south. North Adelaide 34.52S, 138.30E Darwin 12.25S, 130.51E Brisbane 27.25S, 153.02E Canberra 35.15S, 149.08E Hobart 42.50S, 147.21E Melbourne 37.50S, 145.00E Perth 31.57S, 115.52E Sydney 33.53S, 151.10E South
- 67. Atlas activity Order the capitals from north to south. North Adelaide 34.52S, 138.30E Darwin 12.25S, 130.51E Brisbane 27.25S, 153.02E Canberra 35.15S, 149.08E Perth 31.57S, 115.52E Hobart 42.50S, 147.21E Melbourne 37.50S, 145.00E Sydney 33.53S, 151.10E South
- 68. Atlas activity Order the capitals from north to south. North Adelaide 34.52S, 138.30E Darwin 12.25S, 130.51E Brisbane 27.25S, 153.02E Canberra 35.15S, 149.08E Perth 31.57S, 115.52E Sydney 33.53S, 151.10E Hobart 42.50S, 147.21E Melbourne 37.50S, 145.00E South
- 69. Atlas activity Order the capitals from north to south. North Darwin 12.25S, 130.51E Brisbane 27.25S, 153.02E Canberra 35.15S, 149.08E Perth 31.57S, 115.52E Sydney 33.53S, 151.10E Adelaide 34.52S, 138.30E Hobart 42.50S, 147.21E Melbourne 37.50S, 145.00E South
- 70. Atlas activity Order the capitals from north to south. North Darwin 12.25S, 130.51E Brisbane 27.25S, 153.02E Perth 31.57S, 115.52E Sydney 33.53S, 151.10E Adelaide 34.52S, 138.30E Hobart 42.50S, 147.21E Canberra 35.15S, 149.08E Melbourne 37.50S, 145.00E South
- 71. Atlas activity Order the capitals from north to south. North Darwin 12.25S, 130.51E Brisbane 27.25S, 153.02E Perth 31.57S, 115.52E Sydney 33.53S, 151.10E Adelaide 34.52S, 138.30E Hobart 42.50S, 147.21E Canberra 35.15S, 149.08E Melbourne 37.50S, 145.00E South
- 72. Atlas activity Order the capitals from north to south. North Darwin 12.25S, 130.51E Brisbane 27.25S, 153.02E Perth 31.57S, 115.52E Sydney 33.53S, 151.10E Adelaide 34.52S, 138.30E Canberra 35.15S, 149.08E Melbourne 37.50S, 145.00E Hobart 42.50S, 147.21E South
- 73. Atlas activity Now order the capitals from west to east. West Adelaide 34.52S, 138.30E Brisbane 27.25S, 153.02E Canberra 35.15S, 149.08E Darwin 12.25S, 130.51E Hobart 42.50S, 147.21E Melbourne 37.50S, 145.00E Perth 31.57S, 115.52E Sydney 33.53S, 151.10E East
- 74. Atlas activity Now order the capitals from west to east. West Adelaide 34.52S, 138.30E Perth 31.57S, 115.52E Brisbane 27.25S, 153.02E Canberra 35.15S, 149.08E Darwin 12.25S, 130.51E Hobart 42.50S, 147.21E Melbourne 37.50S, 145.00E Sydney 33.53S, 151.10E East
- 75. Atlas activity Now order the capitals from west to east. West Adelaide 34.52S, 138.30E Perth 31.57S, 115.52E Brisbane 27.25S, 153.02E Darwin 12.25S, 130.51E Canberra 35.15S, 149.08E Hobart 42.50S, 147.21E Melbourne 37.50S, 145.00E Sydney 33.53S, 151.10E East
- 76. Atlas activity Now order the capitals from west to east. West Perth 31.57S, 115.52E Brisbane 27.25S, 153.02E Darwin 12.25S, 130.51E Canberra 35.15S, 149.08E Adelaide 34.52S, 138.30E Hobart 42.50S, 147.21E Melbourne 37.50S, 145.00E Sydney 33.53S, 151.10E East
- 77. Atlas activity Now order the capitals from west to east. West Perth 31.57S, 115.52E Brisbane 27.25S, 153.02E Darwin 12.25S, 130.51E Canberra 35.15S, 149.08E Adelaide 34.52S, 138.30E Melbourne 37.50S, 145.00E Hobart 42.50S, 147.21E Sydney 33.53S, 151.10E East
- 78. Atlas activity Now order the capitals from west to east. West Perth 31.57S, 115.52E Brisbane 27.25S, 153.02E Darwin 12.25S, 130.51E Canberra 35.15S, 149.08E Adelaide 34.52S, 138.30E Melbourne 37.50S, 145.00E Hobart 42.50S, 147.21E Sydney 33.53S, 151.10E East
- 79. Atlas activity Now order the capitals from west to east. West Perth 31.57S, 115.52E Brisbane 27.25S, 153.02E Darwin 12.25S, 130.51E Adelaide 34.52S, 138.30E Melbourne 37.50S, 145.00E Hobart 42.50S, 147.21E Canberra 35.15S, 149.08E Sydney 33.53S, 151.10E East
- 80. Atlas activity Now order the capitals from west to east. West Perth 31.57S, 115.52E Brisbane 27.25S, 153.02E Darwin 12.25S, 130.51E Adelaide 34.52S, 138.30E Melbourne 37.50S, 145.00E Hobart 42.50S, 147.21E Canberra 35.15S, 149.08E Sydney 33.53S, 151.10E East
- 81. Atlas activity Now order the capitals from west to east. West Perth 31.57S, 115.52E Darwin 12.25S, 130.51E Adelaide 34.52S, 138.30E Melbourne 37.50S, 145.00E Hobart 42.50S, 147.21E Canberra 35.15S, 149.08E Sydney 33.53S, 151.10E Brisbane 27.25S, 153.02E East
- 82. History of longitude Early sea navigators didn’t know how to measure longitude. How would this affect their sea journeys? Find out how they discovered longitude.

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