Culture and socialisation: Ties in with the CIE syllabus Unit 2

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  • 1. CULTURE AND SOCIALISATION Revision of Blundell Unit 1 (Course Unit 2 Culture, Identity and Socialisation) 1
  • 2. WHAT IS CULTURE?  Humans are social beings; we share our lives with others in different social groups  These groups may be families, schools, workplaces, friendship groups  Culture means: things shared by members of a society: learned behaviour, language, beliefs, values, norms, customs, roles, knowledge and skills which make up a ‘way of life’ of any society  The process of learning a culture is called ‘socialisation’ and it is a life-long process 2
  • 3. What do these pictures tell us about these culture, values, traditions, social norms of the countries they represent? 3
  • 4. ROLES IN SOCIETY  Some animal species are ‘social’ because they carry out certain roles within their complex societies (ants, bees etc) but their behaviour is instinctual.  Humans have few instincts (they have reflexes however): human babies helpless if left to fend for themselves.  Plenty of written evidence to prove above: Eg The Puppy Boy Horst and The Wild Boy of Aveyron to show how humans who have been isolated from society do not acquire social habits on their own and find it difficult to later acquire them. (p.2,3) 4
  • 5. NORMS, MORES, VALUES, STATUS AND ROLES  Rules , Regulations and Laws: Apply to all society, written, punishable if broken  Mores: Stronger form of norms: moral ways of behaving which most of society sees as decent.  Norms: tell us what we should/shouldn’t do in particular situations. Can be explicitly or implicitly taught. Unspoken and unwritten rules of correct and acceptable behaviour.  Values: beliefs which lie behind norms, shared by majority of people within culture but not necessarily same in all cultures. Learned from others within society. Can originate from religious beliefs shared by culture. In Britain, these include respect for human life, privacy, private property, importance of marriage, money and success  Status: Position held by individual within society (can be ascribed or achieved) 5
  • 6. CULTURALDIVERSITY/GLOBALISATION What do these pictures tell us about different cultures of the world? Key words: 1. Cultural diversity 2. Cultural universals 3. Cultural relativism 4. Globalisation 5. See Blundell p.6,7 6
  • 7. CULTURAL DIVERSITY AND UNIVERSALS  Cultures around the world share some features although there are also some huge differences  Cultural diversity refers to the wide range of different cultural habits, customs, traditions, languages, dress, norms etc which are found in our world  Cultural universals are the forms of behaviour which are found in all cultures: -We all speak languages, we all have some form of marriage and family, we all have some kind of belief system which is worshipped, we all believe in the idea that individuals can claim things as their own (ie property) and finally we all agree on a ban on incest. These are cultural universals because they are shared among all cultures. 7
  • 8. CULTURAL DIVERSITY  Cultures are diverse in many ways. Give five examples of ways in which another culture differs from your own but which you find unusual-  Clothes:  Food:  Marriage:  Languages: 8
  • 9. ETHNOCENTRISM AND CULTURAL RELATIVISM  In studying other cultures it is important not to assume that your own way is necessarily better than anyone else’s. This is called ethnocentrism. Give an example of an ethnocentric view of another culture.  When we try to understand another’s culture from their perspective and not our own, we call it cultural relativism.  Cultural relativism is a challenge to ordinary thinking. Why?  Give an example of one thing about your culture which you wish others would be more tolerant of.  Activity H.O .Cultural relativism T and F 9
  • 10. CULTURAL DIVERSITY AND GLOBALISATION  Through technology the Internet, satellites, and cable TV are readily available throughout the world at the click of the mouse. Global entertainment and media reach a wide range of cultures Some people believe that this spread of values, norms, and culture tends to promote Western ideals of capitalism.  Globalisation has effects on the environment, on culture, on political systems, on economic development and on human physical well-being in societies around the world. The spread of globalisation will undoubtedly bring changes to all countries it reaches. It is argued that one of the result of globalisation will be the end of cultural diversity, and the emergence of one mono-culture.  Discuss: Will local cultures inevitably fall victim to this global "consumer" culture? Will English eradicate all other languages? Will consumer values overwhelm peoples' sense of community and social solidarity? Is globalisation a threat to our traditional and local cultures? 10
  • 12. SOCIALISATION  Socialisation is the life-long process of learning the culture of any society  Culture has to be learned; it is not instinctual  Babies are not born knowing how to talk, walk, eat, behave  Differences between different cultures exists: referred to as cultural diversity  This diversity makes us share common values with our own culture but makes us feel different to other cultures  We learn our cultural identity through what we are like and through what we are not like. 12
  • 13. SOCIALISATION AND IDENTITY  Socialisation forms an important part of forming our identity. We might define ourselves as Arab, Egyptian, male, a student, a daughter. Agencies of socialisation (such as family, school, friends, the mass media) will influence our identities  At the same time individuals have the free will to enable them to ‘carve out’ own personal identity and influence how other see them  Many factors influence our identities. Through choices we make we can influence how others see us and the image we project to others. 13
  • 14. In forming your social identity, what roles do you have? Which roles conflict with each other and why? Write down the (different?) images you project to your parents, teachers and friends. 14
  • 15. SOCIAL ROLES AND ROLE CONFLICT  Roles: the normal behaviour which is expected to go with a particular status is called a role. People have multiple roles (can have family roles, work-related roles and social roles) which they switch between quite easily but which have been learnt. Some roles are played continuously, some only occasionally , some roles adopted over time as individuals face new circumstances in their lives.  Role Conflict: Sometimes roles don’t fit together well: you can be the dutiful daughter at home and the rebellious student at school! You can be the oldest son who is expected to achieve at home and the struggling student at school. You can be the caring mum at home and the ambitious worker in a company . These differing expectations can cause a conflict. 15
  • 16. WHAT IS IT AN EXAMPLE OF?  Value  Norm  More  Custom  Law  Sanction (positive or negative)  Lighting candles at Divali  Giving merit points at school  Not reading someone’s diary  Not stealing others property  Being ridiculed  Killing others is wrong  Queueing in supermarkets 16
  • 17. HOW DOES A CHILD LEARN SOCIAL ROLES (P.8-11)  Primary Socialisation: Starts at an early stage (family)- Learn basic norms, values and roles of their culture  How? Watching, copying…praise reinforces positive behaviour, earns approval, experiment with behaviour to test reactions. May reject some of what is taught and gain disapproval  Secondary socialisation: At school: learn to get on with others, to conform to rules and regulations, to become independent, to learn useful (to society)knowledge and skills. May challenge rules and authority  Other influences: Peers (evidence of their influence on the young), mass media,(evidence that advertisers are targeting an even younger audience than before) religion (threatens punishment for wrong behaviour, learnt at home and in school)  Look particularly at gender roles in childhood (p.10,11) discusses how boys and girls are socialised differently. 17
  • 18. SOCIAL ORDER AND SOCIAL CONTROL  What’s the difference between the two?  Social order assumes that the socialisation of individuals in society is a good thing, necessary for co-operation within the society. Social control ensures harmony and agreement within society. Without it there would be chaos.  Social control focuses on the use of manipulation, force or punishment to make individuals conform to societies norms  Essentially they explain the same thing but from two different perspectives Social Order (F) Social control (M/F) 18
  • 19. SOCIAL ORDER AND THE CONSENSUS APPROACH  The Consensus Approach is adopted by Functionalists.  Compares society to a human body, interrelated parts all working together (in consensus) to maintain order in society.  Institutions such as family, school, law, mass media work together in harmony to maintain order ( exert influence through socialisation)  People mostly agree to this because it makes society stable  Does not emphasise the conflict between people and groups. Sees non-conformity as deviance 19
  • 20. SOCIAL CONTROL AND THE CONFLICT THEORY .(P.12-13 AND 16, 17)  Social Control: The term given to methods used to persuade /force individuals to do what society wants, to conform to values and norms of that society , to prevent deviance What social control is exerted on a girl to dress conservatively in this society?  Sanctions are used to achieve conformity (positive and negative)  Conflict theory: Marx and Weber a) View society as conflicting; inequalities in wealth, power and status creates conflict between groups/individuals b) Conflict theory says groups have different interests and values with no consensus (agreement) in modern society 20