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Environmental friendly building design & guide to LEEDS certification

Environmental friendly building design & guide to LEEDS certification

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  • The goal of green design is to create high-performance buildings. Often called “sustainable design,” it evolved from a variety of concerns, experiences, and needs….. Energy efficiency gained importance during the 1970s oil crisis. Recycling efforts in the U.S. in the 1970s onward became commonplace and came to the attention of the building industry. In the 1980s, the “sick building syndrome” concept emerged and concern for worker health and productivity became an issue. The concern for toxic material emissions also became an issue that needed to be addressed. Projects in water-scarce areas began to focus on water conservation. Early green designs usually focused on one issue at a time, mainly energy efficiency or use of recycled materials. Green building architects in the 1980s and 1990s began to realize that the integration of all the factors mentioned here would produce the best results and, in essence, a “high performance” building.

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  • ME5141 Special Studies V.G. Saman Priyantha
  •  
    • Design and construction practices that significantly reduce, or eliminate the negative impact of buildings on the environment and its occupants with regard to site planning; safeguarding water use and water use efficiency; promoting energy efficiency and renewable energy; conserving materials and resources; and promoting indoor environmental quality.” (US Green Building Council)
    • Design and construction practices that significantly reduce or eliminate the negative impact of buildings on the environment and occupants in five broad areas:
    • Sustainable site planning
    • Safeguarding water and water efficiency
    • Energy efficiency and renewable energy
    • Conservation of materials and resources
    • Indoor environmental quality
    • 25-60% energy savings
    • 30-50% water savings
    • Improved worker productivity – due to improved lighting and thermal comfort
    • Reduced sick time from allergies, asthma & respiratory illness
    • Lower life-cycle costs
    • Pre-20 th century
    • 1930s
      • Air conditioning
      • Low voltage lighting
      • Structural steel
      • Reflective glasses
    • 1970s
      • Victor Olgyay (design with climate)
      • Ralph Knowles (form & stability)
      • Rachel Carson (silent spring)
    • 1973
      • Energy task force formed by AIA (American Institute of Architects) to response the energy crisis.
    • 1977
      • USA department of energy was created.
    • 1980
      • Sustainable Building Industry Council was founded
    • 1987
      • UN World Commission on the Environment and Development provided the first definition of the term “sustainable development,” as that which “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”
    • 1990
      • Austin Green Building Program launched.
    • 1992
      • UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, “Earth Summit. Austin Green Building Program was awarded for most innovative government environmental programs in the world.
    • 1993
      • Greening of the White House: President Clinton announced plans to make the Presidential mansion “a model for efficiency and waste reduction.” This encouraged participants to green other properties: the Pentagon, the Presidio, and the US Department of Energy Headquarters, Grand Canyon, Yellowstone, Alaska’s Denali
    • 1993
      • US Green Building Council Founded
    • 2000
      • Increasing number of municipalities and corporations begin to demand and set internal standards for green buildings within their organizations.  Growth in green building organizations, attendance at professional conferences, and consumer awareness grows exponentially.
    • Today
    • Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design
    • Rating system for developing high performance, sustainable buildings
    • Voluntary, consensus-based, well recognized
    • Developed by US Green Building Council
    • Adapted by the Canada Green Bldg Council
  • Performance Category Credits/Points Sustainable Sites 8 credits / 14 points Water Efficiency 3 credits / 5 points Energy & Atmosphere 6 credits / 17 points Materials & Resources 7 credits / 13 points Indoor Environmental Quality 8 credits / 15 points Innovation & Design Process 2 credits / 5 points
  • LEED Designation Required Points Total Possible Points 69 points LEED ® Platinum 52+ points LEED ® Gold 39 – 51 points LEED ® Silver 33 – 38 points LEED ® Certified 26 – 32 points
  •  
    • Water efficiency
    • Energy & Atmosphere
    • Materials & Resources
    • Indoor Environmental Quality
    • Innovation & Design
    • Credit 1 Water Efficient Landscaping
    • Credit 2 Innovative Wastewater Technologies
    • Credit 3 Water Use Reduction
    • Water efficient landscaping
          • Drought tolerant plants
          • Recycled rainwater system
          • Non-potable water source use
    • Innovative waste water technologies
          • Captured rainwater systems
          • Recycled wastewater
          • Recycled gray water
          • Indigenous plants
    • Water use reduction
          • Dual flush water closets
          • Ultra low-flow water closets and urinals
          • Waterless Urinals
          • Sensor-operated, Low-flow lavatories
          • Rainwater collection reuse systems
          • Gray water reuse systems
    • Prerequisite 1 Fundamental Building Systems Commissioning
    • Prerequisite 2 Minimum Energy Performances
    • Prerequisite 3 CFC Reductions in HVAC&R Equipment
    • Credit 1 Optimize Energy Performance
    • Credit 2 Renewable Energy
    • Credit 3 Additional Commissioning
    • Credit 4 Ozone Depletion
    • Credit 5 Measurement & Verification
    • Credit 6 Green Power
    • Fundamental Building Systems commissioning
        • Planned meetings & Audits by independent certified body.
    • Minimum Energy Performances
        • Start from the design stage according to ASHRAE/Title24
    • CFC Reductions in HVAC&R Equipment
        • No CFC based refrigerants & non refrigerant based cooling
    • Optimize Energy Performance
        • Reduced demand, free energy, increase efficiency, recover waste energy
    • Renewable Energy – photovoltaic, solar thermal, geothermal, bio gas
    • Additional Commissioning – no or small HVAC systems for equipment rooms only, evaporative systems
    • Prerequisite 1 Storage & Collection of Recyclables
    • Credit 1 Building Reuse
    • Credit 2 Construction Waste Management
    • Credit 3 Resource Reuse
    • Credit 4 Recycled Content
    • Credit 5 Local/Regional Materials
    • Credit 6 Rapidly Renewable Materials
    • Credit 7 Certified Wood
    • Designated & accessible end-user recycling area for paper, corrugated cardboards & metals
    • C1-Building Reuse: Maintain 75% of Existing Walls, Floors and Roof
    • C2-Recycle and/or salvage 50% of building materials
    • C3- Use salvaged or recycled materials 5%-10% by cost
    • C4- Use 10% for construction materials: Divert from Disposal
    • C5-Regional Materials: Extracted, Processed & Manufactured Regionally within 500 miles from the site
    • C6 – Use rapidly Renewable Materials (2.5% by value)
    • C7 - Certified Wood for 50% of total
    • Prerequisite 1 Minimum IAQ Performance
    • Prerequisite 2 Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control
    • Credit 1 Carbon Dioxide (CO2 ) Monitoring
    • Credit 2 Increase Ventilation Effectiveness
    • Credit 3 Construction IAQ Management Plan
    • Credit 4 Low-Emitting Materials
    • Credit 5 Indoor Chemical & Pollutant Source Control
    • Credit 6 Controllability of Systems
    • Credit 7 Thermal Comfort
    • Credit 8 Daylight & Views
    • Prerequisite 1 Minimum IAQ Performance
        • Design to meet ASHRAE 62-1-2004 (Ventilation, Drainage, filters, records)
    • Prerequisite 2 Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control
    • Credit 1 Carbon Dioxide (CO2 ) Monitoring
        • Install CO2 sensors, demand base ventilation systems, measure outside air delivery
    • Credit 2 Increase Ventilation Effectiveness
        • Heat recovery, energy saving by good ventilation, displacement ventilation systems
    • Credit 3 Construction IAQ Management Plan
        • Documentation, measurements as per the specifications required
    • Credit 4 Low-Emitting Materials
        • Low emitting adhesives & sealants, paints & coatings, carpet systems, composite wood & agrifiber products
    • Credit 5 Indoor Chemical & Pollutant Source Control
        • Identify possible pollutant sources
        • Ventilation systems with MERV 13 rated filters
    • Credit 6 Controllability of Systems, lighting
        • Provide individual control for 90% occupants
        • Task lights need not to be permanently wired
    • Credit 7 Thermal Comfort
        • Active, passive & mixed mode ventilation systems
    • Credit 8 Daylight & Views 75% of the spaces
        • Effective solar control systems
        • Energy saving
    • Credit 1 Innovation in Design
    • Credit 2 LEED Accredited Professional
    • Credit 1 Innovation in Design
          • Energy Star Equipment
          • Community Neighborhood Outreach
          • Greenguard Furniture
          • Green Housekeeping
          • Waste stream diversion of unique materials
          • Owner/Employer transportation exceedance
          • Natural Pesticide / Landscape architect program
          • Process H20 savings
          • Fumehoods
          • Long term Commissioning
    • Incorporate green principles at the beginning of the design process
    • Involve operations staff early in the design process
    • Avoid unmanageable complexity in building systems
    • Undertake a thorough commissioning process
    • Ensure staff are properly trained in building system operation
    • www.usgbc.org – US Green Building Council
    • www.usgbc.org/Resources/links.asp - Extensive Resource List
    • www.greenerbuildings.com
    • The HOK Guidebook to Sustainable Design
    • WWW.Oikos.com - bookstore
    • www.iso.org – ISO 14001 EMS
    • www.epa.gov/ems/index.htm - EPA’s EMS site
    • www.doe.gov – US DOE www.epa.gov – US EPA
    • www.housing.sc.edu/westquadhandbook.asp - West Quad Handbook
    • www.sc.edu/sustainableu - Sustainable Universities Initiative (SUI)
    • www.buildinggreen.com – Environmental Building News
    • www.edcmag.com – Environmental Design & Construction
    • www.gbapgh.org – Green Building Alliance
    • www.southface.org/web/earthcraft_house/ech_main/ech_index.htm - Earth Craft Homes
    • www.greenglobes.com – Green Globes
    • I conceive that the land belongs to a vast family of which many are dead, few are living, and countless numbers are still unborn.  
    • ~A Chieftan from Nigeria