MEng / PG Diploma in Manufacturing Systems Engineering 2007/2008

                  Department of Mechanical Engineering

...
Green Engineering1



Abstract
Green building is the practice of increasing the efficiency with which buildings use
resour...
Green Engineering2



Acknowledgements
I wish to express my sincere gratitude to the Mechanical Engineering Department of ...
Green Engineering3



Content
 1. Introduction

           1.1.    What Makes a Building Green?

           1.2.    What A...
Green Engineering4


                   4.2.4. The ten most important things to know about R-2000

           4.3.    Germ...
Green Engineering5


          5.10.LEED Professional Accreditation

6. Path to GREEN

          6.1.   Sustainable sites
...
Green Engineering6




List of Figures


List of Tables


List of Appendices
Green Engineering7




1.0.   Introduction
What is a Green Building?

“Green” or “sustainable” buildings are sensitive to:...
Green Engineering8


green building benefits or to cover the cost of researching and analyzing green building
options.

Ev...
Green Engineering9


    vii.    Computer modeling is an extremely useful tool in optimizing design of electrical
        ...
Green Engineering10




  1.3.5. Occupant Health and Safety

   Recent studies reveal that buildings with good overall env...
Green Engineering11




2.0.    Why GREEN Engineering
2.1.    The environmental impact of buildings

Buildings have a prof...
Green Engineering12


        Low-impact building materials are used wherever feasible: for example, insulation
may be mad...
Green Engineering13


designed to be more energy-efficient, it may be possible to downsize heating, ventilation
and air-co...
Green Engineering14




3.0.   History of Green
   •   Pre-20th Century – structures were designed and built by builder-ar...
Green Engineering15


•   1990 – Austin Green Building Program launched (Austin, TX)

•   1992 – AIA Environmental Resourc...
Green Engineering16


•   1998 – City of Scottsdale, AZ Sustainable Building Program launched
    (Scottsdale, AZ)

•   19...
Green Engineering17




4.0       World ratings for GREEN
World wide standards and ratings

Many countries have developed ...
Green Engineering18


Mission The Green Building Council's mission is to develop a sustainable property
industry for Austr...
Green Engineering19


4.1.2. Green Star certified ratings

4 Star Green Star Certified Rating (score 45-59) signifies 'Bes...
Green Engineering20


barriers. The Council's objective is to promote sustainable development and the transition
of the pr...
Green Engineering21


4.2.   Canada

Canada has implemented "R-2000" guidelines for new buildings built after the year 200...
Green Engineering22


When the first “R-2000 homes” were built, it was difficult, even for the visionaries in the
industry...
Green Engineering23


4.2.7. The R-2000 Standard

        The R-2000 Standard sets out the criteria that a new home must m...
Green Engineering24


homes use only water-saving toilets, showers and faucets. Builders are also required to
use material...
Green Engineering25


have quality assured performance.

10. Amid growing concerns over greenhouse gasses and global warmi...
Green Engineering26


4.13.      New Zealand

The New Zealand Green Building Council has been in formation since July 2005...
Green Engineering27


   •    Professor Chris Baines becomes President; the first Steering Committee is
        appointed,...
Green Engineering28


   •    AECB and RICS conference 'Sustaining our Heritage - the way forward for
        energy effic...
Green Engineering29


   •    The AECB Training Initiative is formalised as SussEd - Sustainable Skills and
        Educat...
Green Engineering30


4.8.3. Extra ten miles

   1. Insulation This is the starting point. Think thickuse about 300 mm of ...
Green Engineering31


   10. Renewables If the load reduction measures have been addressed, then it makes
       sense to ...
Green Engineering32



5.0.     LEEDS
The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Green Building Rating
Syste...
Green Engineering33


Green Building Council members, representing every sector of the building industry,
developed and co...
Green Engineering34


stated support for the 2030 Challenge, an effort that has set a goal of efficient fossil fuel
use by...
Green Engineering35


5.6.3. How is LEED Developed?

LEED Rating Systems are developed through an open, consensus-based pr...
Green Engineering36


      Credit 3     Construction IAQ Management Plan
      Credit 4     Low-Emitting Materials
      ...
Green Engineering37


    •   Healthier and safer for occupants.

    •   Reduce harmful greenhouse gas emissions.

    • ...
Green Engineering38


If you are unsure whether your building project is a candidate for LEED certification,
review the LE...
Green Engineering39



6.0.   Path to GREEN
6.1. Sustainable sites

Building development is often destructive to local eco...
Green Engineering40


6.2. Water efficiency

Many water conservation strategies involve either no additional costs or rapi...
Green Engineering41


6.2.2. Credit 1.2: No Potable Water Use or No Irrigation

The intent of this credit is to eliminate ...
Green Engineering42


6.2.1. Credits 3.1 and 3.2: Water Use Reduction, 20% and 30% Reduction

The intent of this credit is...
Green Engineering43


LEED Energy and Atmosphere credits encourage energy efficiency through improved
glazing, better insu...
Green Engineering44



                             Helpful Hints:

                             EA Prerequisite 2: Minimu...
Green Engineering45



                             EA Prerequisite 3: Fundamental Refrigerant Management

The intent of t...
Green Engineering46



                            EA Credit 1: Optimize Energy Performance

The intent of this credit is ...
Green Engineering47



                              Helpful Hints:
   1.   EAc1 example documentation is available on the...
Green Engineering48



                           Helpful Hints:
1.   The installation of renewable energy generation syst...
Green Engineering49



                            EA Credit 3: Enhanced Commissioning

The intent of this credit is to be...
Green Engineering50



                           Helpful Hints:
1.   The commissioning MUST be contracted prior to 50% CD...
Green Engineering51



                            EA Credit 4: Enhanced Refrigerant Management

The intent of this credit...
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Environmental friendly building design comprehensive guide, Leeds certification by Saman PVG, Sri Lanka

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Green

  1. 1. MEng / PG Diploma in Manufacturing Systems Engineering 2007/2008 Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Moratuwa ME5141 - Special Studies GREEN ENGINEERING March 2008 Name V. G. Saman Priyantha Index No. 05/8645 Supervisor/s Dr. M.A.R.V. Fernando, Mr. H.K.G. Punchihewa
  2. 2. Green Engineering1 Abstract Green building is the practice of increasing the efficiency with which buildings use resources, energy, water, and materials while reducing building impacts on human health and the environment, through better sitting, design, construction, operation, maintenance, and removal the complete building life cycle. A similar concept is natural building, which is usually on a smaller scale and tends to focus on the use of natural materials that are available locally. Other commonly used terms include sustainable design and green architecture. The related concepts of sustainable development and sustainability are integral to green building. Effective green building can lead to 1) Reduced operating costs by increasing productivity and using less energy and water, 2) Improved public and occupant health due to improved indoor air quality, and 3) Reduced environmental impacts by, for example, lessening storm water runoff and the heat island effect. Practitioners of green building often seek to achieve not only ecological but aesthetic harmony between a structure and its surrounding natural and built environment, although the appearance and style of sustainable buildings is not necessarily distinguishable from their less sustainable counterparts.
  3. 3. Green Engineering2 Acknowledgements I wish to express my sincere gratitude to the Mechanical Engineering Department of the University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka for giving me the opportunity to participate in the Master in Manufacturing Systems Engineering Course. During this course I was able to expand my knowledge and practical skills in manufacturing engineering while improving other aspects such as presentation skills, academic writing abilities etc. I enjoyed my return to the university as a post-graduate student. I am also grateful to all the lecturers and mentors of the course for all the guidance given to at all times. I am very thankful to all but especially to the course coordinator Dr. Udaya Kahangamage & Dr. Watugala & all academic & technical staff for the tremendous support extended at all times. I like to thank all my fellow mates for the great support extended to me throughout the course. I wish them all good luck. Finally I also thank all my friends who helped me in many ways to complete this project report.
  4. 4. Green Engineering3 Content 1. Introduction 1.1. What Makes a Building Green? 1.2. What Are the Economic Benefits of Green Buildings? 1.3. What Are the Elements of Green Buildings? 1.3.1. Sitting 1.3.2. Energy Efficiency 1.3.3. Materials Efficiency 1.3.4. Water Efficiency 1.3.5. Occupant Health and Safety 1.3.6. Building Operation and Maintenance 2. Why GREEN Engineering 2.1. The environmental impact of buildings 2.2. Green building practices 3. History of GREEN 4. World ratings for GREEN 4.1. Australia 4.1.1. What is Green Star? 4.1.2. Green Star certified ratings 4.1.3. Development of Green Star Rating Tools 4.1.4. Green Star Rating Tools 4.1.5. Background 4.2. Canada 4.2.1. The World Business Council for Sustainable 4.2.2. A Brief History of R-2000 4.2.3. The R-2000 Standard
  5. 5. Green Engineering4 4.2.4. The ten most important things to know about R-2000 4.3. Germany 4.4. India 4.5. Israel 4.6. Malaysia 4.7. New Zealand 4.8. United Kingdom 4.8.1 AECB history 4.8.2. Ten points about AECB 4.8.3. Extra ten miles 4.9. United States 5. LEEDs 5.1. LEED’s history 5.2. LEED’s objectives: 5.3. The Rating system 5.4. Benefits and Disadvantages 5.5. LEEDs GREEN Certification 5.5.1. What is LEED®? 5.5.2. Who Uses LEED? 5.5.3. How is LEED Developed? 5.5.4. Project Certification 5.6. Project Check list 5.7. LEED-certified buildings: 5.8. LEED versions 5.9. Eligibility
  6. 6. Green Engineering5 5.10.LEED Professional Accreditation 6. Path to GREEN 6.1. Sustainable sites 6.2. Water efficiency 6.3. Energy & Atmosphere 6.4. Materials & recourses 6.5. Indoor Environmental quality 6.6. Innovation & Design 7. Legal aspects of GREEN 8. Costs & Financial benefits of GREEN certification 9. Global & local trends 10. Conclusion
  7. 7. Green Engineering6 List of Figures List of Tables List of Appendices
  8. 8. Green Engineering7 1.0. Introduction What is a Green Building? “Green” or “sustainable” buildings are sensitive to: • Environment. • Resource & energy consumption. • Impact on people (quality and healthiness of work environment). • Financial impact (cost-effectiveness from a full financial cost-return perspective). • The world at large (a broader set of issues, such as ground water recharge and global warming, that a government is typically concerned about). California’s Executive Order D-16-00 establishes a solid set of sustainable building objectives: “to site, design, deconstruct, construct, renovate, operate, and maintain state buildings that are models of energy, water and materials efficiency; while providing healthy, productive and comfortable indoor environments and long-term benefits to Californians.” 1.1. What Makes a Building Green? A green building, also known as a sustainable building, is a structure that is designed, built, renovated, operated, or reused in an ecological and resource-efficient manner. Green buildings are designed to meet certain objectives such as protecting occupant health; improving employee productivity; using energy, water, and other resources more efficiently; and reducing the overall impact to the environment. 1.2. What Are the Economic Benefits of Green Buildings? A green building may cost more up front, but saves through lower operating costs over the life of the building. The green building approach applies a project life cycle cost analysis for determining the appropriate up-front expenditure. This analytical method calculates costs over the useful life of the asset. These and other cost savings can only be fully realized when they are incorporated at the project's conceptual design phase with the assistance of an integrated team of professionals. The integrated systems approach ensures that the building is designed as one system rather than a collection of stand-alone systems. Some benefits, such as improving occupant health, comfort, productivity, reducing pollution and landfill waste are not easily quantified. Consequently, they are not adequately considered in cost analysis. For this reason, consider setting aside a small portion of the building budget to cover differential costs associated with less tangible
  9. 9. Green Engineering8 green building benefits or to cover the cost of researching and analyzing green building options. Even with a tight budget, many green building measures can be incorporated with minimal or zero increased up-front costs and they can yield enormous savings. 1.3. What Are the Elements of Green Buildings? Below is a sampling of green building practices. 1.3.1. Sitting i. Start by selecting a site well suited to take advantage of mass transit. ii. Protect and retain existing landscaping and natural features. Select plants that have low water and pesticide needs, and generate minimum plant trimmings. Use compost and mulches. This will save water and time. iii. Recycled content paving materials, furnishings, and mulches help close the recycling loop. 1.3.2. Energy Efficiency Most buildings can reach energy efficiency levels far beyond California Title 24 standards, yet most only strive to meet the standard. It is reasonable to strive for 40 percent less energy than Title 24 standards. The following strategies contribute to this goal. i. Passive design strategies can dramatically affect building energy performance. These measures include building shape and orientation, passive solar design, and the use of natural lighting. ii. Develop strategies to provide natural lighting. Studies have shown that it has a positive impact on productivity and well being. iii. Install high-efficiency lighting systems with advanced lighting controls. Include motion sensors tied to dimmable lighting controls. Task lighting reduces general overhead light levels. iv. Use a properly sized and energy-efficient heat/cooling system in conjunction with a thermally efficient building shell. Maximize light colors for roofing and wall finish materials; install high R-value wall and ceiling insulation; and use minimal glass on east and west exposures. v. Minimize the electric loads from lighting, equipment, and appliances. vi. Consider alternative energy sources such as photovoltaic’s and fuel cells that are now available in new products and applications. Renewable energy sources provide a great symbol of emerging technologies for the future.
  10. 10. Green Engineering9 vii. Computer modeling is an extremely useful tool in optimizing design of electrical and mechanical systems and the building shell. 1.3.3. Materials Efficiency • Select sustainable construction materials and products by evaluating several characteristics such as reused and recycled content, zero or low off gassing of harmful air emissions, zero or low toxicity, sustainably harvested materials, high recyclability, durability, longevity, and local production. Such products promote resource conservation and efficiency. Using recycled-content products also helps develop markets for recycled materials that are being diverted from California's landfills, as mandated by the Integrated Waste Management Act. • Use dimensional planning and other material efficiency strategies. These strategies reduce the amount of building materials needed and cut construction costs. For example, design rooms on 4-foot multiples to conform to standard-sized wallboard and plywood sheets. • Reuse and recycle construction and demolition materials. For example, using inert demolition materials as a base course for a parking lot keeps materials out of landfills and costs less. • Require plans for managing materials through deconstruction, demolition, and construction. • Design with adequate space to facilitate recycling collection and to incorporate a solid waste management program that prevents waste generation. 1.3.4. Water Efficiency • Design for dual plumbing to use recycled water for toilet flushing or a gray water system that recovers rainwater or other no potable water for site irrigation. • Minimize wastewater by using ultra low-flush toilets, low-flow shower heads, and other water conserving fixtures. • Use recalculating systems for centralized hot water distribution. • Install point-of-use hot water heating systems for more distant locations. • Use a water budget approach that schedules irrigation using the California Irrigation Management Information System data for landscaping. • Meter the landscape separately from buildings. Use micro-irrigation (which excludes sprinklers and high-pressure sprayers) to supply water in non turf areas. • Use state-of-the-art irrigation controllers and self-closing nozzles on hoses.
  11. 11. Green Engineering10 1.3.5. Occupant Health and Safety Recent studies reveal that buildings with good overall environmental quality can reduce the rate of respiratory disease, allergy, asthma, sick building symptoms, and enhance worker performance. . Choose construction materials and interior finish products with zero or low emissions to improve indoor air quality. Many building materials and cleaning/maintenance products emit toxic gases, such as volatile organic compounds (VOC) and formaldehyde. These gases can have a detrimental impact on occupants' health and productivity. Provide adequate ventilation and a high-efficiency, in-duct filtration system. Heating and cooling systems that ensure adequate ventilation and proper filtration can have a dramatic and positive impact on indoor air quality. Prevent indoor microbial contamination through selection of materials resistant to microbial growth, provide effective drainage from the roof and surrounding landscape, install adequate ventilation in bathrooms, allow proper drainage of air-conditioning coils, and design other building systems to control humidity. 1.3.6. Building Operation and Maintenance Green building measures cannot achieve their goals unless they work as intended. Building commissioning includes testing and adjusting the mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems to ensure that all equipment meets design criteria. It also includes instructing the staff on the operation and maintenance of equipment. Over time, building performance can be assured through measurement, adjustment, and upgrading. Proper maintenance ensures that a building continues to perform as designed and commissioned.
  12. 12. Green Engineering11 2.0. Why GREEN Engineering 2.1. The environmental impact of buildings Buildings have a profound effect on the environment, which is why green building practices are so important to reduce and perhaps one day eliminate those impacts. In the United States, buildings account for:  between 40 and 49% of total energy use  25% of total water consumption  70% of total electricity consumption  38% of total carbon dioxide emissions However, the environmental impact of buildings is often underestimated, while the perceived costs of building green are overestimated. A recent survey by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development finds that green costs are overestimated by 300%, as key players in real estate and construction estimate the additional cost at 17% above conventional construction, more than triple the true average cost difference of about 5%. 2.2. Green building practices Green building brings together a vast array of practices and techniques to reduce and ultimately eliminate the impacts of buildings on the environment and human health. But effective green buildings are more than just a random collection of environmental friendly technologies. They require careful, systemic attention to the full life cycle impacts of the resources embodied in the building and to the resource consumption and pollution emissions over the building's complete life cycle. On the aesthetic side of green architecture or sustainable design is the philosophy of designing a building that is in harmony with the natural features and resources surrounding the site. There are several key steps in designing sustainable buildings: specify 'green' building materials from local sources, reduce loads, optimize systems, and generate on-site renewable energy. Building materials typically considered to be 'green' include rapidly renewable plant materials like bamboo and straw, lumber from forests certified to be sustainably managed, dimension stone, recycled stone, recycled metal, and other products that are non-toxic, reusable, renewable, and/or recyclable. Building materials should be extracted and manufactured locally to the building site to minimize the energy embedded in their transportation.
  13. 13. Green Engineering12 Low-impact building materials are used wherever feasible: for example, insulation may be made from low VOC (volatile organic compound)-emitting materials such as recycled denim or cellulose insulation, rather than the building insulation materials that may contain carcinogenic or toxic materials such as formaldehyde. To discourage insect damage, these alternate insulation materials may be treated with boric acid. Organic or milk-based paints may be used. However, a common fallacy is that "green" materials are always better for the health of occupants or the environment. Many harmful substances (including formaldehyde, arsenic, and asbestos) are naturally occurring and are not without their histories of use with the best of intentions. A study of emissions from materials by the State of California has shown that there are some green materials that have substantial emissions whereas some more "traditional" materials actually were lower emitters. Thus, the subject of emissions must be carefully investigated before concluding that natural materials are always the healthiest alternatives for occupants and for the Earth. Architectural salvage and reclaimed materials are used when appropriate as well. When older buildings are demolished, frequently any good wood is reclaimed, renewed, and sold as flooring. Any good dimension stone is similarly reclaimed. Many other parts are reused as well, such as doors, windows, mantels, and hardware, thus reducing the consumption of new goods. When new materials are employed, green designers look for materials that are rapidly replenished, such as bamboo, which can be harvested for commercial use after only 6 years of growth, or cork oak, in which only the outer bark is removed for use, thus preserving the tree. When possible, building materials may be gleaned from the site itself; for example, if a new structure is being constructed in a wooded area, wood from the trees which were cut to make room for the building would be re-used as part of the building itself. To minimize the energy loads within and on the structure, it is critical to orient the building to take advantage of cooling breezes and sunlight. Day lighting with ample windows will eliminate the need to turn on electric lights during the day (and provide great views outside too). Passive Solar can warm a building in the winter — but care needs to be taken to provide shade in the summer time to prevent overheating. Prevailing breezes and convection currents can passively cool the building in the summer. Thermal mass stores heat gained during the day and releases it at night minimizing the swings in temperature. Thermal mass can both heat the building in winter and cool it during the summer. Insulation is the final step to optimizing the structure. Well-insulated windows, doors, and ceilings and walls help reduce energy loss, thereby reducing energy usage. These design features don't cost much money to construct and significantly reduce the energy needed to make the building comfortable. Optimizing the heating and cooling systems through installing energy efficient machinery, commissioning, and heat recovery is the next step. Compared to optimizing the passive heating and cooling features through design, the gains made by engineering are relatively expensive and can add significantly to the projects cost. However, thoughtful integrated design can reduce costs — for example, once a building has been
  14. 14. Green Engineering13 designed to be more energy-efficient, it may be possible to downsize heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment, leading to substantial savings. To further address energy loss hot water heat recycling is used to reduce energy usage for domestic water heating. Ground source heat pumps are more energy efficient then other forms of heating and cooling. Finally, onsite generation of renewable energy through solar power, wind power, hydro power, or biomass can significantly reduce the environmental impact of the building. Power generation is the most expensive feature to add to a building. Good green architecture also reduces waste, of energy, water and materials. During the construction phase, one goal should be to reduce the amount of material going to landfills. Well-designed buildings also help reduce the amount of waste generated by the occupants as well, by providing onsite solutions such as compost bins to reduce matter going to landfills. To reduce the impact on wells or water treatment plants, several options exist. "Grey water", wastewater from sources such as dishwashing or washing machines, can be used for subsurface irrigation, or if treated, for non-potable purposes, e.g., to flush toilets and wash cars. Rainwater collectors are used for similar purposes. Green building often emphasizes taking advantage of renewable resources, e.g., using sunlight through passive solar, active solar, and photovoltaic techniques and using plants and trees through green roofs, rain gardens, and for reduction of rainwater run-off. [7] Many other techniques, such as using packed gravel for parking lots instead of concrete or asphalt to enhance replenishment of ground water, are used as well.
  15. 15. Green Engineering14 3.0. History of Green • Pre-20th Century – structures were designed and built by builder-architects who had an ability to understand the entire building from design through construction and lifetime operations. They incorporated enduring passive design and simple mechanical systems to heat, cool and light buildings. Architects in the 21st Century will look back upon these ideas to relearn the basics of climatic design. • 1930s – New building technologies began to transform urban landscape. Advent of air conditioning, low-wattage fluorescent lighting, structural steel, and reflective glass made possible enclosed glass and steel structures that could be heated and cooled with massive HVAC systems, thanks to availability of cheap fossil fuels. These technologies began a sadly regressive movement in architecture in which architects began to ignore climate issues and their effect on buildings and occupants. Increasing complexity in the industry also brought about specialization in professionals, leading to the loss of the generalists, the builder-architects. This specialization led to an increasing lack of communication between the professionals and therefore of lack of whole systems thinking in designing the various parts of the building. This problem will only begin to be addressed by the start of the 21st Century through the integrated design process. • 1970s, a small group of forward-thinking architects, environmentalists, and ecologists inspired by work of Victor Olgyay (Design with Climate), Ralph Knowles (Form and Stability), and Rachel Carson (Silent Spring), began to question the advisability of building in this manner. • 1973 – in response to energy crisis, American Institute of Architects (AIA) formed an energy task force, later the AIA Committee on Energy • 1977 – The Department of Energy was created to address energy usage and conservation • 1977 – Solar Energy Research Institute was founded (later National Renewable Energy Laboratory) in Golden, CO • 1980 - The Sustainable Buildings Industry Council (SBIC) was founded by the major building trade associations as the Passive Solar Industries Council. • 1987 – UN World Commission on the Environment and Development provided the first definition of the term “sustainable development,” as that which “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” • 1989 – The AIA Energy Committee formed into the AIA Committee on the Environment (COTE)
  16. 16. Green Engineering15 • 1990 – Austin Green Building Program launched (Austin, TX) • 1992 – AIA Environmental Resource Guide – the first assessment of building products based on life cycle analysis. Credited with encouraging numerous building product manufacturers to make their products more ecologically sensitive. • 1992 –UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, or “Earth Summit.” Passage of Agenda 21, a blueprint for achieving global sustainability, the Rio declaration on Environment and Development, and statements on forest principles, climate change, and biodiversity. • 1992 – Rio Earth Summit awards Austin Green Building Program on of only ten awards for most innovative government environmental programs in the world, the only one awarded to a US program. • 1993 – Inspired at Earth Summit, AIA president-elect chose sustainability as theme for International Union of Architects (UIA)/AIA World Congress of Architects. Signed a declaration of Interdependence for a Sustainable Future by AIA president Susan Maxman and UIA president Olufemi Majekodunmi. Today, the “Architecture at the Crossroads” convention is recognized as a turning point in the history of the green building movement. • 1993 – Greening of the White House: President Clinton announced plans to make the Presidential mansion “a model for efficiency and waste reduction.” This encouraged participants to green other properties: the Pentagon, the Presidio, and the US Department of Energy Headquarters, Grand Canyon, Yellowstone, Alaska’s Denali • 1993 – US Green Building Council Founded • 1994 – City of Boulder, CO, GreenPoints Program launched (Boulder, CO) • 1995 – The Built Green Colorado Program launched (Denver, CO) • 1997 - Build a Better Kitsap Program launched (Kitsap County, WA) • 1997 – The Navy initiated the development of the Whole Building Design Guide, an online resource that incorporates sustainability requirements into mainstream specifications and guidelines. They incorporate sustainable design into the majority of their new projects. • 1998 – Green Building Challenge – Reps from 14 nations met to create an international assessment tool that takes into account regional and national environmental, economic, and social equity conditions • 1998 – Build a Better Clark Program launched (Clark County, WA)
  17. 17. Green Engineering16 • 1998 – City of Scottsdale, AZ Sustainable Building Program launched (Scottsdale, AZ) • 1998 – AIA/COTE Top 10 Green Projects to call attention to successful sustainable design • 1998 – President Clinton issued first of 3 “greening buildings” executive orders • 1999 – Earth Craft House Program launched (Atlanta, GA) • 1999 – Executive Order 12852 established President Council on Sustainable Development final report, recommending 140 actions to improve the nation’s environment, many related to building sustainability. • 2000 – Increasing number of municipalities and corporations begin to demand and set internal standards for green buildings within their organizations. Growth in green building organizations, attendance at professional conferences, and consumer awareness grows exponentially.
  18. 18. Green Engineering17 4.0 World ratings for GREEN World wide standards and ratings Many countries have developed their own standards of energy efficiency for buildings.  Code for Sustainable Homes, United Kingdom  BREEAM, United Kingdom  EnerGuide for Houses, Canada (energy retrofits & up-grades)  EnerGuide for New Houses, Canada (new construction)  Gold & Silver Energy Standards, United Kingdom  Green Building Council of Australia's Green Star  Effinergie, France  House Energy Rating, Australia  Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), USA, Canada & INDIA  Green Globes, USA, Canada and United Kingdom  Minergie, Switzerland  National Association of Home Builders Green Building Guidelines, USA  New Zealand Green Building Council Green Star  Passivhaus, Germany, Austria, United Kingdom  EEWH, Taiwan 4.1. Australia There is a system in place in Australia called First Rate designed to increase energy efficiency of residential buildings. The Green Building Council of Australia (GBCA) has developed a green building standard known as Green Star. Launched in 2002, the GBCA is a national, not-for-profit organization that is committed to developing a sustainable property industry for Australia by encouraging the adoption of green building practices. It is uniquely supported by both industry and governments across the country.
  19. 19. Green Engineering18 Mission The Green Building Council's mission is to develop a sustainable property industry for Australia and drive the adoption of green building practices through market- based solutions. Objectives Its key objectives are to drive the transition of the Australian property industry towards sustainability by promoting green building programs, technologies, design practices and operations as well as the integration of green building initiatives into mainstream design, construction and operation of buildings. 4.1.1.What is Green Star? Green Star is a comprehensive, national, voluntary environmental rating scheme that evaluates the environmental design and achievements of buildings. Green Star was developed for the property industry in order to: - Establish a common language; - Set a standard of measurement for green buildings; - Promote integrated, whole-building design; - Recognise environmental leadership; - Identify building life-cycle impacts; and - Raise awareness of green building benefits. Green Star covers a number of categories that assess the environmental impact that is a direct consequence of a projects site selection, design, construction and maintenance. The nine categories included within all Green Star rating tools are: - Management - Indoor Environment Quality - Energy - Transport - Water - Materials - Land Use & Ecology - Emissions - Innovation These categories are divided into credits, each of which addresses an initiative that improves or has the potential to improve environmental performance. Points are awarded in each credit for actions that demonstrate that the project has met the overall objectives of Green Star. Once all claimed credits in each category are assessed, a percentage score is calculated and Green Star environmental weighting factors are then applied. Green Star environmental weighting factors vary across states and territories to reflect diverse environmental concerns across Australia.
  20. 20. Green Engineering19 4.1.2. Green Star certified ratings 4 Star Green Star Certified Rating (score 45-59) signifies 'Best Practice' 5 Star Green Star Certified Rating (score 60-74) signifies 'Australian Excellence' 6 Star Green Star Certified Rating (score 75-100) signifies 'World Leadership' Although Green Star certification requires a formal process, any project can freely download and use the Green Star tools as guides to track and improve their environmental performance. 4.1.3. Development of Green Star Rating Tools Green Star rating tools are the result of the work of GBCA staff and the GBCA Technical Working Group (TWG), a voluntary collaboration of environmental and industry experts. All Green Star tools are initially launched as PILOT tools with a 90-day public feedback period. A limited number of project ranging in size and locations undergo assessment using the PILOT rating tool. The Pilot Assessment Process and stakeholder feedback the GBCA receives is used to refine the tool, which is then officially released as a v1 (version 1). 4.1.4. Green Star Rating Tools Currently, there is a suite of Green Star rating tools for commercial office design and construction. Green Star - Office Design v2 Green Star - Office As Built v2 Green Star - Office Interiors v1.1 4.1.5. Background Buildings have a significant impact on the environment, consuming 32% of the world's resources, including 12% of its water and up to 40% of its energy. Buildings also produce 40% of waste going to landfill and 40% of air emissions. In Australia, commercial buildings produce 8.8% of the national greenhouse emissions and have a major part to play in meeting Australia's international greenhouse obligations. A commercial building sector baseline study found that office buildings and hospitals were the two largest emitters by building type, causing around 40% of total sectoral emissions. The property industry is well placed to deliver significant long-term environmental improvements using a broad range of measures. More importantly, it is unique in that it can directly influence and create behavioral changes at all stages of the supply chain. Although a strong business case can be made for their implementation, there are barriers within the property industry that often preventing efficiency measures from being adopted? The Green Building Council of Australia was created to in order to address some of these
  21. 21. Green Engineering20 barriers. The Council's objective is to promote sustainable development and the transition of the property industry by promoting green building programs, technologies, design practices and operations. After an industry survey conducted by the GBCA, Green Star was developed to be a comprehensive, national, voluntary environmental rating scheme that evaluates the environmental design and achievements of buildings. Green Star has built on existing systems and tools in overseas markets including the British BREEAM (Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method) system and the North American LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) system. In addition, Vic Urban, in its work with the Melbourne Docklands' ESD Guide, provided the intellectual property to assist in the development of a local system. Green Star has established individual environmental measurement criteria with particular relevance to the Australian marketplace and environmental context. In Adelaide, South Australia, there are at least two different projects that incorporate the principles of Green building. The Eco-City development is located in Adelaide's city centre and the Aldinga Arts Eco Village is located in Aldinga. Guidelines for building developments in each project are outlined in the bylaws. The bylaws include grey water reuse, reuse of stormwater, capture of rainwater, use of solar panels for electricity and hotwater, solar passive building design and community gardens and landscaping. Melbourne has a rapidly growing environmental consciousness, many government subsidies and rebates are available for water tanks, water efficient products (such as shower heads) and solar hot water systems. The city is home to many examples of green buildings and sustainable development such as the CERES Environmental Park. Another one is EcoLinc in Bacchus Marsh. Two of the most prominent examples of green commercial buildings in Australia are located in Melbourne — 60L and Council House 2 (also known as CH2). The most recent building to receive the 6 Green Star award was in Canberra, where Australian Ethical Investment Ltd refurbished an existing office space in Trevor Pearcey House. The total cost of the renovation was $1.7 million, and produced an estimated 75% reductions in carbon dioxide emissions, 75% reduction in water usage, and used over 80% recycled materials. The architects were Collard Clarke Jackson Canberra, architectual work done by Kevin Miller, interior design by Katy Mutton.
  22. 22. Green Engineering21 4.2. Canada Canada has implemented "R-2000" guidelines for new buildings built after the year 2000. Incentives are offered to builders to meet the R-2000 standard in an effort to increase energy efficiency and promote sustainability. In December 2002, Canada formed the Canada Green Building Council and in July 2003 obtained an exclusive licence from the US Green Building Council to adapt the LEED rating system to Canadian circumstances. The path for LEED's entry to Canada had already been prepared by BREEAM-Canada, an environmental performance assessment standard released by the Canadian Standards Association in June 1996. The American authors of LEED-NC 1.0 had borrowed heavily from BREEAM-Canada in the outline of their rating system; and in the assignment of credits for performance criteria.  Beamish-Munro Hall at Queen's University features sustainable construction methods such as high fly-ash concrete, triple-glazed windows, dimmable fluorescent lights and a grid-tied photovoltaic array.  Gene H. Kruger Pavilion at Laval University uses largely non polluting, non toxic, recycled and renewable materials as well as advanced bioclimatic concepts that reduce energy consumption by 25% compared with a concrete building of the same dimensions. The structure of the building is made entirely out of wood products, thus further reducing the environmental impact of the building. 4.2.5. The World Business Council for Sustainable DAs thousands of homeowners have discovered, R-2000 is the smart new home choice. R-2000 is made-in-Canada home building technology with a worldwide reputation for energy efficiency and environmental responsibility. The R-2000 Standard is a series of technical requirements for new home performance that go way beyond building codes. Every R-2000 home is built and certified to this standard. The Canadian Home Builders' Association works with Natural Resources Canada's (NRCan's) Office of Energy Efficiency which manages R-2000 on behalf of the federal government in support of R-2000 technology, builders and consumers. The R-2000 mission is: “ To promote the energy efficiency and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions of Canada’s new housing stock through an industry-led, market-driven, leading edge housing standard presented as a co-operative partnership of the private and public sectors. ” 4.2.6. A Brief History of R-2000
  23. 23. Green Engineering22 When the first “R-2000 homes” were built, it was difficult, even for the visionaries in the industry, to imagine the impact of the technology, and how it would revolutionize the industry. • It began in the mid-1970s with a research project in the Prairies to develop ways of building homes that were comfortable and healthy to live in during the frigid winters, but used much less energy than conventional homes. These forerunners of R-2000 were modest-looking homes, with thick walls and small windows—a far cry from today's bright and sunny homes. • The research resulted in the "house as a system" concept—a major evolution in building science. "House as a system" thinking recognizes that the flow of air, heat and moisture within a home is affected by the interaction of all the components, i.e., everything works together. If you make changes in one area, it will affect other areas—a simple concept that has profoundly changed the way all homes today are built. • The R-2000 Program was created in 1981 as a partnership between the Canadian Home Builders' Association and Natural Resources Canada to begin moving this exciting new technology into the marketplace. The R-2000 Standard was formalized, home builders were trained in the new design and construction techniques, and consumers began to learn about these "better-built" homes. • Since then, thousands of R-2000 homes have been built, and thousands of building professionals trained. • Indirectly, R-2000 has influenced the way every home is built today, spawning a new generation of better builders, better materials and products and better homes. • Periodic upgrading of the R-2000 Standard has ensured that R-2000 remains at the forefront of construction technology. Over the years, requirements for indoor air quality and resource conservation have been added, along with stricter energy targets. • R-2000 technology has enjoyed tremendous international success. Early on in the Program, R-2000 was “exported” to Japan as well as the US where it had a great influence on the evolution of energy-efficient construction. R-2000 homes have also been built in Poland, Russia, Germany, and most recently, England, as a collaboration between Canadian builders and British developers.
  24. 24. Green Engineering23 4.2.7. The R-2000 Standard The R-2000 Standard sets out the criteria that a new home must meet in order to be eligible for R-2000 certification. The technical requirements involve three main areas of construction: energy performance, indoor air quality and environmental responsibility. • The R-2000 Standard is a voluntary national standard that is in addition to and beyond building code requirements. • The R-2000 Standard is a performance-based standard. It sets criteria for how a house must perform rather than specify exactly how it must be constructed. The builder is free to choose the best and most-cost effective approach for each home—construction techniques, building products, mechanical equipment, lighting and appliances. • One of the most important aspects of the Standard is the energy target for space and water heating. The target is calculated for each house, taking into consideration size, fuel type, lot orientation and location (to account for climate variations across Canada). Typically R-2000 homes will use approximately 30% less energy than a comparable non- R-2000 home. • In order to achieve these energy savings, every R-2000 home is designed and built to reduce heat loss and air leakage. Extra insulation, energy-efficient windows and doors, and careful air-sealing are standard features. A blower door is used to measure the airtightness of the building envelope to ensure that air leakage does not exceed the rate set out in the R-2000 Standard. This test is part of the mandatory R-2000 quality assurance process for every R-2000 home. • The mechanical systems for heating, cooling and ventilation are chosen for efficiency and performance. Natural gas, propane, oil or electrical systems are all permitted under the Standard which also allows for advanced systems such as integrated space and hot water heating systems, heat pumps or solar-assisted systems. • R-2000 construction always includes controlled ventilation to maintain good indoor air quality. Every R-2000 home must have a mechanical ventilation system to bring fresh air in from the outside and exhaust stale air to the outside. Most R-2000 builders use a heat recovery ventilator, or HRV, to provide continuous balanced ventilation. In winter, HRVs use the heat from the outgoing air to preheat the incoming air; in summer, this process is reversed. • To further protect the indoor air quality, R-2000 builders use building products specifically aimed at reducing chemicals, dust and other indoor air pollutants. This includes products such as EcoLogo-approved paints, varnishes and floor finishes, low- emission cabinetry or the use of hardwood floors. • The R-2000 Standard recognizes the importance of resource conservation both during the construction of the home and later during the ongoing operation of the home. R-2000
  25. 25. Green Engineering24 homes use only water-saving toilets, showers and faucets. Builders are also required to use materials with recycled content. The R-2000 Standard is updated periodically to reflect the ongoing evolution of the construction technology and development of new materials, products and systems. This ensures that R-2000 continues to represent the leading edge of housing technology, and that homebuyers will continue to benefit from the latest advances in new home construction. 4.2.8. The ten most important things to know about R-2000 1. R-2000 represents a way of building homes, not a specific design, style or type of home. Virtually any home can become an R-2000 home. 2. R-2000 homes are built to the R-2000 Standard —a series of strict technical requirements for energy efficiency, indoor air quality and environmental responsibility, above and beyond anything required by building codes. 3. The R-2000 Standard is voluntary. Builders choose to build R-2000 homes because they believe that the technology is superior to conventional construction and they want to provide their customers with a better built home. 4. Every R-2000 builder has taken extra training in advanced design and construction techniques. And every R-2000 builder has a license to prove it. Only licensed R-2000 builders can offer you an R-2000 home. 5. R-2000 homes are not experimental. They use only proven technology, proven techniques and proven products. 6. The Standard is updated periodically to reflect the latest research and developments in the industry, and to keep R-2000 on the leading edge. 7. Every R-2000 home goes through a strict independent quality assurance process of testing and verification from beginning to end, from blueprint to completion. No other homes offer this level of quality assurance. 8. Every R-2000 home is certified. Once a home has passed all tests and inspections, you will receive a numbered certificate from the Government of Canada—your proof that you own an R-2000 home. 9. Only certified homes are R-2000 homes. Homes that are "almost R-2000" or "as good as" or “built to the standard but not certified”…don’t count, because those homes don't
  26. 26. Green Engineering25 have quality assured performance. 10. Amid growing concerns over greenhouse gasses and global warming, R-2000 provides a model for environmentally responsible housing, both in Canada and around the world. 4.3. Germany German developments that employ green building techniques include:  The Solarsiedlung (Solar Village) in Freiburg, Germany, which features energy-plus houses.  The Vauban development, also in Freiburg.  Houses designed by Baufritz, incorporating passive solar design, heavily insulated walls, triple-glaze doors and windows, non-toxic paints and finishes, summer shading, heat recovery ventilation, and greywater treatment systems.  The new Reichstag building in Berlin, which produces its own energy. 4.10. India The Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) plays an active role in promoting sustainability in the Indian construction sector. The CII is the central pillar of the Indian Green Building Council or IGBC. The IGBC has licesensed the LEED Green Building Standard from the U.S. Green Building Council and currently is responsible for certifying LEED-New Construction and LEED-Core and Shell buildings in India. All other projects are certified through the U.S. Green Building Council. There are many energy efficient buildings in India, situated in a variety of climatic zones. 4.11. Israel Israel has recently implemented a voluntary standard for "Buildings with Reduced Environmental Impact" 5281, this standard is based on a point rating system (55= certified 75=excellence) and together with complementary standards 5282-1 5282-2 for energy analysis and 1738 for sustainable products provides a system for evaluating environmental sustainability of buildings. United States Green Building Council LEED rating system has been implemented on several building in Israel including the recent Intel Development Center in Haifa and there is strong industry drive to introduce an Israeli version of LEED in the very near future. 4.12. Malaysia The Standards and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM) promotes green building techniques. Malaysian architect Ken Yeang is a prominent voice in the area of ecological design.
  27. 27. Green Engineering26 4.13. New Zealand The New Zealand Green Building Council has been in formation since July 2005. An establishment board was formed later in 2005 and with formal organizational status granted on 1st February 2006. That month Jane Henley was appointed as the CEO and activity to gain membership of the World GBC began. In July 2006 the first full board was appointed with 12 members reflecting wide industry involvement. The several major milestones were achieved in 2006/2007; becoming a member of the World GBC, the launch of the Green Star NZ — Office Design Tool, and welcoming our member companies. 4.14. United Kingdom The Association for Environment Conscious Building (AECB) has promoted sustainable building in the UK since 1989. The UK Building Regulations set requirements for insulation levels and other aspects of sustainability in building construction. 4.8.1 AECB history 1989: • The Association of Environment Conscious Builders founded by Keith and Sally Hall • A quarterly newsletter is sent to members 1990: • The name is changed to The Association for Environment Conscious Building to reflect more accurately the diverse membership • The first issue of the AECB's Products and Services Directory is published Subscription rates introduced 1991: • The first issue of 'Building for a Future' in magazine format is produced 1992: • Greener Building products and services directory is launched by Professor Chris Baines 1993: • The first General Meeting, attended by 67 members, is held at the Earth Centre, next door to Winson Green Prison, Birmingham
  28. 28. Green Engineering27 • Professor Chris Baines becomes President; the first Steering Committee is appointed, chaired by Peter Warm 1994: • Andy Simmonds wins the design competition for the AECB's logo, 1995: • The Web site goes online • The second AGM is held at the Bishopswood Centre, Worcestershire • GreenPro is launched as a CD ROM - based product and services directory 1996: • The AECB Charter is adopted at the AGM held at the Pit Hill Community Centre, Bradford [the year before the Centre was destroyed by fire] • This year the two-day AGM format is adopted to include workshops, talks and a social event • The AECB contribute to the Greenpeace publication"Building the Future; a guide to building without PVC" 1997: • The fourth AGM is held at the Centre for Alternative Technology, Machynlleth • The first AECB Year Book / Directory of Members is published • Unit One, Dyfi Eco Parc is the first recipient of SPEC (Sustainable Projects Endorsement Certificate) • Keith and Sally Hall receive the 1997 Schumacher Award for their work in establishing the Association and for "working to transform society in the Schumacher tradition" 1998: • The AGM at Construction Resources, London attracts a record attendance of 100 members • The AECB join a body to advise on greening of the Heathrow Terminal 5 building • The Members' Directory is re-named 'The Real Green Building Book' 1999:
  29. 29. Green Engineering28 • AECB and RICS conference 'Sustaining our Heritage - the way forward for energy efficient historic buildings' is held in London • The sixth AGM takes place at the Earth Balance Centre, Northumberland • The Associations registers its own domain name"aecb.net" 2000: • Membership exceeds 1000 • The seventh AGM is held at The Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust, Slimbridge • Distribution of The Real Green Building Book tops 5000 copies • The association join SETCO, later to become The Phone Co-op 2001: • The Association collaborates with BRE on their web-based project"Sustainability - getting the SME's questions answered" • The Pestalozzi Children's Village trust near Hastings is chosen as the venue for this year's AGM 2002: • Work is put in hand to change the legal status of the Association to a Company Limited by Guarantee, replacing the steering committee with a board of trustees • The AGM is held at the National Botanic Garden, Wales, shortly before the Garden's closure is announced • The Real Green Building Book title is changed to The Green Building Bible by the publisher. 2003: • The tenth AGM is held at The Earth Centre, Doncaster • Green Building Press publishes Building for a Future and the Green Building Bible independently • The AECB Training Initiative is established 2004: • The eleventh AGM is held at The Weald and Downland Museum • The new website is launched
  30. 30. Green Engineering29 • The AECB Training Initiative is formalised as SussEd - Sustainable Skills and Education 2005: • The AECB's new legal status is finalised • The twelfth AGM is held at the Somerset College of Arts and Technology where the Genesis Project is under construction • The AECB's first Executive Officer is appointed as a paid post • The Association becomes a Company Limited by Guarantee and the steering committee members are appointed as directors 2006 • The AECB officially transferred to AECB Ltd. 4.8.2. Ten points about AECB Food • Create space to grow food. • Develop links with local food suppliers. Transport • Think carefully about your personal transport patterns. • If public transport links are not good, car share schemes or solar-powered electric vehicles could be a more effective way of reducing your personal CO2 burden than improved building performance. Water • Low water-use appliances should be used. • WC Less than 6 litres per flush • Shower No more than 9 litres per minute, preferably 6 • Washing machine 50 litres per wash or less • Dishwasher 16 litres per cycle or less • Restrict excessivedead legs' on hot water outlets to less than 5 meters.
  31. 31. Green Engineering30 4.8.3. Extra ten miles 1. Insulation This is the starting point. Think thickuse about 300 mm of insulation all round in the roof, walls and floor. Make sure the insulation material has a zero ozone depletion potential (ZODP) 2. Insulation Make sure the windows are not a weak link in the fabric insulation. Consider double or triple glazing with low emissivity coatings and gas filling. Avoid PVC frames. 3. Insulation Take care to eliminate thermal bridges in the insulation. This is particularly important at the junctions between walls, roofs and floors and around openings. Also bridging in the structure needs attention: timber studs, metal wall ties, blockwork returns can all reduce the effectiveness of the insulation. 4. Airtightness There is no point in having lots of insulation if air can leak through the structure. Take a strategic view of how air leakage is to be avoided. Design airtight details. Use a pressure test to ensure the strategy has been carried through on site. 5. Ventilation In an airtight construction it is important to supply air where it is needed when it is needed. Use a system that supplies and extracts air such as Passive Stack Ventilation (PSV), assisted PSV (both using humidity controlled inlet and exhaust grilles) or heat recovery ventilation (HRV). HRV is the most efficient but to be a net benefit the heat exchanger needs to be over 70% efficient and the fan power needs to be less than 2 W per litre/sec of extract air (you can do better than this). Also the unit and all the ductwork should be kept within the insulated / airtight shell. 6. Lighting Take great care to provide good daylight conditions in all habitable rooms. Use energy efficient lighting throughout. Usededicated' compact fluorescent lamps which cannot be swapped for inefficient tungsten lamps. 7. Electrical AppliancesConsider ways of eliminating the need for electrical appliances. Provide a clothes' drying space, provide a cold room for food storage. Use only A-rated appliances (or A++ for fridges and freezers). Look carefully at the stand-by losses of all appliances especially TVs, videos, computers, cookers. 8. Healthy living Choose appropriate paints and finishes (considernatural' ormineral' paints; otherwise low-VOCsynthetic'), coupled with a good ventilation system, to ensure a fresh environment. Use floorboards in preference to carpets. 9. Embodied energy Don't get too hung up on the energy used to produce the building materials. Usually it is not significant in terms of the energy used to run the building. But keep an eye on transport energy particularly when dealing with heavy materials such as masonry.
  32. 32. Green Engineering31 10. Renewables If the load reduction measures have been addressed, then it makes sense to consider renewable energy systems. Biomass (logs, wood chips, wood pellets) can be used for heating and hot water. A small wind turbine is likely to be more cost effective for providing electricity than photovoltaic (PV) panels. Solar panels can be used to provide about half the hot water needs. All the systems need good controls. 4.15. United States The United States Green Building Council (USGBC) has developed The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) green building rating system, which is the nationally accepted benchmark for the design, construction and operation of high performance green buildings. The Green Building Initiative is a non-profit network of building industry leaders working to mainstream building approaches that are environmentally progressive, but also practical and affordable for builders to implement. The GBI has developed a web- based rating tool called Green Globes, which is being upgraded in accordance with ANSI procedures. The United States Environmental Protection Agency's EnergyStar program rates commercial buildings for energy efficiency and provides EnergyStar qualifications for new homes that meet its standards for energy efficient building design. In 2005, Washington became the first state in the United States to enact green building legislation. According to the law, all major public agency facilities with a floor area exceeding 5,000 square feet (465 m²), including state funded school buildings, are required to meet or exceed LEED standards in construction or renovation. The projected benefits from this law are 20% annual savings in energy and water costs, 38% reduction in waste water production and 22% reduction in construction waste. Charlottesville, Virginia became one of the first small towns in the United States to enact green building legislation. This presents a significant shift in construction and architecture as LEED regulations have formerly been focused on commercial construction. If US homeowner interest grows in "green" residential construction, the companies involved in the production and manufacturing of LEED building materials will become likely candidates for tomorrow's round of private equity and IPO investing.
  33. 33. Green Engineering32 5.0. LEEDS The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Green Building Rating System, developed by the U.S. Green Building Council, provides a suite of standards for environmentally sustainable construction. Since its inception in 1998, LEED has grown to encompass over 14,000 projects in 50 US States and 30 countries covering 1.062 billion square feet (99 km²) of development area. The hallmark of LEED is that it is an open and transparent process where the technical criteria proposed by the LEED committees are publicly reviewed for approval by the more than 10,000 membership organizations that currently constitute the USGBC. Individuals recognized for their knowledge of the LEED rating system are permitted to use the LEED Accredited Professional (AP) acronym after their name, indicating they have passed the accreditation exam given by the USGBC. 5.1. LEED’s history LEED began its development in 1994 spearheaded by Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) senior scientist Robert K. Watson who, as founding chairman of the LEED Steering Committee until 2006, led a broad-based consensus process which included non- profit organizations, government agencies, architects, engineers, developers, builders, product manufacturers and other industry leaders. Early LEED committee members also included USGBC co-founder Mike Italiano, architects Bill Reed and Sandy Mendler, builder Gerard Heiber and engineer Richard Bourne. As interest in LEED grew, in 1996, engineers Tom Paladino and Lynn Barker co-chaired the newly formed LEED technical committee. From 1994 to 2006, LEED grew from one standard for new construction to a comprehensive system of six interrelated standards covering all aspects of the development and construction process. LEED also has grown from six volunteers on one committee to over 200 volunteers on nearly 20 committees and three dozen professional staff. 5.2. LEED’s objectives:  Define "green building" by establishing a common standard of measurement  Promote integrated, whole-building design practices  Recognize environmental leadership in the building industry  Stimulate green competition  Raise consumer awareness of green building benefits  Transform the building market
  34. 34. Green Engineering33 Green Building Council members, representing every sector of the building industry, developed and continue to refine LEED. 5.3. The Rating system The rating system addresses six major areas:  Sustainable sites  Water efficiency  Energy and atmosphere  Materials and resources  Indoor environmental quality  Innovation and design process 5.4. Benefits and Disadvantages The move towards LEED and green building practices has been driven greatly by the tremendous benefits which are a direct result of implementing a green approach. Green buildings use key resources more efficiently when compared to conventional buildings which are simply built to code. LEED creates healthier work and living environments, contributes to higher productivity and improved employee health and comfort. The USGBC has also compiled a long list of benefits of implementing a LEED strategy which ranges from improving air and water quality to reducing solid waste. The fundamental reduction in relative environmental impacts in addition to all of the economic and occupant benefits goes a long way for making a case for green building. It is also important to note that these benefits are reaped by anyone who comes into contact with the project which includes owners, designers, occupants and society as a whole. These benefits do not come without a cost however. Currently within the industry, green buildings cost more to both design and construct when compared to conventional buildings. These increased costs typically represent initial up front costs which are incurred at the start of the project. However, these initial costs increases are greatly overshadowed by the economic gains associated with constructing a LEED certified green building. These economic gains can take the form of anything from productivity gains to decreased life cycle operating costs. Studies have suggested that an initial up front investment of 2% will yield over ten times the initial investment over the life cycle of the building. From this perspective, there is no initial cost. In fact the initial cost is actually an investment. Although the deployment of the LEED Standard has raised awareness of Green Building practices, its scoring system is skewed toward the ongoing use of fossil fuels. More than half of the available points in the Standard support efficient use of fossil fuels, while only a handful are awarded for the use of sustainable energy sources. Further the USGBC has
  35. 35. Green Engineering34 stated support for the 2030 Challenge, an effort that has set a goal of efficient fossil fuel use by 2030. Despite it's broad acceptance, mounting scientific evidence suggests that a more aggressive program of sustainable energy deployment is required to protect the climate, than that promoted by the LEED Standard and the USGBC. 5.6. LEEDs GREEN Certification 5.6.1. What is LEED®? The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Green Building Rating System™ encourages and accelerates global adoption of sustainable green building and development practices through the creation and implementation of universally understood and accepted tools and performance criteria. LEED is the nationally accepted benchmark for the design, construction and operation of high performance green buildings. LEED gives building owners and operators the tools they need to have an immediate and measurable impact on their buildings’ performance. LEED promotes a whole-building approach to sustainability by recognizing performance in five key areas of human and environmental health: sustainable site development, water savings, energy efficiency, materials selection and indoor environmental quality. 5.6.2. Who Uses LEED? Architects, real estate professionals, facility managers, engineers, interior designers, landscape architects, construction managers, lenders and government officials all use LEED to help transform the built environment to sustainability. State and local governments across the country are adopting LEED for public-owned and public-funded buildings; there are LEED initiatives in federal agencies, including the Departments of Defense, Agriculture, Energy, and State; and LEED projects are in progress in 41 different countries, including Canada, Brazil, Mexico and India.
  36. 36. Green Engineering35 5.6.3. How is LEED Developed? LEED Rating Systems are developed through an open, consensus-based process led by LEED committees. Each volunteer committee is composed of a diverse group of practitioners and experts representing a cross-section of the building and construction industry. The key elements of USGBC's consensus process include a balanced and transparent committee structure, technical advisory groups that ensure scientific consistency and rigor, opportunities for stakeholder comment and review, member ballot of new rating systems, and a fair and open appeals process. 5.6.4. Project Check list Sustainable Sites Prerequisite 1 Erosion & Sedimentation Control Credit 1 Site Selection Credit 2 Urban Redevelopment Credit 3 Brownfield Redevelopment Credit 4 Alternative Transportation Credit 5 Reduced Site Disturbances Credit 6 Storm water Management Credit 7 Landscape & Exterior Design to Reduce Heat Islands Credit 8 Light Pollution Reduction Water Efficiency Credit 1 Water Efficient Landscaping Credit 2 Innovative Wastewater Technologies Credit 3 Water Use Reduction Energy & Atmosphere Prerequisite 1 Fundamental Building Systems Commissioning Prerequisite 2 Minimum Energy Performances Prerequisite 3 CFC Reductions in HVAC&R Equipment Credit 1 Optimize Energy Performance Credit 2 Renewable Energy Credit 3 Additional Commissioning Credit 4 Ozone Depletion Credit 5 Measurement & Verification Credit 6 Green Power Materials & Resource Prerequisite 1 Storage & Collection of Recyclables Credit 1 Building Reuse Credit 2 Construction Waste Management Credit 3 Resource Reuse Credit 4 Recycled Content Credit 5 Local/Regional Materials Credit 6 Rapidly Renewable Materials Credit 7 Certified Wood Indoor Environmental Quality Prerequisite 1 Minimum IAQ Performance Prerequisite 2 Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control Credit 1 Carbon Dioxide (CO2 ) Monitoring Credit 2 Increase Ventilation Effectiveness
  37. 37. Green Engineering36 Credit 3 Construction IAQ Management Plan Credit 4 Low-Emitting Materials Credit 5 Indoor Chemical & Pollutant Source Control Credit 6 Controllability of Systems Credit 7 Thermal Comfort Credit 8 Daylight & Views Innovation & Design Process Credit 1 Innovation in Design Credit 2 LEEDTM Accredited Professional 5.6.5. Project Certification Different LEED versions have varied scoring systems based on a set of required "prerequisites" and a variety of "credits" in the six major categories listed above. In LEED v2.2 for new construction and major renovations for commercial buildings there are 69 possible points and buildings can qualify for four levels of certification:  Certified - 26-32 points  Silver - 33-38 points  Gold - 39-51 points  Platinum - 52-69 points LEED certification is obtained after submitting an application documenting compliance with the requirements of the rating system as well as paying registration and certification fees. Certification is granted solely by the Green Building Council responsible for issuing the LEED system used on the project. Recently the application process for new construction certification has been streamlined electronically, via a set of active PDFs that automates the process of filing the documentation. LEED certification provides independent, third-party verification that a building project meets the highest green building and performance measures. All certified projects receive a LEED plaque, which is the nationally recognized symbol demonstrating that a building is environmentally responsible, profitable and a healthy place to live and work. There are both environmental and financial benefits to earning LEED certification. 5.7. LEED-certified buildings: • Lower operating costs and increased asset value. • Reduce waste sent to landfills. • Conserve energy and water.
  38. 38. Green Engineering37 • Healthier and safer for occupants. • Reduce harmful greenhouse gas emissions. • Qualify for tax rebates, zoning allowances and other incentives in hundreds of cities. • Demonstrate an owner's commitment to environmental stewardship and social responsibility. 5.8. LEED versions Different versions of the rating system are available for specific project types:  LEED for New Construction: New construction and major renovations (the most commonly applied-for LEED certification)  LEED for Existing Buildings: Existing buildings seeking LEED certification  LEED for Commercial Interiors: Commercial interior fitouts by tenants  LEED for Core and Shell: Core-and-shell projects (total building minus tenant fitouts)  LEED for Homes: Homes  LEED for Neighborhood Development: Neighborhood development  LEED for Schools: Recognizes the unique nature of the design and construction of K-12 schools  LEED for Retail: Consists of two rating systems. One is based on New Construction and Major Renovations version 2.2. The other track is based on LEED for Commercial Interiors version 2.0. LEED has evolved since its original inception in 1998 to more accurately represent and incorporate emerging green building technologies. LEED-NC 1.0 was a pilot version. These projects helped inform the USGBC of the requirements for such a rating system, and this knowledge was incorporated into LEED-NC 2.0. The present version of LEED for new construction is LEED-NC v2.2. LEED also forms the basis for other sustainability rating systems such as the Environmental Protection Agency's Labs21. 5.9. Eligibility Commercial buildings as defined by standard building codes are eligible for certification under the LEED for New Construction, LEED for Existing Buildings, LEED for Commercial Interiors, LEED for Retail, LEED for Schools and LEED for Core & Shell rating systems. Building types include – but are not limited to – offices, retail and service establishments, institutional buildings (e.g., libraries, schools, museums and religious institutions), hotels and residential buildings of four or more habitable stories.
  39. 39. Green Engineering38 If you are unsure whether your building project is a candidate for LEED certification, review the LEED Rating System Checklist that applies to your project to tally a potential point total. Your project is a viable candidate for certification if it meets all prerequisites and can achieve the minimum number of points necessary to earn the Certified level. 5.10. LEED Professional Accreditation The LEED Professional Accreditation program is now managed by the Green Building Certification Institute. LEED Professional Accreditation distinguishes building professionals with the knowledge and skills to successfully steward the LEED certification process. LEED Accredited Professionals (LEED APs) have demonstrated a thorough understanding of green building practices and principles and the LEED Rating System. More than 43,000 people have earned the credential since the Professional Accreditation program was launched in 2001. In 2008, administration of the Professional Accreditation program transitioned to the Green Building Certification Institute (GBCI). The Green Building Certification Institute, established with the support of the U.S. Green Building Council, handles exam development and delivery to allow for objective, balanced management of the credentialing Program. The Green Building Certification Institute (GBCI) is a newly incorporated entity established with the support of the U.S. Green Building Council to administer credentialing programs related to green building practice and standards. GBCI was created to develop and administer credentialing programs aimed at improving green building practice. GBCI will ensure that the LEED Accredited Professional (LEED AP) program will continue to be developed in accordance with best practices for credentialing programs. To underscore this commitment, GBCI will undergo the ANSI accreditation process for personnel certification agencies complying with ISO Standard 17024. GBCI, launched on 11/20/2007, was formed to allow for balanced, objective management of the LEED Professional Accreditation program, including exam development, registration and delivery. Those who attain the LEED AP credential have knowledge of the LEED Rating Systems that allows them to facilitate the integrated design process and streamline LEED certification for their projects.
  40. 40. Green Engineering39 6.0. Path to GREEN 6.1. Sustainable sites Building development is often destructive to local ecological systems from the onset of construction activity, through occupancy and beyond. LEED Sustainable Sites credits encourage best practice measures through strategies such as alternative transportation, effective site lighting design, development of high-density and Brownfield sites, and storm water management. Prerequisite 1: Erosion & Sedimentation Control. Control erosion to reduce negative impacts on water and air quality. Credit 1: Site Selection. Avoid development of inappropriate sites and reduce the environmental impact from the location of a building on a site. Credit 2: Development Density. Channel development to urban areas with existing infrastructure, protect green fields and preserve habitat and natural resources. Credit 3: Brownfield Redevelopment. Rehabilitate damaged sites where development is complicated by real or perceived environmental contamination, reducing pressure on undeveloped land. Credit 4: Alternative Transportation. Reduce pollution and land development impacts from automobile use. Credits are awarded for selecting a site near transit, providing bicycle storage, alternative fuel vehicles, alternative refueling stations, the minimum parking capacity necessary, and providing preferred parking for alternative fuel vehicles and carpool vehicles. Credit 5: Reduced Site Disturbance. Conserve existing natural areas and restore damaged areas to provide habitat and promote biodiversity. Credit 6: Storm water Management. Limit disruption and pollution of natural water flows by managing storm water runoff. Credits are awarded for limiting, reducing, or treating storm water runoff. Credit 7: Heat Island Effect. Reduce heat islands (thermal gradient differences between developed and undeveloped areas) to minimize impact on microclimate and human and wildlife habitat. Credits are awarded for roof and non-roof solutions related to landscape and exterior design. Credit 8: Light Pollution Reduction. Eliminate light trespass from the building and site, improve night sky access and reduce development impact on nocturnal environments.
  41. 41. Green Engineering40 6.2. Water efficiency Many water conservation strategies involve either no additional costs or rapid paybacks. LEED Water Efficiency credits describe these strategies. 6.2.1. Credit 1.1:Water Efficient Landscaping, Reduce by 50% The intent of this credit is to reduce potable water consumption for irrigation to minimize the demand on limited supplies and reduce water costs. Requirements for Certification: Reduce potable water consumption for irrigation by 50% over a theoretical baseline design for the specific region. Successful Strategies: Drought tolerant plants Drip irrigation, moisture-sensing irrigation technologies Recycled rainwater system Municipally-provided non-potable water source use Helpful Hints: 1. Look to similar existing building types or typical practices used by developers implementing water intensive landscaping to establish a reasonable baseline. 2. Campus applications may require revisions to campus standards to allow the native/adaptive plantings. Xeriscaping may not be applicable in all high-usage areas. 3. Some native plants may not be appropriate for facilities where allergies or compromised immune systems are of primary concern. 4. Non-potable water systems (untreated irrigation water) may be prone to problems with mineral deposits in irrigation piping and nozzles. 5. Over 400 water recycling plants are currently built or under construction throughout California . Projects should check with the local city water department for municipally provided non-potable water.
  42. 42. Green Engineering41 6.2.2. Credit 1.2: No Potable Water Use or No Irrigation The intent of this credit is to eliminate potable water consumption for site irrigation to minimize the demand on limited water supplies. Requirements for Certification: Option 1 - Use only captured rainwater, recycled wastewater, recycled gray water, or municipally provided gray water for irrigation. Option 2 – Do not use irrigation. Successful Strategies: Captured rainwater systems Recycled wastewater Municipally provided recycled gray water Indigenous plants Helpful Hints: 1. Research the potential health issues associated with using gray water for irrigation. Gray water may contain bacteria and other potential pathogens. Some plants are not suited well for gray water irrigation. 2. The USGBC does not consider hard-piped underground irrigation lines to be acceptable as a temporary irrigation system; however, hose connections and above ground drip systems can be used for up to one year to get plants established. 3. When designing a site, consider the addition of a detention pond or the use of an existing pond to provide a source of untreated, non-potable water for landscape irrigation. This credit may be complimentary to a detention pond used for storm water management. 4. Spray irrigation is not permitted for gray water irrigation due to possible health issues.
  43. 43. Green Engineering42 6.2.1. Credits 3.1 and 3.2: Water Use Reduction, 20% and 30% Reduction The intent of this credit is to choose water-conserving fixtures and/or incorporate rainwater or gray water systems to minimize the demand on potable water sources. • Requirements for Certification: Reduce potable water consumption by 20% or 30%. Successful Strategies: • Dual flush water closets • Ultra low-flow water closets and urinals • Waterless Urinals • Sensor-operated, Low-flow lavatories • Rainwater collection reuse systems • Gray water reuse systems • Helpful Hints: 1. The water use reduction percentage in addresses all flow and flush fixtures in the building (Exclude irrigation and building process loads such as dishwashers, lab sinks, washing machines, etc.). 2. Simple strategies include, but are not limited to, aerators, flow restrictors, low-flow showerheads, 0.5 gallon per flush urinals or low-flow water closets. More aggressive strategies may include pressure assisted water closets, waterless fixtures and dual flush water closets. 3. Complete water use calculation comparison between design and baseline case to determine water reduction and to revise design specifications to achieve desired water reduction. 6.3. LEED Energy and Atmosphere Buildings consume more than 2/3rds of all electricity produced in the United States annually. Improving the energy performance of buildings lowers operational costs, reduces pollution generated by power plants, and enhances comfort.
  44. 44. Green Engineering43 LEED Energy and Atmosphere credits encourage energy efficiency through improved glazing, better insulation, improved daylighting design / lighting power density reduction, high-efficiency HVAC&R equipment selection, renewable energy production, and building commissioning. EA Prerequisite 1 – Fundamental Commissioning of the Building Energy Systems The intent of this prerequisite is to ensure building's energy related systems are installed, calibrated and perform according to the owner's project requirements, basis of design, and construction documents. Requirements for Certification: Designate an individual as the Commissioning Authority (CxA) to lead, review and oversee the completion of the commissioning process activities. The Owner shall document the Owner's Project Requirements. The design team shall develop the Basis of Design. The CxA shall review these documents for clarity and completeness. The Owner and design team shall be responsible for updates to their respective documents. Develop and incorporate commissioning requirements into the construction documents. Develop and implement a commissioning plan. Verify the installation and performance of the systems to be commissioned. Complete a summary commissioning report. Successful Strategies: • Commissioning agent should coordinate and organize regularly scheduled meetings with the contractors and subcontractors on-site. • Incorporate the commissioning agent's milestones into the project schedule.
  45. 45. Green Engineering44 Helpful Hints: EA Prerequisite 2: Minimum Energy Performance The intent of this prerequisite is to establish the minimum level of energy efficiency for the proposed building and systems. Requirements for Certification: Design the building project to comply with both of the following: The mandatory provisions (Sections 5.4, 6.4, 7.4, 8.4, 9.4 and 10.4) of ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 (without amendments); and The prescriptive requirements (Sections 5.5, 6.5, 7.5 and 9.5) or performance requirements (Section 11) of ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 (without amendments). Note that the USGBC deems Title 24-2005 to be directly equivalent to ASHRAE 90.1-2004 for purposes of certification. California LEED-NC v2.2 projects do not need to provide justification or support of Title-24 2005 equivalence when applying for LEED-NC v2.2 certification, but doing so can satisfy the requirements. Successful Strategies: • Ensure this prerequisite early: Confirm with the Mechanical Engineer that the design will meet all ASHRAE/Title24 minimum and mandatory compliances for this credit. • The documentation for the Minimum Energy Performance Prerequisite can either be produced by the Mechanical Engineer (typically using prescriptive methods) or by the Energy Modeler who produces the documentation for EAc1 (based on performance calculations). Helpful Hints: 1. If the Mechanical Engineer's standard practice does not meet or exceed this prerequisite, he or she may not be the right engineer for a LEED job. 2. The 2005 Federal Energy Bill contains revisions to energy codes and incentives to exceeding energy codes. Refer to the energy bill and resulting policies that may impact your building. 3. This credit has synergy and cost savings with measurement and verification activities in credit EAc5, so be aware of both credits when scoping and bidding this work.
  46. 46. Green Engineering45 EA Prerequisite 3: Fundamental Refrigerant Management The intent of this prerequisite is to reduce ozone depletion by reducing or eliminating the use of Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Requirements for Certification: Do not use CFC-based refrigerants in new base building HVAC&R systems. For existing base building HVAC equipment, complete a CFC “phase-out” prior to project completion. Successful Strategies: • Replace CFC-based refrigerant. • Consider non-refrigerant based cooling such as evaporative cooling in dryer climates. Helpful Hints: 1. This credit has relevance to EAc4, Ozone Protection, so be aware of both when specifying HVAC equipment.
  47. 47. Green Engineering46 EA Credit 1: Optimize Energy Performance The intent of this credit is to improve energy performance above the baseline (EAp2) by employing energy efficient strategies and equipment selections. Requirements for Certification: Option 1 – Whole Building Energy Simulation (1-10 points). Demonstrate a percentage improvement over the baseline building performance rating per ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 or Title24-2005 by using the Building Performance Rating Method in Appendix G of the Standard. Option 2 – Prescriptive Compliance Path (office buildings under 20,000 SF, 4 points). Comply with the prescriptive measures of the ASHRAE Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Office Buildings 2004. Option 3 – Prescriptive Compliance Path (1 point). Comply with the Basic Criteria and Prescriptive Measures of the Advanced Buildings Benchmark Version 1.1. Successful Strategies: • Reduce demand • Harvest free energy • Increase efficiency • Recover waste energy
  48. 48. Green Engineering47 Helpful Hints: 1. EAc1 example documentation is available on the USGBC website. It is best to follow the USGBC format precisely and not use custom tables or graphs. 2. Separate guidelines (e.g. LEED for Labs) are being developed specifically to address perceived shortcomings in the current energy performance evaluation system. In general, it is best to work with an energy modeler who is versed in LEED Energy Cost Budget requirements to best estimate the percentage of energy cost savings that will be approved by the USGBC for a given project or building type. 3. To maximize the points in this credit, consider renewable energy-based HVAC systems or systems that use waste heat recovery. 4. Consider incorporating energy performance contracting as a way of financing additional energy efficiency in new buildings. 5. The 2005 Federal Energy Bill offers tax incentives of $1.80 per square foot for new commercial buildings designed to exceed the ASHRAE 90.1 standard by 50 percent or more. 6. Check with local utility for demand-side, energy efficiency, and market transformation programs, such as Savings by Design. EA Credit 2: On-Site Renewable Energy The intent of this credit is to decrease dependence on fossil fuel energy use by employing on-site renewable energy self-supply systems. Requirements for Certification: Implement on-site renewable energy systems such that 2.5% (1 pt.), 7.5% (2 pts.), or 12.5% (3 pts.) of the total annual energy costs are generated by on-site renewable energy systems. Successful Strategies: • Contact local utilities or electric service providers to determine if net metering is available. • Consider photovoltaic, solar thermal, geothermal, wind, biomass, and bio-gas energy technologies.
  49. 49. Green Engineering48 Helpful Hints: 1. The installation of renewable energy generation systems (wind, PV, biomass etc.) may be incorporated into an education and outreach program for an Innovation and Design point (IDc1). 2. This credit has synergies with EAc1 energy saving calculations. In a certain sense, renewable energy generation is rewarded twice by the LEED rating system. 3. Passive solar design, day lighting strategies, and ground-source heat pumps are not eligible for EAc2. 4. Project teams should pursue the many energy incentives and rebates offered by California for renewable energy generation systems. 5. Consider use of on-site distributed energy such as fuel cells and waste heat recovery. 6. Useful references: www.energy.ca.gov/distgen/index.html www.energy.ca.gov/renewables/index.html www.consumerenergycenter.org/erprebate/index.html
  50. 50. Green Engineering49 EA Credit 3: Enhanced Commissioning The intent of this credit is to begin the commissioning process early during the design process and execute additional activities after systems performance verification is completed. Requirements for Certification: Prior to the start of the construction documents phase, designate an independent Commissioning Authority (CxA) to lead, review, and oversee the completion of all commissioning process activities. The CxA shall conduct, at a minimum, one commissioning design review of the Owner's Project Requirements (OPR), Basis of Design (BOD), and design documents prior to mid-construction documents phase and back-check the review comments in the subsequent design submission. The CxA shall review contractor submittals applicable to systems being commissioned for compliance with the OPR and BOD. This review shall be concurrent with A/E reviews and submitted to the design team and the Owner. Develop a systems manual that provides future operating staff the information needed to understand and optimally operate the commissioned systems. Verify that the requirements for training operating personnel and building occupants are completed. Assure the involvement by the CxA in reviewing building operation within 10 months after substantial completion with O&M staff and occupants. Include a plan for resolution of outstanding commissioning-related issues. Successful Strategies: • Commissioning agent should coordinate and organize regularly scheduled meetings with the contractors and subcontractors on-site. • Incorporate the commissioning agent's milestones into the project schedule.
  51. 51. Green Engineering50 Helpful Hints: 1. The commissioning MUST be contracted prior to 50% CDs. 2. Some requirements for this credit occur just prior to substantial completion. Note that LEED requires that documentation is “readily available” prior to submittal. 3. When a Commissioning Authority reviews key submittals for compliance with the specifications and design intent, the whole project team benefits by getting an extra set of eyes to look at the details of equipment and control integration at a very early phase of the project. These reviews can help to integrate the equipment suppliers and control vendors prior to equipment being ordered, which facilitates on-site integration and keeps "head- scratching" to a minimum. 4. Project teams should be aware of the credit synergies with EAp1 when scoping and bidding this credit. 5. Check for more favorable terms of professional liability insurance. 6. Consider including an ongoing training component to strengthen the training beyond the commissioning prerequisite. This should be integrated in the IAQ Management Plan. 7. Include an IAQ Management Plan as part of the Facility Maintenance and Commissioning Plans.
  52. 52. Green Engineering51 EA Credit 4: Enhanced Refrigerant Management The intent of this credit is reducing ozone depletion and support early compliance with the Montreal Protocol while minimizing direct contributions to global warming. Requirements for Certification: Option 1 – Do not use refrigerants. Option 2 – Select refrigerants and HVAC&R that minimize or eliminate the emission of compounds that contribute to ozone depletion and global warming. The base building HVAC&R equipment shall comply with the formula provided for this credit, which sets a maximum threshold for the combined contributions to ozone depletion and global warming potential. AND – Do not install fire suppression systems that contain ozone-depleting substances (CFCs, HCFCs or Halons). Successful Strategies: • Complete the Template calculations early in design if considering more than one refrigerant. • Consider non-refrigerant based cooling such as evaporative cooling in dry climates. Helpful Hints: 1. Small HVAC units that are used to cool equipment support rooms, such as computer, telephone and data rooms, are not considered part of the base building system and are not subject to the requirements of this credit. 2. Evaporative cooling is a solution for dry climates that eliminates the need for refrigeration equipment.

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