Construction safety lecture-3


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Construction safety lecture-3

  1. 1. CONSTRUCTION SAFETY AND HEALTH King Saud University Engineering College Civil Engineering Department Presented by Dr. Khalid Al-Dafer
  3. 3. LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES General The health and safety responsibilities of all parties on a construction project are specified in the current Occupational Health and Safety Act and Regulations (OSHA) for Construction Projects. Responsibilities are prescribed in particular for constructor, employer, supervisor, and worker. Each party has specific responsibilities to fulfill on a construction project.
  4. 4. LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES Constructor • Appoint a supervisor if 5 or more workers are on the project at the same time. Ensure that the project is supervised at all times. • A project that lasts more than 3 months and has 20 or more workers must have a Joint Health and Safety Committee. • If a Joint Health and Safety Committee is not required and there are more than 5 workers, the workers must select a Health and Safety Representative.
  5. 5. LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES Constructor • Develop written emergency procedures, make sure your employees know what they are, and post them on site. • Ensure ready access to a telephone, two-way radio, or other system in the event of an emergency. • Ensure all workers on site are at least 16 years of age.
  6. 6. LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES Employer • Appoint a supervisor if 5 or more of the employer’s workers are on the project at the same time. Ensure that they are supervised at all times. • Provide workers with training as required by law (e.g., fall protection systems, WHMIS, etc.).
  7. 7. LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES Employer • Ensure workers are qualified to do work which must be done only by qualified workers (e.g., electricians, pipe fitters, etc.). • Develop written procedures for rescuing a worker whose fall has been arrested (a worker hanging by a harness).
  8. 8. LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES In all cases of injury, the EMPLOYER must do the following. 1. Make sure that first aid is given immediately, as required by law. 2. Record the first aid treatment or advice given to the worker. 3. Provide immediate transportation to a hospital or a physician's office, if necessary.
  9. 9. LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES In all cases of injury, the EMPLOYER must do the following. 4. Submit to the Workplace Safety and Insurance Board, within three days of learning of an accident. 5. Pay full wages and benefits for the day or shift on which the injury occurred when compensation is payable for loss of earnings. 6. Notify the Ministry of Labour, health and safety representative and/or committee, and union as required by legislation.
  10. 10. LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES Supervisor use the methods, procedures, and equipment required by the OSHA and Regulations for Construction Projects. use or wear the equipment or clothing that the employer requires
  11. 11. LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES Supervisor • tell workers about actual or potential dangers • give workers written instructions when required • take every precaution reasonable to protect workers.
  12. 12. LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES Worker • Select worker representatives for the Joint Health and Safety Committee. • Tell your supervisor or employer about equipment problems or other hazards that could hurt you or other workers. • You have the right to refuse work that you believe endangers your health or safety — or the health or safety of others.
  13. 13. LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES Worker • Follow your employer’s instructions to use or wear equipment, protective devices, or clothing. • Never engage in horseplay on site (pranks, competitions, showing off your strength, roughhousing, or unnecessary running).
  14. 14. LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES In all cases of injury, the WORKER must do the following. 1. Promptly obtain first aid. 2. Notify the employer, foreman, supervisor, and worker safety representative immediately of an injury requiring health care.
  15. 15. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES TAKE COMMAND Assign duties to specific personnel. PROVIDE PROTECTION Protect the accident scene from continuing or further hazards - for instance, traffic, operating machinery, fire or live wires.
  16. 16. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES GIVE FIRST AID Give first aid to the injured as soon as possible. CALL AN AMBULANCE Call an ambulance and any other emergency services required.
  17. 17. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES GUIDE THE AMBULANCE Meet and direct the ambulance to the accident scene. GET NAME OF HOSPITAL For follow-up, find out where the injured is being taken.
  18. 18. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES ADVISE MANAGEMENT Inform senior management. They can then contact relatives, notify authorities, and start procedures for reporting and investigating the accident. ISOLATE THE ACCIDENT SCENE Barricade, rope off or post a guard at the scene to make sure that nothing is moved or changed until authorities have completed their investigation.
  19. 19. Tools and Techniques HAND TOOLS Injuries with hand tools are not often serious but they do involve lost time. Common causes include: using the wrong tool, using the right tool improperly, haste, and lack of training or experience.
  20. 20. Tools and Techniques POWER TOOLS — DRILLS Safety Basics: • Make sure that electric tools are properly grounded or double-insulated. • Never remove or tamper with safety devices. • Study the manufacturer's instructions before operating any new or unfamiliar electric tool. • Before making adjustments or changing attachments, always disconnect the tool from the power source.
  21. 21. Tools and Techniques POWER TOOLS — DRILLS Safety Basics: • When operating electric tools, always wear eye protection. • When operating tools in confined spaces or for prolonged periods, wear hearing protection. • Make sure that the tool is held firmly and the material properly secured before turning on the tool.
  22. 22. Tools and Techniques POWER TOOLS — SAWS Basic Saw Safety: • Wear protective clothing and equipment. Eye protection is essential. • Where saws are used in confined spaces or for prolonged periods, wear hearing protection. • Where ventilation is inadequate, wear a dust mask for protection against dust. Over time, exposure to dust from particle board and other materials may cause respiratory problems.
  23. 23. Tools and Techniques POWER TOOLS — SAWS Basic Saw Safety: • With electric saws operated outdoors or in wet locations, you must use a ground fault circuit interrupter. • Never wear loose clothing, neck chains, scarves, or anything else that can get caught in the saw. • Leave safety devices in place and intact on the saw. Never remove, modify, or defeat guards. Keep your free hand away from blade.
  24. 24. Tools and Techniques POWER TOOLS — AIR Air-powered tools include jackhammers, chipping hammers, drills, grinders, ... etc. Safety Basics: • Run combustion engines outside to prevent the build- up of carbon monoxide gas. • Occasionally workers suffer eye injuries when compressed air is used to blow out formwork. Wear safety goggles and respiratory protection.
  25. 25. Tools and Techniques POWER TOOLS — AIR Safety Basics: • Always secure hose connections with wire or safety clips to prevent the hose from whipping except when automatic cut-off couplers are used. • Make sure hoses are clear of traffic and pose no tripping hazards. • Replace worn-out absorption pads and springs. • Some tools have a high decibel rating – for instance, jack hammers and impact drills. To prevent hearing loss, always wear hearing protection.
  26. 26. Tools and Techniques POWER TOOLS — AIR Safety Basics: • Never tamper with safety devices. • Never use air to blow dust or dirt out of work clothes. Compressed air can enter the skin and bloodstream with deadly results. • Turn off the pressure to hoses when the system is not in use. • Turn off the air pressure when changing pneumatic tools or attachments.
  27. 27. Tools and Techniques WELDING AND CUTTING Safety Basics: • Obtain a hot work permit through the safety officer if required. • Keep welding area free of flammable and explosive material. • Provide fire barriers such as metal sheets or fire blankets and fill cracks or crevices in floors to prevent sparks and slag from passing through.
  28. 28. Tools and Techniques WELDING AND CUTTING Safety Basics: • Provide fire extinguishers suitable for potential types of fire. Know where the extinguishers are and how to use them. • Provide a firewatch where necessary — a worker to watch for fires as the welder works and for at least thirty minutes afterward. The person must be fully trained in the location of fire alarms and the use of fire- fighting equipment. Some situations may require more than one firewatch.
  29. 29. ACCIDENTS IMPACT Examples 1. Time lost from work by injured employee. 2. Lost time by fellow employees. 3. Loss of efficiency due to break-up of crew. 4. Lost time by supervisor. 5. Training costs for new/replacement workers. 6. Damage to tools and equipment. 7. Time damaged equipment is out of service.
  30. 30. ACCIDENTS IMPACT Examples 8. Loss of production for remainder of the day. 9. Damage from accident: fire, water, chemical, explosives, etc. 10. Failure to fill orders/meet deadlines. 11. Overhead costs while work was disrupted. 12. Other miscellaneous costs 13. Others?
  31. 31. CASE STUDY MILLER PARK STADIUM July 1999 crane collapse caused the deaths of 3 construction workers.
  32. 32. CASE STUDY ACCEDENT RESULTS - Delayed the opening for One Year - 100 Million in repairs. - Three construction workers killed, several others injured - On Dec. 1, 2000, a Milwaukee County jury awarded $94 million in punitive damages and $5.25 million in compensatory damages to the families of three ironworkers killed in the accident. Although the families have been paid $27 million for their loss, the issue of the large punitive damage award is under appeal.