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By the end of today you should know•What is data•How does it arise•What forms data can take•Why we code data•Why we encode data•Why data is processed•What is information•What affects the quality of information
What is data?Data is raw facts and figures and has no apparent meaning
How does data arise?Data can arise in many ways: •You buy something whilst shopping. The transaction generates data that might include date, time, store, till, staff, product etc. •You conduct an experiment and record data such as time, pH, temperature etc. •You are undertaking research and carry out a questionnaire or a survey. •A sensor collects readings from an automatic weather station
Direct v Indirect data To confuse matters data can be collected directly or indirectly. Direct data is where data is collected for and used for a given purpose. Indirect data is where data is collected for one purpose and then used for something completely differentA credit card company collects data about your spending in order to bill you each month.A secondary use of this data is to build up a “profile” of your spending habits. This data can then be used to send you direct marketing about goods and services that may appeal to you. Direct Use Customer of Data Billing Credit Card Transaction Indirect Use Direct of Data Marketing
What types of data are there?Data occurs in many types. •text e.g. a, b, c, d, e ... •numeric e.g. 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5... •alphanumeric (text and numbers) •a still image e.g. A static image taken by a digital camera or scanned in •a moving image e.g. motion captured by a camera or phone •sound e.g. The recording of an instrument or voice NOTE – this is the type of data NOT the form in which it is stored
Why do we code data?Data is coded before it gets anywhere near a computer system.This is carried out for a number of reasons