What are Vitamins?• It is an organic compound, required in small amounts by an organism to obtain cellular functions.• It is called vitamin, when it can not be synthesized in sufficient quantities by the organism, and must therefore be supplied by the diet.
History of Vitamins• In ancient Egypt: Feeding of patients with liver to prevent night blindness (now known as vitamin A deficiency)• In 1749, the prevention of scurvy by citrus foods, was first discovered by the Scottish surgeon James Lind.• In the Orient: Beriberi was common (a disease caused by the deficiency of Vitamin B1), because of polished white rice.
The discovery of Vitamins and their sourcesYear of discovery Vitamin Source1909 Vitamin A (Retinol) Cod liver oil (a fish)1912 Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) Rice bran1912 Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Lemons1918 Vitamin D (Calciferol) Cod liver oil1920 Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) Eggs1922 Vitamin E (Tocopherol) Wheat germ oil1926 Vitamin B12 (Siano Cobalamin) Liver1929 Vitamin K (Phylloquinone) Luzerne1931 Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) Liver1931 Vitamin B7 (Biotin) Liver1934 Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Rice bran1936 Vitamin B3 (Niacin) Liver1941 Vitamin B9 (Folic acid) Liver
In Humans: How do these Vitamins dissolve?• Vitamins are classified as either:1) water- soluble (can dissolve in water solutions) – these are readily excreted from the body. There are 9 water soluble vitamins.2) fat-soluble (can dissolve in lipid solutions)- these are absorbed through the intestinal tract with the help of lipids (fat)- There are 4 types of fat soluble vitamins.
Vitamin Chemical Solubility Rec. Diet. Deficiency Upper OverdoseName name Allowances diseases Intake level diseaseVitamin A Retinol, Fat 900µg Night blindness 3000µg Hyper carotenoids keratomalacia vitaminosis AVitamin B1 Thiamine Water 1.2 mg Beriberi N/DVitamin B2 Riboflavin Water 1.3 mg Ariboflavinosis N/DVitamin B3 Niacin, Water 16 mg Pellagra 35.0mg Liver damage niacinamideVitamin B5 Pantothenic Water 5 mg Paresthesia N/D acidVitamin B6 Pyridoxine, Water 1.3-1.7 mg Anemia 100 mg Nerve damage pyridoxamineVitamin B7 Biotin Water 30µg Dermatitis, N/D enteritisVitamin B9 Folic acid, Water 400µg Birth defects 1,000µg Proprioception folinic acid , nerve damageVitamin B12 Cyanocobalami Water 2.4µg Megaloblastic N/D ne anemiaVitamin C Ascorbic acid Water 90 mg Scurvy 2,000 mgVitamin D Ergocalciferol, Fat 5µg-10µg Rickets, 50µg Hypervitaminoi Cholecalciferol osteomalacia sDVitamin E Tocopherols, Fat 15 mg Hemolytic 1,000 mg Possible heart tocotrienols anemia problemsVitamin K Phylloquinone, Fat 120µg Bleeding N/D Increased menaquinones diathesis coagulation
Vitamins as supplement• Many researchers have claimed that vitamin supplementation do not only provide no real health benefits, but could also be the source of increased mortality.• In some cases, dietary supplementation could have unwanted effects, especially with other dietary supplements and medicines.
No wonder that an apple a day keeps the doctor away! Thank you!