THE EFFECTS OF VIOLENCE ON TV
PREPARED BY :
SALSABILA BINTI SAMSUDIN
NURUL SYAKIRIN BINTI BADRUL EZAN
QURAISYAH BINTI ZULKIFLI
SEYED AMIR HOSSEIN HOSSEINI
ASSOC.PROF.DR. SITI ZOBIDAH OMAR
In 1884, Paul Gottlieb Nipkow was developed a rotating-disc technology to transmit pictures
over wire.( Nipkow disk)
Using a Nipkov disk, Scottish inventor John Logie Baird succeeded in demonstrating the
transmission of moving silhouette images in London in 1925, and of moving, monochromatic
images in 1926.
Charles Jenkins invented a mechanical television system called radiovision and claimed to have
transmitted the earliest moving silhouette images on June 14, 1923.
German scientist, Karl Braun invented the cathode ray tube oscilloscope (CRT) in 1897.
Russian inventor, Vladimir Zworykin invented an improved cathode-ray tube called the
kinescope in 1929. The kinescope tube was sorely needed for television. Zworykin was one of
the first to demonstrate a television system with all the features of modern picture tubes.
In 1927, Philo Farnsworth was the first inventor to transmit a television image comprised of 60
In 1948, Louis Parker invented the modern changeable television receiver.
Cable television, formerly known as Community Antenna Television or CATV, was born in the
mountains of Pennsylvania in the late 1940's.
A successful color television system began commercial broadcasting, first authorized by the FCC
on December 17, 1953 based on a system invented by RCA.
The first TV remote control called "Lazy Bones," was developed in 1950 by Zenith Electronics
The very first prototype for a plasma display monitor was invented in 1964 by Donald Bitzer,
Gene Slottow, and Robert Willson.
TV closed captions are captions that are hidden in the television video signal, invisible without a
Web TV was rolled out in 1996.
Paul Gottlieb Nipkow
John Logie Baird
Remote control “lazy bones”
Plasma Display Monitor
Launched on 28 December
1963 by Tunku Abdul
First channel RTM1 program
in Bahasa Melayu language.
Second channel RTM 2 in
vernacular languages. Tv
stations are owned by
After a few years later, private telecasting was
established which are TV3, 8TV, ntv7 , TV9 and being
administed by Media Prima Berhad.
MEDIA PRIMA TELECASTING LAUNCHED DATE
1 June 1984
8 January 2004
7 April 1998
22 April 2006
• 57% of TV program contain violence
• Children programming contains 5 times more
violence than prime time television.
• 25% of violent acts involve handguns
• Children’s TV shows contain about 20 violent
acts each hour
How is Media Violence Portrayed?
• Clean – lack of blood, minimal suffering, invincible
• Frequently rewarded or unpunished.
• Clear boundaries between good guy/bad guy.
• Aggressors are portrayed as attractive.
• Conveys violence is justified.
• Humor may be used.
• Pleasurable – “Make My Day”.
How does TV violence mislead children?
• Violence is often rewarded and seldom
has negative consequences.
• - 73% of perpetrators on TV are unpunished
(National Television Violence Study, 1992)
• - Heroes are rarely unpunished
• - no bleeding, no one gets hurt
• - people killed just disappear
• Violence is everywhere.
• “mean world syndrome” (Gurbner),
• violence or abuse is everywhere
• there is no good in this world
• Violence is justified.
• violence by “good guys” is justified and heroic
• a particular character gets beaten up because
he is a “bad guy”
• Violence is funny.
• much cartoon violence used as comic effect
• it’s ok and no big deal for somebody to be
smacked in the head with a hammer
Four effects of media violence (by Ronald Slaby)
• an aggressor effect
• encourages violent behavior
• accepting violence as a way to solve problem
• a victim effect
• increasing fearfulness
• perceives “culture of meanness”
• a bystander effect
• leads to callousness
• accepting violence as normal
• dulls the emotion response to violence and its victim
• an appetite effect
• builds a desire to watch more violence
Over 4,000 studies have examined the
correlation of television violence and violent
behavior in children.
These studies make a compelling case for a
• Albert Bandura’s social learning theory
– Emphasized the importance of rewards and punishments
• 2 groups of children watched 2 different videos
– Video 1: The leading characters acted aggressively and received
rewards for his actions
– Video 2: The leading characters acted aggressively and received
punishment for his actions
– The children played in the room and their actions were monitored
• 2 findings:
– Children who saw aggressive behavior rewarded were more likely to
imitate the aggression
– The effects emerged most strongly for boys (predisposition to behave
Studied men’s lifetime rate of TV violence in
young men between 12 and 17
Interviewed for acts of violence
The more violent TV watched in higher the
relationship to serious crime, rape, assaults,
• BUT there is no way to tell which came first –
the TV viewing or the aggressive behavior?
• making us numb to violence in real life so that
we don’t react to it as we should if we had
never seen it on the screen
Don’t require complex plots or characters
Rely on fights, killings, special effects and
explosions to hold their audiences
They’re simple and universally understood
”Short-on-dialogue, high-on-testosterone" makes
their dubbing or translation relatively inexpensive
Effects of Violence in Movies
Some violent movies may result in:
- Increased Aggression
- Increased Crime
- Influence and Effect
- Create Hostile Feelings
TV-Y All Children: Designed for young audience, including children ages 2-6.
TV-Y7: For age 7 and up. More appropriate for children with skills to distinguish between
make-believe and reality. May include mild fantasy or comedic violence, or may frighten
children under the age of 7.
TV-Y7-FV Fantasy Violence: May be more intense or combative.
TV-G General Audience: Usually appropriate for all ages. Contains little or no violence, no
strong language, and little or no sexual dialogue or situations.
TV-PG Parental Guidance Suggested: May be unsuitable for younger children. Contains
moderate violence (V), some sexual situations (S), infrequent coarse language (L),
and/or suggestive dialogue (D).
TV-14 Parents Strongly Cautioned: Recommended children under 14 not watch
unattended. Contains intense violence (V), intense sexual situations (S), strong coarse
language (L), and/or intensely suggestive dialogue (D).
TV-MA Mature Audience Only: Designed for adults and may be unsuitable for children
under 17. Contains graphic violence (V), explicit sexual activity (S), and/or crude
indecent language (L).
Not All Entertainment Media is Negative
There is strong evidence that children’s shows
developed to teach academic and social skills
can help children learn effectively.
Be Media Literate
• Be a wise consumer.
• Watch programs and play video games with the child, and
discuss what is seen.
• Monitor and limit access to violent programs and games.
Explain why they are harmful.
• Select programs and games that promote problem solving,
cooperation and learning.
Be Media Literate
Be cautious of heavily advertised products and toys
linked with violent programs.
• Contact TV stations/producers to express opinions,
when offended and when pleased.
• Help educate others in the community.
• To offset peer pressure, contact other parents &
agree to enforce similar rules.
Help children understand…
• Real life violence hurts people.
• Real weapons hurt or kill people.
• If a show is scary or confusing, they can talk to
an adult about it.
• Violent toys, shows, & games may seem
exciting in “pretend”, but real–life violence is
• We have looked into the possible impacts of violent contents
in different forms of media on people, be it TV, Music,
Movies, Games, etc.
• Each affects people differently in different degrees, and
different individuals react to it differently as well
• It seems that it may really affect people in certain ways, but
cases discussed are still pretty much the minority, or
• There has got to be a better way in explaining violent
behaviors in people, perhaps it is time to look away from the
media and re-assess the whole thing with a fresh point of