The Effects of Violence on Tv


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The Effects of Violence on Tv

  2. 2. In 1884, Paul Gottlieb Nipkow was developed a rotating-disc technology to transmit pictures over wire.( Nipkow disk) Using a Nipkov disk, Scottish inventor John Logie Baird succeeded in demonstrating the transmission of moving silhouette images in London in 1925, and of moving, monochromatic images in 1926. Charles Jenkins invented a mechanical television system called radiovision and claimed to have transmitted the earliest moving silhouette images on June 14, 1923. German scientist, Karl Braun invented the cathode ray tube oscilloscope (CRT) in 1897. Russian inventor, Vladimir Zworykin invented an improved cathode-ray tube called the kinescope in 1929. The kinescope tube was sorely needed for television. Zworykin was one of the first to demonstrate a television system with all the features of modern picture tubes. In 1927, Philo Farnsworth was the first inventor to transmit a television image comprised of 60 horizontal lines.
  3. 3. In 1948, Louis Parker invented the modern changeable television receiver. Cable television, formerly known as Community Antenna Television or CATV, was born in the mountains of Pennsylvania in the late 1940's. A successful color television system began commercial broadcasting, first authorized by the FCC on December 17, 1953 based on a system invented by RCA. The first TV remote control called "Lazy Bones," was developed in 1950 by Zenith Electronics Corporation The very first prototype for a plasma display monitor was invented in 1964 by Donald Bitzer, Gene Slottow, and Robert Willson. TV closed captions are captions that are hidden in the television video signal, invisible without a special decoder. Web TV was rolled out in 1996.
  4. 4. Paul Gottlieb Nipkow John Logie Baird Philo Farnsworth Remote control “lazy bones” Color Television Plasma Display Monitor
  5. 5. Launched on 28 December 1963 by Tunku Abdul Rahman First channel RTM1 program in Bahasa Melayu language. Second channel RTM 2 in vernacular languages. Tv stations are owned by Government agemcies. After a few years later, private telecasting was established which are TV3, 8TV, ntv7 , TV9 and being administed by Media Prima Berhad.
  6. 6. MEDIA PRIMA TELECASTING LAUNCHED DATE NETWORK LAUNCH DATE TV3 1 June 1984 8TV 8 January 2004 ntv7 7 April 1998 TV9 22 April 2006
  7. 7. VIOLENT CONTENT • 57% of TV program contain violence • Children programming contains 5 times more violence than prime time television. • 25% of violent acts involve handguns • Children’s TV shows contain about 20 violent acts each hour
  8. 8. How is Media Violence Portrayed? • Clean – lack of blood, minimal suffering, invincible cartoon characters. • Frequently rewarded or unpunished. • Clear boundaries between good guy/bad guy. • Aggressors are portrayed as attractive. • Conveys violence is justified. • Humor may be used. • Pleasurable – “Make My Day”. 9
  9. 9. How does TV violence mislead children? • Violence is often rewarded and seldom has negative consequences. • - 73% of perpetrators on TV are unpunished (National Television Violence Study, 1992) • - Heroes are rarely unpunished • - no bleeding, no one gets hurt • - people killed just disappear
  10. 10. • Violence is everywhere. • “mean world syndrome” (Gurbner), • violence or abuse is everywhere • there is no good in this world • Violence is justified. • violence by “good guys” is justified and heroic • a particular character gets beaten up because he is a “bad guy” • Violence is funny. • much cartoon violence used as comic effect • it’s ok and no big deal for somebody to be smacked in the head with a hammer
  11. 11. Four effects of media violence (by Ronald Slaby) • an aggressor effect • encourages violent behavior • accepting violence as a way to solve problem • a victim effect • increasing fearfulness • perceives “culture of meanness” • a bystander effect • leads to callousness • accepting violence as normal • dulls the emotion response to violence and its victim • an appetite effect • builds a desire to watch more violence
  12. 12. Research Over 4,000 studies have examined the correlation of television violence and violent behavior in children. These studies make a compelling case for a significant impact. 13
  13. 13. Research Studies • Albert Bandura’s social learning theory – Emphasized the importance of rewards and punishments • 2 groups of children watched 2 different videos – Video 1: The leading characters acted aggressively and received rewards for his actions – Video 2: The leading characters acted aggressively and received punishment for his actions – The children played in the room and their actions were monitored • 2 findings: – Children who saw aggressive behavior rewarded were more likely to imitate the aggression – The effects emerged most strongly for boys (predisposition to behave more aggressively)
  14. 14. Belson Study Studied men’s lifetime rate of TV violence in young men between 12 and 17 Interviewed for acts of violence The more violent TV watched in higher the relationship to serious crime, rape, assaults, animal abuse
  15. 15. Research Studies • BUT there is no way to tell which came first – the TV viewing or the aggressive behavior?
  16. 16. Desensitization • making us numb to violence in real life so that we don’t react to it as we should if we had never seen it on the screen
  17. 17. Action Sells… Action Movies;  Don’t require complex plots or characters  Rely on fights, killings, special effects and explosions to hold their audiences  They’re simple and universally understood  ”Short-on-dialogue, high-on-testosterone" makes their dubbing or translation relatively inexpensive
  18. 18. Effects of Violence in Movies Some violent movies may result in: - Increased Aggression - Increased Crime - Influence and Effect Cognition - Create Hostile Feelings
  19. 19. TV Ratings TV-Y All Children: Designed for young audience, including children ages 2-6. TV-Y7: For age 7 and up. More appropriate for children with skills to distinguish between make-believe and reality. May include mild fantasy or comedic violence, or may frighten children under the age of 7. TV-Y7-FV Fantasy Violence: May be more intense or combative. TV-G General Audience: Usually appropriate for all ages. Contains little or no violence, no strong language, and little or no sexual dialogue or situations. TV-PG Parental Guidance Suggested: May be unsuitable for younger children. Contains moderate violence (V), some sexual situations (S), infrequent coarse language (L), and/or suggestive dialogue (D). TV-14 Parents Strongly Cautioned: Recommended children under 14 not watch unattended. Contains intense violence (V), intense sexual situations (S), strong coarse language (L), and/or intensely suggestive dialogue (D). TV-MA Mature Audience Only: Designed for adults and may be unsuitable for children under 17. Contains graphic violence (V), explicit sexual activity (S), and/or crude indecent language (L). 20
  20. 20. Not All Entertainment Media is Negative There is strong evidence that children’s shows developed to teach academic and social skills can help children learn effectively. 21
  21. 21. Be Media Literate • Be a wise consumer. • Watch programs and play video games with the child, and discuss what is seen. • Monitor and limit access to violent programs and games. Explain why they are harmful. • Select programs and games that promote problem solving, cooperation and learning. 22
  22. 22. Be Media Literate Be cautious of heavily advertised products and toys linked with violent programs. • Contact TV stations/producers to express opinions, when offended and when pleased. • Help educate others in the community. • To offset peer pressure, contact other parents & agree to enforce similar rules. 23
  23. 23. Help children understand… • Real life violence hurts people. • Real weapons hurt or kill people. • If a show is scary or confusing, they can talk to an adult about it. • Violent toys, shows, & games may seem exciting in “pretend”, but real–life violence is not fun. 24
  24. 24. CONCLUSION • We have looked into the possible impacts of violent contents in different forms of media on people, be it TV, Music, Movies, Games, etc. • Each affects people differently in different degrees, and different individuals react to it differently as well • It seems that it may really affect people in certain ways, but cases discussed are still pretty much the minority, or idiosyncratic • There has got to be a better way in explaining violent behaviors in people, perhaps it is time to look away from the media and re-assess the whole thing with a fresh point of view
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