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Visual merchandising at big bazaar

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  • Can u please send this project to my mail id... prajithvram@gmail.com... please its urgent for me.....
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  • 1. Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />A Project Report on <br />VISUAL MERCHANDISING IN THE RETAIL SECTOR <br />(A Case Study of Best Practices and Effective Strategies of <br />Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar, Bangalore) <br />A Dissertation submitted in partial requirements for the award of MBA <br />Degree of Bangalore University<br />By <br />DILIPA S NAIK <br />Reg No: 07XQCM6021 <br />MBA Fourth Semester <br />(2007-2009 Batch) <br />M.P.Birla Institute of Management <br />Bangalore-560001 <br />Under the Guidance and Supervision of <br />Dr K V Prabhakar <br />Senior Professor <br />Page 1<br />M.P.Birla Institute of Management, Bangalore Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 2<br />DECLARATION<br />I hereby declare that this dissertation entitled “Visual Merchandising in Retail <br />Sector (Big Bazaar, Bangalore)” is the result of my own research work carried out<br />under the guidance and supervision of Dr. K V Prabhakar, Senior Professor, M P <br />Birla Institute of Management, Bangalore. I also declare that this dissertation has not <br />been submitted earlier to any Institute/University/Institution for the award of any <br />degree or diploma or similar title.<br />Place: Bangalore <br />Date: (Dilipa S Naik) Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 3<br />PRINCIPAL’S CERTIFICATE<br />This is to certify that this dissertation entitled “Visual Merchandising in Retail <br />Sector (Big Bazaar, Bangalore)” is the result of research work carried out by <br />Mr. DILIPA S NAIK under the guidance and supervision of Dr. K V Prabhakar, <br />Senior Professor, M.P. Birla Institute of Management, Bangalore<br />Place: Bangalore <br /> Date: (Dr. Nagesh S. Malavalli) <br /> Principal <br /> Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 4<br />GUIDE’S CERTIFICATE <br />I hereby state that the dissertation entitled “Visual Merchandising in Retail Sector <br />(Big Bazaar, Bangalore)” is the result of research investigation carried Out by Mr. <br />DILIPA S NAIK under my guidance and supervision.<br />Place: Bangalore (Dr. K V Prabhakar) <br />Date: Senior ProfessorVisual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 5<br />ACKNOWLEDGEMENT <br />I express my gratitude to Dr. Nagesh S. Malavalli, (Principal, M. P. Birla Institute of <br />Management) for providing me with the academic support. <br />I extend my sincere thanks to Dr. K V Prabhakar, Senior Professor, M.P.Birla <br />Institute of Management, Bangalore for guiding me effectively<br /> <br /> Dilipa S Naik Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 6<br />TABLE OF CONTENTS <br />Contents<br />EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ................................................................................................... 9 <br />CHAPTER 1- INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................... 10 <br />CHAPTER 2 - INDUSTRY PROFILE ................................................................................. 13 <br />CHAPTER 3 - VISUAL MERCHANDISING .................................................................... 27 <br />CHAPTER 4 - COMPANY PROFILE .............................................................................. 38 <br />PART A- THEORITICAL SETTING................................................................................ 42 <br />CHAPTER 5 - Significance of Research .................................................................... 43 <br />CHAPTER 6 - Literature Review.................................................................................. 44 <br />Chapter 7 – Research Gap ....................................................................................... 46 <br />CHAPTER 8- Problem Statement and Research Objective.................................. 47 <br />CHAPTER 9 - Hypothesis.............................................................................................. 48 <br />CHAPTER 10 - Research Methodology .................................................................... 49 <br />CHAPTER 11 - RESEARCH LIMITATIONS ..................................................................... 50 <br />PART B - SURVEY FINDINGS ..................................................................................... 51 <br />CHAPTER 12 - Data Analysis & Inference ................................................................ 52 <br />CHAPTER 13 - Hypothesis Testing .............................................................................. 82 <br />CHAPTER 14 - Major Findings of Research .............................................................. 84 <br />PART C - RECOMMENDATIONS............................................................................... 86 <br />CHAPTER 15 - Recommendations ............................................................................ 86 <br />CHAPTER 16 - Conclusion........................................................................................... 92 <br />Annexure ...................................................................................................................... 93 <br />SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................................ 94 Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 7<br />QUESTIONNAIRE ........................................................................................................... 96 <br />EXPALANATION TO RESEARCH INSTRUMENT USED................................................ 100 <br />Directions for further Research................................................................................ 101 <br />List of Tables <br />Table 1 – frequency of visit ........................................................................................ 52 <br />Table 2 – opinion on store display ............................................................................ 55 <br />Table 3 – opinion of ambience of store .................................................................. 57 <br />Table 4 – opinion of store design.............................................................................. 59 <br />Table 5 – opinion of color & lighting ........................................................................ 61 <br />Table 6 – opinion of props & decorative items ...................................................... 63 <br />Table 7- opinion on fixtures & hardware ................................................................. 65 <br />Table 8 – opinion of signs in the store ...................................................................... 67 <br />Table 9 – opinion on convenience in reaching for items in rack ....................... 69 <br />Table 10- opinion about soft drinks, biscuits for casual customer....................... 72 <br />Table 11- opinion on whether window display should be changed weekly.... 74 <br />Table 12- opinion on space between aisles........................................................... 76 <br />Table 13 – opinion on seasonal & high margin merchandise locations............ 78 <br />Table 14 – opinion on overall professionalism of the store................................... 80 <br />Table 15 - Hypothesis Testing..................................................................................... 83 Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 8<br />List of Charts<br />Figure 1 Retail Sales in India....................................................................................... 16 <br />Figure 2- Projected Retail in India............................................................................. 17 <br />Figure 3 - demographics............................................................................................ 19 <br />Figure 4 - Frequency of visit to Big Bazaar .............................................................. 53 <br />Figure 5 - opinion of store dispaly............................................................................. 55 <br />Figure 6 - opinion of ambience of Big Bazaar........................................................ 57 <br />Figure 7 - opinion of store display............................................................................. 59 <br />Figure 8 - opinion of color & lighting........................................................................ 61 <br />Figure 9 - opinion of props & decorative items...................................................... 63 <br />Figure 10 - opinion of fixtures & hardware .............................................................. 65 <br />Figure 11 - opinion of signs at Big Bazaar ................................................................ 68 <br />Figure 12 - opinion on convenience in reaching for items in the rack .............. 70 <br />Figure 13 – opinion on chocolates, biscuits located at exit doors for casual <br />customers ..................................................................................................................... 72 <br />Figure 14 - opinion on window display .................................................................... 74 <br />Figure 15 - opinion on space between the aisles.................................................. 76 <br />Figure 16 - opinion on seasonal & high margin merchandise............................. 78 <br />Figure 17 - opinion on overall professionalism of the store .................................. 81 Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 9<br />EXECUTIVE SUMMARY<br />“Visual Merchandising is everything the customer sees, both exterior and <br />interior, that creates a positive image of the business and results in attention, interest, <br />desire and action on part of the customer” <br />There is a growing recognition of the need for an effective Visual <br />Merchandising. But even as it continues to grow, the understanding of Visual <br />Merchandising impact and effectiveness is still in its infancy. <br /> The project deals with components of Visual Merchandising and its influence <br />on customer purchasing decision. The study is conducted at Big Bazaar, Bangalore. <br />The study is based on how the visual merchandising components such as Color and <br />Lighting, Props and Decorative items, Fixtures and Hardware, Store Design and <br />Display and overall ambience of the store plays a crucial role in influencing the <br />purchase decision making of the customer. <br />The methodology followed is questionnaire method with a total sample size of <br />100 respondents. The data is tabulated and graphically represented through, Piecharts, Bar graph. Based on the response obtained through questionnaire major <br />research findings are presented and suitable recommendations are made in order to <br />improve the customer shopping experience at Big Bazaar. Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 10<br />The ambience of the store is a very important element in Visual <br />Merchandising as it influences consumers in purchase decision. . A customer is highly <br />influenced by the look and feel of the store Visual merchandising when used <br />effectively is no doubt a powerful tool to entice customers in making a purchase <br />decision.. Visual merchandising will lead to impulse purchase of the product. <br />CHAPTER 1‐ INTRODUCTION<br />RETAILING Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 11<br />RETAILING <br />Retailing consists of those business activities involved in the sales of goods <br />and services to consumers for their personal, family or household use. The field of <br />retailing is both fascinating and complex. It has enormous impact on the economy, in <br />distribution, and its relationship with companies that see goods and services to <br />retailers for their resale or use. Retailing is the final stage in the distribution process, it <br />does not necessary have to include a .retailer, Manufacturers, importers, non-profit <br />firms, and wholesalers, and other organization are also considered as retailers when <br />they sell goods and/or services to final consumers. Competition in the retailing scene <br />has intensified manifold for the past few decades, generally as a consequence of new <br />technologies, more sophisticated management practices and industry consolidation. <br />These trends have been especially pronounced in the food industry. <br />There has been a significant amount of studies that examine the issues of retail <br />channel management and retail marketing strategies to tackle the fierce competition in <br />existing retail channels in food industry. As in all other industries, the ultimate <br />decider of the eventual success of an alternative retail channel is the CONSUMER. <br />Consumers refer to individuals who buy products and services for themselves <br />or on behalf on their households. They are invariably either users of these products or Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 12<br />services or responsible for the welfare and well being of those who are. Since <br />consumers are extremely crucial for retailers, an understanding of consumer behavior <br />is an essential prerequisite of successful retail marketing strategy and one of the most <br />fundamental principles of in exerting influence on consumer patronage decision <br />process. Without customer focus, marketing planning can easily be dominated by the <br />actions of competitors or internal influences. The success of a retailer depends on how <br />well he/she selects, identifies and understands his customers. <br />The feasibility of new retail channels is also highly dependent on retailers. <br />Ability to select the type of consumer segments to reach (mass markets, market <br />segment, or multiple segments), to identify the characteristics and needs of the <br />specific target market and understanding how consumers make decisions. According <br />to Peter McGoldrick, the most successful examples of innovation and evolution in <br />retail formats are retailers that respond accurately and profitably to previously <br />unsatisfied needs. <br />TYPES OF RETAIL OUTLETS <br />The emergence of new sectors has been accompanied by changes in existing <br />formats as well as the beginning of new formats: <br />• Hyper marts, typically 8,000 sq.ft and more <br />• Large supermarkets, typically 3,500-5,000 sq. ft. <br />• Mini supermarkets, typically 1,000-2,000 sq. ft. <br />• Convenience stores, typically 750-1,000sq. ft. <br />• Discount/shopping list grocery Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 13<br />CHAPTER 2 ‐ INDUSTRY PROFILE<br />INDIAN RETAIL SCENARIO Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 14<br />RETAIL INDUSTRY IN INDIA <br />The retail sector in India is witnessing a huge revamping exercise as <br />traditional markets make way for new formats such as departmental stores, <br />hypermarkets, supermarkets and specialty stores. Western-style malls have begun <br />appearing in metros and second-rung cities alike introducing the Indian consumer to a <br />shopping experience like never before. The sector is at an inflexion point where the <br />growth of organised retailing and growth in the consumption by the Indian population <br />is going to take a higher growth trajectory. The Indian population is witnessing a <br />significant change in its demographics. Organised retail is on all time high in India. <br />The growth is boosted by various factors such as availability of professional practices, <br />media proliferation, various brands which are gaining value thereby enhancing <br />industry growth, availability of various funding options, regulations like VAT <br />implementation to make processes simple, sea change in demographics of country and <br />international exposure. <br />The Indian retail market, which is the fifth largest retail destination globally, <br />was ranked second after Vietnam as the most attractive emerging market for Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 15<br />investment in the retail sector by AT Kearney's seventh annual Global Retail <br />Development Index (GRDI), in 2008. The share of retail trade in the country's gross <br />domestic product (GDP) was between 8–10 per cent in 2007. It is currently around 12 <br />per cent, and is likely to reach 22 per cent by 2010. <br />In a joint study recently conducted by ASSOCHAM and KPMG, the following <br />findings were revealed: <br />• The total retail market size in India in 2008 was estimated at US$ 353 billion. <br />• The annual growth of the retail market in India is expected to be around 8 per <br />cent. <br />• The total retail market size in India is likely to touch US$ 416 billion by 2010. <br />• The present share of organised retail sector is estimated at 7 per cent. <br />• The estimated annual growth of organised retail sector is 40 per cent. <br />• The size of organised retail sector by 2010 is estimated to reach US$ 51 <br />billion. <br />• The estimated share of organized retail in total retail by 2010 is 12 per cent. <br />• The investment into modern retailing formats over the coming 4-5 years is <br />expected to be around US$ 25-30 billion. <br />Retail Sales in India Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Figure 1 Retail Sales in India<br />Page 16<br />Projected Retail in India Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Figure 2- Projected Retail in India <br />Page 17Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 18<br />Advantage India <br /> Against the backdrop of an accelerating modern retail revolution, India offers <br />to be an attractive destination for global corporations and leading retailers seeking <br />emerging markets overseas. India presents a significant market, with its young <br />population just beginning to embrace significant lifestyle changes. <br />Rapid Economic Growth <br />The fast and furious pace of growth of the Indian economy is the driving force <br />for Indian consumerism; with the Indian consumers confident about their earnings and <br />are spending a large portion of their high disposable incomes. <br />Projections by analysts suggest that India has the potential to be labelled the <br />fastest-growing economy and outpace the developed economies by 2050. Analysts <br />predict India to sustain an average GDP growth rate of 5 per cent till the mid of this <br />century, with India projected to outpace the other developed economy markets by <br />2050. <br />The average annual growth rate for 1994-2004 was pegged at 6.1 per cent, <br />second only to China. The more recent growth rates of over 9 per cent posted for <br />India, promise a continued robust growth story. Private consumption accounted for 62 <br />per cent of India’s GDP in 2004-05, comparable to most of the leading economies <br />around the world. <br />The Young India <br />Against the backdrop of an ageing world, India possesses the advantage of <br />having a largely young population. 35 per cent of India’s population is under 14 years <br />of age and more than 60 per cent of the population is estimated to constitute the <br />working age group (15-60) till 2050. Two-thirds of Indian population is under 35, <br />with the median age of 23 years, as opposed to the world median age of 33. India is <br />home to 20 per cent of the global population under 25 years of age. Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />This trend is projected to continue for the next decade, with the share set to <br />reach its maximum in 2010. The large proportion of the working-age population <br />translates to a lucrative consumer base vis-à-vis other economies of the world, placing <br />India on the radar as one of the most promising retail destinations of the world. <br />Figure 3 - demographics <br />Page 19Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 20<br />Potential untapped market <br />India ranks first, ahead of Russia, in terms of emerging market potential and is <br />deemed a “Priority 1” market for international retail. Organised retail penetration is <br />on the rise and offers an attractive proposition for entry of new players as well as <br />scope for expansion for existing players. <br />India is home to a large base of consumers with annual incomes ranging from <br />US$ 1,000 – US$ 4,700, comprising of over 75 million households. A steadily rising <br />percentage of rich and super rich population and impressive disposable incomes offers <br />a spectrum of opportunities, spanning from rural retailing to luxury retailing. The <br />impressive retail space availability and growing trend of consumerism in the <br />emerging cities and small towns add to the market attractiveness. <br />Abundant availability of skilled Labour <br />India has a vast resource base of talent and skilled labour. Over 37,000,000 <br />students were enrolled in about 150,000 pre-college institutes and over 11,700,000 in <br />14,000 higher education institutions in 2005-06. With English being the language for <br />business in India, the language skills of the Indian workforce score higher than that of <br />emerging economies. Retail Management is a sought after education stream amongst <br />students, with over 15 premier institutes offering specialised courses in Retail <br />Management. <br />The great Indian consumer market is still going strong. The ETIG analysis <br />carried out by the Economic Times revealed that most mass consumer goods and <br />service in India were not much affected by the global economic slowdown. Despite <br />the inflation experienced during the period, the second-quarter results of leading 70 <br />consumer-related firms revealed that their aggregate revenues increased by 8.5 per <br />cent during the September 2008 quarter over the same period in 2007. Even though <br />this was a tad lower than the 9 per cent growth posted during the first quarter of 2008-Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 21<br />09, it was a lot higher than the 7 per cent registered during the previous three quarters <br />for these firms. <br />Despite the global economic slowdown, Indian retailers are still optimistic <br />about the India growth story. “The Indian economy is more stable than other <br />economies across the world and one must not confuse India with the rest of the <br />world”. With the 30-40 per cent drop in retail rentals, Indian retailers are a happy lot. <br />In fact, retailers are also foreseeing further drops in rentals in 2009 and they are <br />optimistic about their expansion plans for this year. <br />India has one of the largest number of retail outlets in the world. A report by <br />Images Retail estimates the number of operational malls to grow more than two-fold, <br />to cross 412, with 205 million square feet by 2010, and a further 715 malls to be <br />added by 2015, with major retail developments even in tier-II and tier-III cities in <br />India. <br />Even as the organised retail market is starting to take off, there is an associated <br />surge in branded discount outlets in India. Top realtors and local retail chains are <br />developing malls in regional boroughs, specifically to sell premium branded goods. <br />Government Initiatives <br />The government has taken various measures to promote and encourage <br />investment in the Indian retail industry. <br />The Government allows 100 per cent FDI in cash and carry through the <br />automatic route and 51 per cent in single brands. Besides, the franchise route is <br />available for big operators. To further attract global retailers, the economic survey <br />2007–08 has suggested a share for foreign equity in all retail trade and 100 per cent in <br />respect of luxury brands and other specialised retail chains. Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 22<br />However, many industry experts feel that the Indian tariff structure has to be <br />streamlined as India levies one of the highest duties and taxes on imported luxury <br />goods. This fuels the growth of the grey market and duty-free purchases, even as the <br />stringent regulatory environment encumbers investment by foreign brands. <br />Organizational characteristics <br />Given the traditional and underdeveloped state of the Indian retail sector, the <br />organizational characteristics of retail enterprises are rudimentary. Most of them <br />belong to independent enterprises in the form of small family businesses. <br />Cooperatives have been present in India for several decades, spurred by the <br />encouragement given by the Indian Government, which viewed the cooperative <br />movement as an integral component of its erstwhile socialist policies. However, since <br />the 1990s, there has been a reduction in government support for cooperatives. In <br />2002, there were about 35,000 outlets run by cooperatives. <br />Economic liberalization, competition and foreign investment since the 1990s <br />led to a proliferation of brands with both foreign and Indian companies acquiring <br />strong brand equity for their products. Hence, franchising emerged as a popular mode <br />of retailing. Sales of franchises grew at a rapid pace of 14% per annum over the <br />review period. <br />India represents an economic opportunity on a massive scale, both as a global <br />base and as a domestic market. Regulatory controls on foreign direct investment <br />(FDI) have relaxed considerably in recent years. However, while retailing currently <br />remains closed to FDI, this is an area of ongoing debate. This means that foreign <br />retailers and consumer goods manufacturers can only participate in the retail market <br />through indirect access strategies, such as wholesaling, franchising or licensing, or by <br />having a manufacturing base in India, or in businesses upstream of retailing. <br />However, the Indian government has indicated in 2005 that liberalization of direct <br />investment in retailing is under active consideration. Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 23<br />Price controls have been progressively liberalized since 1992, but a small <br />number of items remain fully controlled. There are also extensive controls on <br />packaging, labelling and certification. <br />Estimates of the size of the retail sector vary, with recent calculations putting <br />the annual value of Indian retailing anywhere between US$180 billion and US$292 <br />billion in 2003. The retail sector is largely made up of what is known in India as the <br />unorganized sector. This sector consists of small family-owned stores, located in <br />residential areas, with a shop floor of less than 500 square feet. At present the <br />organized sector (everything other than these small family-owned businesses) <br />accounts for only 2 to 4 percent of the total market although this is expected to rise by <br />20 to 25 percent by 2010. <br />Many of the companies surveyed believe that the potential size of this market <br />is underestimated. They consider that there are considerable opportunities for <br />organized retailers in the kind of rural territories that many companies have failed to <br />address. A critical issue is how fast and how far the consuming class will grow. This <br />depends both on the growth of personal disposable income and the extent to which <br />organized retailers succeed in reaching lower down the income scale to reach <br />potential consumers towards the bottom of the consumer pyramid. <br />Companies expect retail growth in the coming five years to be stronger than <br />GDP growth, driven by changing lifestyles and by strong income growth, which in <br />turn will be supported by favourable demographic patterns. The structure of retailing <br />will also develop rapidly. <br />Shopping malls are becoming increasingly common in large cities, and <br />announced development plans project at least 150 new shopping malls by 2008. The <br />number of department stores is growing much faster than overall retail, at an annual <br />24 percent. Supermarkets have been taking an increasing share of general food and <br />grocery trade over the last two decades. Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 24<br />Consumer credit will also grow, assisted by the likely fall in retail lending <br />rates and more efficient and consumer-friendly lending practices. Distribution <br />continues to improve, but it still remains a major inefficiency. <br />Poor quality of infrastructure, coupled with poor quality of the distribution <br />sector, results in logistics costs that are very high as a proportion of GDP, and <br />inventories which have to be maintained at an unusually high level. Marketing and <br />advertising are of increasing interest and concern to consumer companies. Indian <br />consumers are becoming increasingly sophisticated and knowledgeable about <br />products; media channels that allow companies to communicate with consumers are <br />growing in diversity and reach. Foreign brands remain very powerful in India, <br />especially in clothing and personal care products, but increasingly brands have to be <br />associated with value. Advertising is becoming a bigger part of the marketing mix. <br />Companies are concerned about identifying consumer insights and the profusion of <br />media channels. <br />Food and beverage offer the greatest organized retail growth opportunities, say <br />companies. The main growth opportunity in the segment is in processed foods: rapid <br />growth in the processed food segment is already apparent, changing lifestyles and <br />food habits are resulting in the rapid expansion of branded food outlet and café <br />chains. Gemstones and jewellery represent the most significant specialist segment of <br />Indian retailing. Organized jewellery retailers are increasingly offering brand <br />solutions to the demand for quality and value, as consumers move away from <br />traditional retail settings reliant on family retailers. <br />All companies agree that Indian consumer markets are changing fast, with <br />rapid growth in disposable incomes, the development of modern urban lifestyles, and <br />the emergence of the kind of trend-conscious consumers that India has not seen in the <br />past. <br />Companies expect that the next cycle of change in Indian consumer markets <br />will be the arrival of foreign players in consumer retailing. The very fact that Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 25<br />politicians have left the issue open leads us to think the restrictions are going to be <br />reviewed. And if retailing is liberalized, say companies, growth will be boosted, but <br />so will competition. Indian companies know Indian markets better, but foreign players <br />will come in and challenge the locals by sheer cash power, the power to drive down <br />prices. <br />Retail Formats in India <br />Malls <br />The largest form of organized retailing today, Located mainly in metro cities, <br />in proximity to urban outskirts Ranges from 60,000 sq ft to 7,00,000 sq ft and above. <br />They lend an ideal shopping experience with an amalgamation of product, service and <br />entertainment, all under a common roof. Examples include Shoppers Stop, Piramyd, a <br />Pantaloon, Big Bazaar, Reliance, Specialty stores. Chains such as the Bangalore based <br />Kids Kemp, the Mumbai books retailer Crossword, RPG's Music World and the <br />Times Group's music chain Planet M, are focusing on specific market segments and <br />have established themselves strongly in their sectors. <br />Discount Stores <br />As the name suggests, discount stores or factory outlets, offer discounts on the <br />MRP through selling in bulk reaching economies of scale or excess stock left over at <br />the season. The product category can range from a variety of perishable/ nonperishable goods. <br />Department Stores <br />Large stores ranging from 20000-50000 sq. ft, catering to a variety of <br />consumer needs. Further, classified into localized departments such as clothing, toys, <br />home, groceries, etc. Departmental Stores are expected to take over the apparel Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 26<br />business from exclusive brand showrooms. Among these, the biggest success is K <br />Raheja's Shoppers Stop, which started in Mumbai and now has more than seven large <br />stores (over 30,000 sq. ft) across India and even has its own in store brand for clothes <br />called Stop. <br />Hyper Marts/ Super Markets <br />Large self-service outlets, catering to varied shopper needs are termed as <br />Supermarkets. These are located in or near residential high streets. These stores today <br />contribute to 30% of all food & grocery organized retail sales. <br />Super Markets can further be classified in to mini supermarkets typically 1,000 sq ft <br />to 2,000 sq ft and large supermarkets ranging from of 3,500 sq ft to 5,000 sq ft. <br />having a strong focus on food & grocery and personal sales. <br />Convenience Stores <br />These are relatively small stores 400-2,000 sq. feet located near residential <br />areas. They stock a limited range of high-turnover convenience products and are <br />usually open for extended periods during the day, seven days a week. Prices are <br />slightly higher due to the convenience premium. <br />MBO’S <br />Multi Brand outlets, also known as Category Killers, offer several brands <br />across a single product category. These usually do well in busy market places and <br />Metros. Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 27<br />CHAPTER 3 ‐ VISUAL MERCHANDISINGVisual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 28<br />VISUAL MERCHANDISING <br />“Visual Merchandising is everything the customer sees, both exterior and <br />interior, that creates a positive image of the business and results in attention, interest, <br />desire and action on part of the customer” <br />A successful retailing business requires that a distinct and consistent image be <br />created in the customer’s mind that permeates all product and service offerings. <br />Visual Merchandising can help create that positive customer image that leads to <br />successful sales. It not only communicates the store’s image, but also reinforces the <br />stores advertising efforts and encourages impulse buying by the customer. <br />Visual merchandising is a major factor often over looked in the success or <br />failure of a retail store. It is second only to effective customer relations. A story can <br />be told that communicates to the prospective customer what the store is all about. It <br />includes the dramatic presentation of merchandise as well as other important subtle <br />features that create the store’s overall atmosphere. Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 29<br />Eighty percent of our impressions are created by sight; that is why one picture <br />is worth a thousand words. Each customer has a mental image of a store and its <br />merchandise. A store should have an inviting appearance that makes the customer feel <br />comfortable and yet eager to buy. <br />Some businesses maintain a minimum staff to reduce costs, which means it is <br />even more important for the merchandise to sell itself. Greater effort must be spent on <br />merchandise displays that make it easier for the customer to find and purchase the <br />items they want or need. <br />The basic objective for visual merchandising is a desire to attract customers to <br />place of business in order to sell the merchandise. Visual merchandising is offered to <br />the customer through exterior and interior presentation. Each should be coordinated <br />with the other using the store’s overall theme. <br />Visual Merchandising Evolution<br />Every shopkeeper and merchant's primary objective is to sell merchandise. <br />When the giant nineteenth century dry goods establishments like Marshall Field & <br />Co. shifted their business from wholesale to retail the visual display of goods became <br />necessary to attract the retail customer. The store windows no longer simply allowed <br />natural light to shine in the building or act as storage space for stock; they became <br />important venues to attractively display the store's merchandise. Gradually, the design <br />aesthetic used in window displays moved indoors and became part of the overall <br />interior store design, eventually displacing the importance windows altogether in <br />suburban malls. <br />The Victorian era made window displays popular and the Great Exhibition of <br />1851 in London established the prominence of display over the items while <br />commercializing the practice. In due course visual merchandising became an <br />inalienable part of the fashion and retail industry. Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 30<br />As far as the term Visual Merchandising is concerned, it became widespread <br />only in 1970 even though it was coined during the 1940s. From the late 1800s till the <br />1920s, visual merchandisers were known as window trimmers. By the late 1920s, the <br />window trimmers were referred to as display men, just as advertising industry called <br />its people ad men. The industry is evolving and entering new domains, Visual <br />Merchandising is increasingly perceived as a part of the overall brand communication <br />process. <br />COMPONENTS OF VISUAL MERCHANDISING <br />STORE IMAGE <br />Image can be described as the overall look of a store and the series of mental <br />pictures and feelings it evokes within the beholder. For the retailer, developing a <br />powerful image provides the opportunity to embody a single message, stand out from <br />the competition and be remembered. <br />As a rule, image is the foundation of all retailing efforts. While store layout, <br />presentation, signing, displays and events can all change to reflect newness and <br />excitement from week to week, season to season, they must always remain true to the <br />underlying store image. The following elements combine to form a distinctive image <br />that not only reaches out and grabs the customer's attention, but also makes a positive Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 31<br />impression within those precious few seconds. Image forms the solid foundation for <br />the remaining components of Maximizing Store Impact <br />STORE DESIGN <br />Store design plays a crucial role in branding: it reflects and reinforces the <br />corporate image. The sights, sounds, smells and other any other aspect should <br />therefore reflect what the retailer brand is about and what its attributes are. <br />Different types of store design are: <br />• Grid: It contains long gondolas (a free standing block of shelves used to <br />display goods in a supermarket) of merchandise and aisles in repetitive <br />pattern. <br />• Racetrack: also known as loop. It provides a major aisle to facilitate customer <br />traffic that has access to the stores multiple entrances. <br />• Free Form: also known as boutique; arranges fixtures and aisles <br />asymmetrically. <br />Visual merchandising creates a connection between the company’s image and <br />the look of the store. <br />EXTERIOR DESIGN <br />STORE NAME <br />An effective store name sets the tone and provides a store's identification by <br />conjuring up an image in the customer's mind. An effective name is consistent with <br />both the product mix and the store atmosphere. <br />VISUAL TRADEMARK <br />An identifiable trademark adds a visual image to the memory recall of a store <br />name, by combining words and pictures, colour, shape, typeface, texture and/or style <br />to make it stand out. Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 32<br />STOREFRONT <br />Storefront is also an important element, which adds to the store image like the <br />exterior architecture, signing and window displays. <br />EXTERIOR ARCHITECTURE <br />A store's exterior look is often referred to as the architecture, and comprises <br />aspects such as building materials, architectural style and detail, colours and textures. <br />These elements give a lasting first impression to the consumer. It is important that the <br />exterior look and feel right to the shopper. <br />STORE SIGN <br />The store sign is a vital element of the storefront and also an important <br />component of Visual Merchandising it helps in identifying the store In realizing the <br />value of a strong storefront sign, many retailers are employing new design techniques <br />which include projecting or cantilevering the store sign beyond the lease line, adding <br />motion, or using three-dimensional lettering and unique lighting applications to add <br />depth to the sign. <br />WINDOWS DISPLAY AND FLOORING <br />A store's exterior windows or glass storefront provide an additional <br />opportunity to reach out and grab the passing customer. Windows are integral in <br />creating a positive impression since they offer an opportunity to begin telling the <br />store's unique merchandise story. The flooring and the number of floors a retail outlet <br />has, also make an important impact on the consumers. <br />INTERIOR DESIGN ELEMENTS Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 33<br />The elements of interior design can be used to create an image that matches the <br />desired customer profile. <br />FIXTURES <br />A major consideration in developing an appropriate store design involves the <br />use of fixtures. They are used to display merchandise, to help sell, to guard it and to <br />provide a storage space for it. They should be attractive and focus customers. <br />Attention and interest on the merchandise. <br />DISPLAYS <br />Displays play an important role in a retail store. An attractive and informative <br />display can help sell goods. There are several principles that help ensure this <br />effectiveness. They are achieving balance, provide dominant point, create eye <br />movement etc. <br />MERCHANDISE PRESENTATION TECHNIQUE <br />Merchandise Presentation technique is one of the most important component <br />of Visual Merchandising. The following are the different presentation techniques: <br />1. Idea-Oriented Presentation: a method of presenting merchandise based on a <br />specific idea or image of the store. <br />2. Style/Item Presentation: organizing stock by style or item Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 34<br />3. Colour Presentation: A major role in a display is that of the colour and <br />lighting. Aesthetic and innovative use of them can lure customers to visit more <br />aisles than they usually do and spend more time there. <br />4. Price- lining: is the technique when retailers offer a limited number of <br />predetermined price points within a classification. <br />5. Vertical Merchandising: merchandise is presented vertically suing walls and <br />high gondolas <br />6. Tonnage Merchandising: here large quantities of merchandise are displayed <br />together to enhance and reinforce a stores price image <br />7. Frontal Presentation: here the retailer exposes its much of the product as <br />possible to catch the customer’s eye <br />8. Fixtures: the primary purposes of fixtures are to efficiently hold and display <br />merchandise. <br />COLOUR <br />The psychological effect of colour continues to be important to retailers. <br />Colour probably more than any other factor except price, is the .stopper. that catches <br />the consumers attention. Intelligent use of colour is important in store design. <br />LIGHTING <br />Proper lighting is one of the most important considerations in retail outlet. <br />Today lighting has become a display medium. It is an integral part of the stores <br />interior and exterior design. Lighting is used to highlight merchandise, sculpt space <br />and capture a mood or feeling that enhances the stores image. <br />CEILINGS <br />Ceiling represents a potentially important element of interior design. Ceiling <br />heights colour and material used will influence the store look. <br />FLOORING Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 35<br />Flooring choices are important because the coverings can be used to separate <br />departments; muffs noise in high-traffic areas and strengthen the store image. <br />SHELVING <br />The material used for shelving as well as its design must be compatible with <br />the merchandising strategy and the overall image desired. Music and scent in the retail <br />outlet can influence consumer behaviour to a large extent. <br />VM supports Retail Strategy: <br />• VM physically carries out a store's promotional selling strategies by designing <br />and executing window and interior displays that supports ad goals <br />• Installing promotional signing for in-store selling <br />• Producing workable departmental layouts and interior décor <br />• Devising merchandise fixture layouts for day to day operations <br />• Placing and presenting merchandise on walls and fixtures <br />• Working as team members with the store's promotional staff <br />VM supports selling: <br />• Communicate the latest trends in fashion and colors <br />• Assists customers in making a buying decision <br />• Create an exciting environment within the store <br />• VM transforms a shopper into a buyer <br />• VM supports gift shopping <br />• VM stimulates customers' appetites for artfully presented merchandise in the <br />same way that the gourmet cook stimulates diners' appetites for the artfully <br />presented mealVisual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 36<br />VM supports retailing trends: <br />• A trend is a direction in which fashion seems to be moving. VM is the <br />invisible force that doing a lot of the pushing behind the trend. Trends put 'fun' <br />in fundamental merchandising. Some of the prominent trends include: <br />• Consumerism is the trend: Consumers like an opportunity to thoroughly <br />inspect the product before making a purchase <br />• The barriers to 'showcase selling' had to come down. Stores began to move in <br />the direction of self service <br />• Assortment which the consumers like is another trend <br />• V Merchandisers should become experts in anticipating and responding to <br />lifestyle trends. The crux is how to target the customers live their lives <br />• Stand along stores in shopping villages is a trend where customers are able to <br />park their vehicles in front of retail stores <br />• Non-store retailing will affect VM <br />• VM also supports international retailing <br />Visual Merchandising Do’s and Don’ts Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 37<br />Do’s <br />• Window display should be changed weekly or fortnightly to ensure freshness. <br />The display and layout should differentiate the store from competition. Colors <br />and design should be characteristic of the brand image. <br />• Impulse purchase items (perfumes, watch straps, gifts) should be close to the <br />entry and exit doors for non-serious or causal customers would like to browse <br />the whole store. Their purchase is not pre-planned and because these impulse <br />purchase items are relatively cheaper they might buy them in a whim. Also <br />when customers wait at the billing counter the people accompanying the buyer <br />may snoop around and make a purchase too. <br />• Use symbols as directions <br />• Distance between the aisles should facilitate the easy for movement shoppers. <br />Don’ts <br />• Avoid too many floors. <br />• Racks shouldn’t be too high, especially in bookstores because customers <br />might not be able to reach the books. <br />• Lighting shouldn’t be poor and at the same time shouldn’t be very bright. <br />Shadows are essential for that added effect. <br />• The display shouldn’t be contrast to the section in which it is. It also shouldn’t <br />be unaesthetic. Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 38<br />CHAPTER 4 ‐ COMPANY PROFILE<br />BIG BAZAAR Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Company Profile <br /> <br />Pantaloon Retail (India) Limited, is India’s leading retailer that operates <br />multiple retail formats in both the value and lifestyle segment of the Indian consumer <br />marker. Headquartered in Mumbai (Bombay), the company operates over 5 million <br />square feet of retail space, has over 450 stores across 40 cities in India and employs <br />over 18,000 people. <br />The company’s leading formats include Pantaloons, a chain of fashion outlets, <br />Big Bazaar, a uniquely Indian hypermarket chain, Food Bazaar, a supermarket chain, <br />blends the look, touch and feel of Indian bazaars with aspects of modern retail like <br />choice, convenience and quality and Central, a chain of seamless destination malls. <br />Some of its other formats include, Depot, Shoe Factory, Brand Factory, Blue Sky, <br />Fashion Station, aLL, Top10, Star and Sitara. The company also operates an online <br />portal, futurebazaar.com. <br />A subsidiary company, Home Solutions Retail (India) Limited, operates Home <br />Town, a large-format home solutions store, Collection i, selling home furniture <br />products and E-Zone focused on catering to the consumer electronics segment. <br />Page 39<br />Pantaloon Retail was recently awarded the International Retailer of the Year <br />2007 by the US-based National Retail Federation (NRF) and the Emerging Market <br />Retailer of the Year 2007 at the World Retail Congress held in Barcelona. Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 40<br />Pantaloon Retail is the flagship company of Future Group, a business group catering <br />to the entire Indian consumption space. <br />Big bazaar is owned and operated by Future Bazaar India Ltd., a subsidiary of <br />Pantaloon Retail (India) Limited. As part of India’s largest retail chain, it enjoys the <br />benefits of buying in bulk for the entire group and keeps the margins low, so that <br />customers get a great range of products at great prices. Pantaloon Retail (India) <br />Limited led by Kishore Biyani is the country's largest retailer. It owns and operates <br />multiple retail formats including Pantaloons, Big Bazaar, Food Bazaar, Central, EZone, Fashion Station, Depot and many others. <br />Future Group <br />Future Group, led by its founder and Group CEO, Mr. Kishore Biyani, is one <br />of India’s leading business houses with multiple businesses spanning across the <br />consumption space. While retail forms the core business activity of Future Group, <br />group subsidiaries are present in consumer finance, capital, insurance, leisure and <br />entertainment, brand development, retail real estate development, retail media and <br />logistics. <br />Led by its flagship enterprise, Pantaloon Retail, the group operates over 12 <br />million square feet of retail space in 71 cities and towns and 65 rural locations across <br />India. Headquartered in Mumbai (Bombay), Pantaloon Retail employs around 30,000 <br />people and is listed on the Indian stock exchanges. The company follows a multiformat retail strategy that captures almost the entire consumption basket of Indian <br />customers. <br />In the lifestyle segment, the group operates Pantaloons, a fashion retail chain <br />and Central, a chain of seamless malls. In the value segment, its marquee brand, Big <br />Bazaar is a hypermarket format that combines the look, touch and feel of Indian <br />bazaars with the choice and convenience of modern retail. Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 41<br />In 2008, Big Bazaar opened its 100th store, marking the fastest ever organic <br />expansion of a hypermarket. The first set of Big Bazaar stores opened in 2001 in <br />Kolkata, Hyderabad and Bangalore. <br />The group’s specialty retail formats include, books and music chain, Depot, <br />sportswear retailer, Planet Sports, electronics retailer, Ezone, home improvement <br />chain, Home Town and rural retail chain, Aadhar, among others. It also operates <br />popular shopping portal, futurebazaar.com. <br />Group Vision <br />Future Group shall deliver Everything, Everywhere, Every time for Every <br />Indian Consumer in the most profitable manner. <br />Group Mission <br />• We share the vision and belief that our customers and stakeholders shall be <br />served only by creating and executing future scenarios in the consumption <br />space leading to economic development. <br />• We will be the trendsetters in evolving delivery formats, creating retail realty, <br />making consumption affordable for all customer segments – for classes and <br />for masses. <br />• We shall infuse Indian brands with confidence and renewed ambition. <br />• We shall be efficient, cost- conscious and committed to quality in whatever we <br />do. <br />• We shall ensure that our positive attitude, sincerity, humility and united <br />determination shall be the driving force to make us successful. Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 42<br />PART A‐ THEORITICAL SETTINGVisual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 43<br />CHAPTER 5 ‐ Significance of Research<br />Visual merchandising is the art and science of displaying and presenting <br />product on the sales floor and in the windows with the purpose to increase store traffic <br />and sales volume. <br />Along with your store design, it is a key component of your store’s unique <br />identity and your best form of advertising. Through them you are able to <br />communicate to your target customer your brand’s identity, what is unique and <br />special about your offering and what makes you better than other stores. <br />When deciding how to present your product in your store, always remember <br />that visual merchandising is an extension of your store’s customer service. That is <br />why when planning for your store’s look and feel and product presentation, you must <br />make sure that they: <br />• Enhance the feeling of service and make your customer feel good. Above all <br />you want your customer to feel good and be happy. If they are happy you <br />know that they are going to buy. You also want to build loyalty and repeat <br />purchases by creating a good shopping experience. <br />• Create a memorable impression: make it a feast for the senses. Shopping isn't <br />just about picking up a product. It’s about temptation, attraction, and creating <br />a memorable impression that will encourage the customer to come back over <br />and over again. Customers are giving you what little time they have. You <br />should reward them with benefits beyond the products you carry. A <br />memorable impression can be created in many different ways. It could be <br />about the sensory experience of entering a store and being surrounded by light, <br />colour, texture, and sound. <br />While there is substantial amount of research on each of the components of visual <br />merchandising, a holistic approach towards visual merchandising involving the Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 44<br />consumer’s perceptions has not attracted much of research effort. So this has <br />prompted me to take up the research. <br />CHAPTER 6 ‐ Literature Review<br />“Visual Merchandising is everything the customer sees, both exterior and interior, that <br />creates a positive image of the business and results in attention, interest, desire and <br />action on part of the customer” <br />Source: Visual Merchandising for retailers by Holly Bastow Shoop, North Dakota <br />State University <br />Dale Zetocha, North Dakota State University <br />Gregory Passewitz, the Ohio State University <br />Merchandising and display are an important part of the marketing plan, and <br />should have a reasonable budget allocated - even for a retailer operating on a <br />shoestring. <br />In today's competitive retail environment a retailer cannot afford to consider <br />merchandising as a 'frill'. Everyone is competing for the customers' dollar. There are <br />more choices out there for consumers than ever before. <br />Posters covering the door and windows, hand lettered signs, lack of lighting <br />and untidy displays send the message that your business isn't serious. If your store <br />looks like a bargain basement, customers will expect bargain basement prices and <br />may draw the conclusion that your product is poor quality. This judgment may have <br />little to do with the product itself, but be the result of poor presentation. <br />Melanie McIntosh, a retail consultant and founder of Inspire Retail <br />Solutions, a British Columbia firm that helps retailers create strong, professional <br />business images that attract customers. Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 45<br />Merchandising is more than simply the arrangement of products on the shelf. <br />It is an integral component of the business image. It should be considered when you <br />design your logo, business cards, brochures, letterhead, packaging, and product mix. <br />When you examine your merchandising, you examine what the customers' <br />experience, from their first sight of your store front, until they leave store - hopefully <br />with a purchase in hand. Merchandising is also about understanding the way <br />customers shop. By using this knowledge, you can position your merchandise to <br />increase sales. <br />You need to create an environment that attracts the customer, is comfortable to shop, <br />and encourages the customer to return. <br />• Are the store front and windows attractive & inviting? <br />• Is all signage clear, professional and legible? <br />• Is the store interior welcoming and comfortable? <br />• Is merchandise presentation appealing? <br />• Are seasonal and high-margin merchandise placed in high profile locations? <br />• Overall, is the store appearance professional? Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 46<br />Chapter 7 – Research Gap<br />Visual Merchandising is an integral part of retail today. There is a growing <br />recognition of need for Visual Merchandising. But even as it continues to grow, the <br />understanding of Visual Merchandising impact and effectiveness is still in its infancy. <br />The shopping behaviour which governs the decision to buy is a function of <br />three stimuli viz., visual, auditory and kinaesthetic; the visual stimulus is the easiest <br />and most widely used tool for attracting customers. <br />While there is substantial amount of research on each of the components of <br />visual merchandising, a holistic approach towards visual merchandising involving the <br />consumer’s perceptions has not attracted much of research effort. There is a vital gap <br />in the current research and this has prompted to take up research investigation in this <br />field. Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 47<br />CHAPTER 8‐ Problem Statement and Research<br />Objective<br />VM carries with its 'touch points' from the customers' point of view. These <br />touch points comprise the customer environment and it is through interacting with that <br />VM that customer preference is formed. The VM is an excellent analytical tool for <br />discovering the nature of these touch points, their essentiality for preference formation <br />and the combination and sequence of such touch points that result in a customer <br />environment that maximizes corporate ability to construct sustained customer <br />preference. What are these touch points? How does VM unzip these touch points? <br />What should be the appropriate configurations to the VM? This problem statement <br />has been crystallized into the following research objectives <br />Research Objective <br />• To examine the impact of VM in consumer buying decisions <br />• To make recommendations for the alignment of VM in the process of <br />customer preference Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 48<br />CHAPTER 9 ‐ Hypothesis<br />We seek to achieve the above objectives through testing the following <br />hypothesis: <br />H0: All factors are equally important in Visual Merchandising <br />HA: All factors are not equally important in Visual Merchandising Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 49<br />CHAPTER 10 ‐ Research Methodology<br />TYPE OF RESEARCH <br />The study can well be described as descriptive. As a descriptive research, the <br />study will deal with the variables affecting the customer preference process via VM. It <br />finds facts. <br />AREA OF ENQUIRY <br />It is proposed to conduct research in Bangalore City. <br />Secondary Data <br />The secondary data of the study will be based on the available literature in <br />Journals in the retailing sector. <br />Primary Data <br />Primary Data was collected using the structured questionnaire. A sample size <br />of 100 respondents was chosen through random sampling technique. <br />Construction of questionnaire: Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 50<br />The questionnaire was used as the respondents had to give a specific answer to <br />the questions. This also made it easier for the respondents to give their opinion <br />without too much time. <br />Personal interaction with the consumers at the store and observation technique <br />was also used. <br />Sample Size <br />Total 100 respondents were selected as the sample size. Random Sampling <br />CHAPTER 11 ‐ RESEARCH LIMITATIONS<br />Our research investigation is beset with the following constraints: <br />• Time and resource constraints. <br />• At the micro level, the scope of our research investigation is restricted to only <br />one retail unit in Bangalore City. <br />• Bias/prejudice creeping into the responses of the respondents. However we <br />will exercise due care to obviate it through meticulous cross checking of data; <br />(Delphi Method). <br />• Limited sample size, but, in our opinion, it is adequate enough to make valid <br />projections. Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 51<br />PART B ‐ SURVEY FINDINGSVisual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 52<br />CHAPTER 12 ‐ Data Analysis & Inference<br />1) How often do you visit Big Bazaar? <br />Respondents <br />Once in 3 days 0 <br />Once in a week 10 <br />Monthly 23 <br />No time frame 67 <br />Table 1 – frequency of visitVisual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />0<br />10<br />23<br />67<br />0<br />10<br />20<br />30<br />40<br />50<br />60<br />70<br />80<br />Once in 3 days Once in a week Monthly No Time Frame<br />frequency of visit<br />Respondents<br />Figure 4 - Frequency of visit to Big Bazaar <br />INFERENCE: <br />From the above observations it is found that: <br />¾ 67% respondents visit to Big Bazaar has no definite Time Frame. <br />¾ 23% of respondents visit Big Bazaar once in a Month. <br />¾ 10% visited the store Weekly. <br />Page 53Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 54<br />2) What is your opinion of the Store Display? <br />Respondents <br />Very Good 15 <br />Good 53 <br />Satisfactory 22 <br />Poor 10 <br />Very Poor 0 Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Table 2 – opinion on store display<br />0<br />10<br />20<br />30<br />40<br />50<br />60<br />Very Good Good Satisfactory Poor Very Poor<br />St or e Di spl ay<br />Respondents<br />Figure 5 - opinion of store dispaly<br />INFERENCE <br />From the above observations it is found that: <br />¾ 53% of respondents felt that overall Store Display at Big Bazaar was Good. <br />¾ 12% of the respondents felt that overall Store Display was Excellent. <br />¾ 22% felt that Store Display was Satisfactory.<br />¾ 10% felt that Store Display was Poor. <br />Page 55Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 56<br />3) How important is the Ambience of the store while shopping? <br />Respondents <br />Very Important 44 <br />Important 56 <br />Not Important 0 Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Not at all Important 0 <br />Table 3 – opinion of ambience of store<br />44<br />56<br />0 0<br />0<br />10<br />20<br />30<br />40<br />50<br />60<br />Very Important Important Not Important Not at all <br />Important<br />Ambience<br />Response<br />Figure 6 - opinion of ambience of Big Bazaar<br />INFERENCE <br />From the above observations it is found that: <br />¾ 44% of the respondents feel that Ambience of the Store is Very Important. <br />¾ 56% of the respondents feel that Ambience of the Store is Important. <br />Page 57<br />¾ While none of the respondents feel that Ambience of the store is not <br />important. Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 58<br />4) How do you rate the store on basis of Store Design & Display? <br />Respondents <br />Excellent 14 Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Good 63 <br />Average 23 <br />Poor 0 <br />Table 4 – opinion of store design<br />14<br />63<br />23<br />0<br />0<br />10<br />20<br />30<br />40<br />50<br />60<br />70<br />Excellent Good Average Poor<br />St or e Design & Display<br />Response<br />Figure 7 - opinion of store display<br />INFERENCE <br />From the above observations it is found that: <br />¾ 14% of the respondents feel that Store Design and Display was Excellent. <br />Page 59<br />¾ 63% of the respondents feel that Store Design and Display was Good. Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 60<br />¾ 23% of the respondents feel that Store Design and Display was Average. <br />¾ While none of the respondents felt that overall Store Design and Display was <br />Poor. <br /> <br />5) How do you rate the store on basis of Colors & Lighting? Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Respondents <br />Excellent 8 <br />Good 66 <br />Average 22 <br />Poor 4 <br />Table 5 – opinion of color & lighting <br />8<br />66<br />22<br />4<br />0<br />10<br />20<br />30<br />40<br />50<br />60<br />70<br />Excellent Good Average Poor<br />Col or & Li ght i ng<br />Response<br />Figure 8 - opinion of color & lighting<br />INFERENCE <br />Page 61<br />From the above observations it is found that: Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 62<br />¾ 8% of the respondents feel that Color and Lighting at Big Bazaar was <br />Excellent. <br />¾ 66% of the respondents feel that Color and Lighting at Big Bazaar was Good. <br />¾ 22% of the respondents feel that Color and Lighting at Big Bazaar was <br />Average. <br />¾ 4% of the respondents feel that Color and Lighting at Big Bazaar was Poor. <br />6) How do you rate the store on basis of Props & Decorative items? Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Respondents <br />Excellent 8 <br />Good 71 <br />Average 18 <br />Poor 2 <br />Table 6 – opinion of props & decorative items<br />8<br />71<br />18<br />2<br />0<br />10<br />20<br />30<br />40<br />50<br />60<br />70<br />80<br />Excellent Good Average Poor<br />Props & Decorat ive it ems<br />Response<br />Figure 9 - opinion of props & decorative items<br />Page 63Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 64<br />INFERENCE <br />From the above observations it is found that: <br />¾ 8% of the respondents felt that Props & Decorative items at Big Bazaar were <br />Excellent. <br />¾ 71% the respondents felt that Props & Decorative items at Big Bazaar was <br />Good. <br />¾ 18% the respondents felt that Props & Decorative items at Big Bazaar was <br />Average. <br />¾ 2% the respondents felt that Props & Decorative items at Big Bazaar was Poor Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />7) How do you rate the store on the basis of Fixtures & Hardware? <br />Respondents <br />Excellent 4 <br />Good 36 <br />Average 58 <br />Poor 2 <br />Table 7- opinion on fixtures & hardware<br />4<br />36<br />58<br />2<br />0<br />10<br />20<br />30<br />40<br />50<br />60<br />70<br />Excellent Good Average Poor<br />Fixt ur es & Har dwar e<br />Response<br />Page 65<br />Figure 10 - opinion of fixtures & hardwareVisual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 66<br />INFERENCE <br />From the above observations it is found that: <br />¾ 4% felt that Fixtures and Hardware at Big Bazaar was Excellent<br />¾ 36% felt that Fixtures and Hardware at Big Bazaar was Good<br />¾ 58% felt that Fixtures and Hardware at Big Bazaar was Average <br />¾ 2% felt that Fixtures and Hardware at Big Bazaar was Poor Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 67<br />8) How Informative was the signs in the store? <br />Respondents <br />Very Informative 12 <br />Informative 65 <br />Not Informative 22 <br />Not at all Informative 1 <br />Table 8 – opinion of signs in the storeVisual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />12<br />65<br />22<br />1<br />0<br />10<br />20<br />30<br />40<br />50<br />60<br />70<br />Ver y Infor mative Infor mative Not Infor mative Not at all <br />Informative<br />Si gns i n t he st or e<br />Response<br />Figure 11 - opinion of signs at Big Bazaar <br /> <br />INFERENCE <br />From the above observations it is found that: <br />12% felt that Signs at Big Bazaar was Very Informative <br />65% felt that Signs at Big Bazaar was Informative <br />22% felt that Signs at Big Bazaar was Not Informative<br />1% felt that Signs at Big Bazaar was Not at all Informative<br />Page 68Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 69<br />9) Did you face problem in reaching for items in the rack? <br />Respondents <br />Yes 32 <br />No 68 <br />Table 9 – opinion on convenience in reaching for items in rack<br /> Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />32<br />68<br />items in the rack<br />Ye s<br />No<br />Figure 12 - opinion on convenience in reaching for items in the rack <br /> <br />INFERENCE <br />From the above observations it is found that: <br />32 % felt that they had problem in reaching for the items in the rack <br />68% felt that they had no problem in reaching for the items in the rack <br />Page 70Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 71<br />10) Do you agree that items such as Chocolates, Biscuits, and Soft Drinks should <br />be close to entry and exit doors for casual customers? <br />Respondents <br />Agree 68 Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Somewhat Agree 28 <br />Disagree 4 <br />Table 10- opinion about soft drinks, biscuits for casual customer<br />68<br />28<br />4<br />0<br />10<br />20<br />30<br />40<br />50<br />60<br />70<br />80<br />Agr ee Somewhat Agr ee Disagr ee<br />Response<br />Figure 13 <br /> <br />INFERENCE <br />From the above observations it is found that: <br />Page 72<br />¾ 68% Agreed that items such as Chocolates, Biscuits & Soft Drinks should be <br />placed near entry and exit doors for casual customers Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 73<br />¾ 28% Somewhat agreed that items such as Chocolates, Biscuits & Soft Drinks <br />should be placed near entry and exit doors for casual customers <br />¾ 4% Disagreed that items such as Chocolates, Biscuits & Soft Drinks should <br />be placed near entry and exit doors for casual customers <br />11) Do you agree that Window Display should be changed weekly or for every <br />Fortnight to ensure fresh display? Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Respondents <br />Agree 67 <br />Somewhat Agree 33 <br />Disagree 0 <br />Table 11- opinion on whether window display should be changed weekly<br />67<br />33<br />0<br />0<br />10<br />20<br />30<br />40<br />50<br />60<br />70<br />80<br />Agree Somewhat Agree Disagree<br />Window Display<br />Response<br />Figure 14 - opinion on window display <br />INFERENCE <br />Page 74<br />From the above observations it is found that: Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 75<br />¾ 67% Agreed that Window Display should be changed every fortnight to <br />ensure fresh display <br />¾ 33% Somewhat Agreed that Window Display should be changed every <br />fortnight to ensure fresh display <br />¾ While None of them Disagreed that Window Display should be changed <br />every fortnight to ensure fresh display Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />12) Did the distance between the Aisles facilitate for easy movement of the <br />Shoppers? <br />Respondents <br />Yes 62 <br />No 38 <br />Table 12- opinion on space between aisles<br />62<br />38<br />Aisles<br />Yes<br />No<br />Figure 15 - opinion on space between the aisles <br />Page 76Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 77<br /> <br />INFERENCE <br />From the above observations it is found that: <br />62% felt that distance between the Aisles facilitated for easy movement for the <br />shoppers <br />38% felt that distance between the Aisles did not facilitate for easy movement for <br />the shoppers <br /> Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />13) Are Seasonal and High Margin Merchandise placed in high profile locations? <br />Respondents <br />Yes 58 <br />No 42 <br />Table 13 – opinion on seasonal & high margin merchandise locations<br />58<br />42<br />Seasonal & High Margin Merchandise<br />Yes<br />No<br />Page 78<br />Figure 16 - opinion on seasonal & high margin merchandise Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 79<br /> <br />INFERENCE <br />From the above observations it is found that: <br />¾ 58% respondents felt Seasonal & High Margin Merchandise were placed in <br />high profile location <br />¾ 42% respondents felt Seasonal & High Margin Merchandise were not placed <br />in high profile location Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 80<br />14) Overall, is the Store Appearance Professional? <br />Respondents <br />Yes 44 <br />No 24 <br />Somewhat 32 <br />Table 14 – opinion on overall professionalism of the storeVisual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />44<br />24<br />32<br />0<br />5<br />10<br />15<br />20<br />25<br />30<br />35<br />40<br />45<br />50<br />Ye s No So m e w h at<br />Response<br />Figure 17 - opinion on overall professionalism of the store <br /> <br />INFERENCE <br />From the above observations it is found that: <br />44% of the respondents felt that the overall Store Appearance was Professional <br />24% of the respondents felt that the overall Store Appearance was Not Professional<br />32% of the respondents felt that the overall Store Appearance was Somewhat <br />Professional and needed some improvements <br />Page 81Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 82<br />CHAPTER 13 ‐ Hypothesis Test i ng<br />Hypothesis Conducted on Question no 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7. <br />H0: ALL THE FACTORS ARE EQUALLY IMPORTANT IN VISUAL <br />MERCHANDISING <br />HA: ALL THE FACTORS ARE NOT EQUALLY IMPORTANT IN VISUAL <br />MERCHANDISING Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />FACTORS <br />(ranking) <br />E <br />*4 <br />G <br />*3<br />A <br />*2<br />P <br />*1<br />OBSERVED EXPECTED (O-E)2 <br />E <br />Ambience 44 56 0 0 344 287.6 11.06 <br />Store Design & <br />Display <br />14 63 23 0 291 287.6 0.04 <br />Color & Lighting 8 66 22 4 278 287.6 0.32 <br />Props & <br />Decorative items <br />8 71 18 2 283 287.6 0.07 <br />Fixtures & <br />Hardware <br />4 36 58 2 242 287.6 7.23 <br />O=1438 <br />Ψ2<br />cal=18.72<br />Table 15 - Hypothesis Testing<br />E: Excellent G: Good <br />A: Average P: Poor <br />Expected (E): <br />E= OBSERVED / NO OF FACTORS <br />E= 1438 / 5 <br />E= 287.6 <br />Ψ<br />2<br /> calculated = 18.72 <br />Page 83Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 84<br />Level of Significance: 5% <br />Degrees of Freedom: (5-1) = 4 <br />Ψ2 tabulated = 9.488 <br />Therefore Ψ2<br /> tabulated < Ψ2<br /> calculated <br />HO IS REJECTED <br />There fore HA: ALL THE FACTORS ARE NOT EQUALLY IMPORTANT IN <br />VISUAL MERCHANDISING<br /> <br />CHAPTER 14 ‐ Major Findings of Research<br />From the research conducted it is evident that overall ambience of the store is <br />a very important component of Visual Merchandising and clearly influences <br />consumers purchasing decisions. Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 85<br />Proper planning must be done while designing the store since, a customer is <br />highly influenced by the look and feel of the store. Effective visual merchandising is <br />essential to attract shoppers enticing them to make a purchase. Effective visual <br />merchandising should also be supported by good sales staff to close deals with <br />shoppers. <br />1) Most of the people who visited Big Bazaar had no exact time frame. <br />2) Nearly half of the respondents believed that the overall store display at Big <br />Bazaar was good, and over 20% respondents feel that there was further <br />need for improvement. <br />3) Almost all the respondents felt that the overall ambience of the store is <br />important while shopping. <br />4) Majority of the respondents believe that signs in the store were <br />informative. While few said otherwise. <br />5) Over 60% of the respondents felt that items such as chocolates, biscuits, <br />soft drinks should be close to entry and exit doors for casual customers. <br />6) 67% of the respondents feel that window display should be changed <br />weekly or every fortnight. <br />7) Nearly 44% of the respondents feel that Big Bazaar store is professional <br />8) Many respondents believed that Seasonal and High margin merchandise <br />were placed in high profile location. <br />9) Some respondents felt that during peak hours the shelf were not <br />replenished faster, resulting in longer waiting periods. <br />10) Promotions, props and Decorative items are huge attractions with regard to <br />visual merchandising. Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 86<br />PART C ‐ RECOMMENDATIONS<br />CHAPTER 15 ‐ Recommendations<br />Based on the research and interaction with the customers, we make following specific <br />recommendations: Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 87<br />1. Faster replenishment of shelf during peak hours must be taken care of. <br />2. Customers who visit Big Bazaar weekly once or twice must be treated as <br />loyal customers and special attention must be given for them. Since most <br />of the respondents who visit the store has no time frame. <br />3. Lightings near the grocery department must be bright to enable the <br />customers to carefully select the groceries. <br />4. For casual customer’s items such as chocolates, biscuits, bubble gum, <br />chips must be kept near the billing area in order to stimulate last minute <br />purchasing or casual purchasing. <br />5. Flooring can be made innovative. Since the flooring currently at store is <br />plain and is of metallic cement colored. Floor Graphics can be used also as <br />signs to help locate certain segments of product. <br />6. Parking for especially 2 wheelers should be arranged. Since currently few <br />parking spaces are available and no other arrangements are made. <br />7. Better training to service staff can result in overall increase in <br />professionalism. <br />8. Window display needs to be changed once every fortnight in order to give <br />a new look. <br />9. Fixtures at the store were rated as average. So decorative, creative fixtures <br />should be used to create a good store image. <br />10. Retail Design Strategies: The success of the retail architect's design hinges on <br />the work of the visual merchandisers. They are responsible for capturing the <br />architect's vision of the store and implementing it through their choice of <br />fashion, color, props, lighting and focal points. The creativity and hard work <br />of the visual merchandisers are the linchpins of effective store design. We give <br />below the design principles which must be adopted by Big Bazaar: <br />DESIGN PRINCIPLES <br />™ Unity <br />™ Harmony <br />™ Repetition Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 88<br />™ Balance <br />™ Rhythm (movement) <br />™ Contrast <br />™ Emphasis <br />™ Surprise <br />DESIGN ELEMENTS: <br />™ Color <br />™ Texture <br />™ Proportion <br />™ Direction <br />™ Size <br />™ Shape <br />™ Line <br />™ Sequence <br />™ Tension <br />COLOR SCHEMES: <br />1. Complementary schemes consists of two colors that are directly <br />opposite to each other on the color wheel--example yellow and violet <br />2. Double-complementary consists of four colors--two colors plus their <br />complements. Example: yellow with violet plus greet with red <br />3. Split-complementary consists of three colors--one central color plus <br />the two colors on either side of its component: Example: yellow with <br />red-violet and blue-violet <br />4. Triadic consists of three colors that are equidistant from one another on <br />the color wheel (They form a triangle when we look at the wheel) <br />Example: orange, green and violet <br />5. Analogous (color families) consists of two or more colors that are next <br />to each other 9adjacent) on the color wheel. Example: yellow with <br />yellow-green <br />6. Monochromatic consists of a single color in different values and <br />intensities (more white or grey blended into the basic color). Example: <br />blue with medium blue and light blue <br />11. MAGIC OF THE WINDOW DISPLAY: Window display should synchronize <br />with the visual merchandising. We give below the dynamics of window display which <br />must be considered by Big Bazaar. <br />Windows entice people into our world and into our mindsets. It leads shopper from <br />viewing to purchasing. Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 89<br />Window Display Functions: <br />™ Fashion windows are about creating excitement and desire in shoppers who <br />are always open to something new and different <br />™ Fashion apparel windows tout the store's fashion leadership position by <br />presenting the store's newest trend merchandise <br />™ Home fashion windows may feature the latest dining trend. They may also <br />feature candles, dinnerware, table linens that relate to the dinner theme, <br />encouraging shoppers to create all of the ambience may might find in a <br />restaurants in their own homes <br />™ Promotional windows feature products that are part of an advertising strategy <br />promoting an entire line of products, a single item or a special store-wide <br />event. Holidays like Mother's Day and Valentine's Day provide opportunities <br />to stage exciting window functions <br />™ Sale windows announce the store's major sale events and may not feature any <br />merchandise at all--implying that the store is stripped down and ready to sell <br />out to the bare walls at low, low, low prices. <br />™ Drive-by-windows are exterior windows viewed by people driving on city <br />streets or passing through shopping mall parking lots <br />™ Live or Demo windows capture shoppers' attention. Retail theatre with a live <br />actor draws curious crowds into the store <br />™ Interactive or through-glass windows. Electronic components invite passerby <br />to interact with window displays by touching sensitive panels on the exterior <br />glass which are connected to oversized screens set up in the window's interior. <br />This is a breakthrough innovation for retailing <br />Window display theory: <br />Window theatrics may be retail fantasies, romances, dramas, comedies, or <br />adventure stores but they are always designed to engage imagination and make <br />shoppers think about what it would be like to own the merchandise on display. <br />Fantasy-to-Reality Theory guides shoppers from their first look at <br />merchandise in windows and editorial displays to the selling floor and into the <br />fitting room in three steps: <br />™ The window's larger-than-life version of fashion-merchandise that is <br />dropped or posed to amaze, amuse and enthuse--draws window shoppers <br />into the store. This is fantasy stage <br />™ The retailer presents the window merchandise inside the store and less <br />theatrically using editorial space in prime interior locations. These are <br />stepped-down presentations. They echo the theme of the window display Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 90<br />but are now presented in the context of the store. This is reality stage. <br />Merchandise looks more 'true to life' than it does in the window. Shoppers <br />have the chance to personally impact the merchandise <br />™ The window merchandise is ready for purchase. Here is final reality where <br />shoppers can finally handle the items they have admired or to try them on <br />Window Display Themes (Retail Advertisement Message): <br />Thematic inspiration for window displays is always the merchandise itself. <br />Window's motif (dominant theme idea) is a good supporting device for visual <br />merchandising. Some times themes are set by the corporate advertisers <br />The theme inspiration can come from: <br />™ Products' end use, fabrication, styles and color <br />™ Current directions in fashion design <br />™ Popular color parallels--market-driven color choices <br />™ Recent, current or upcoming events--global, national or local happenings that <br />involve or influence fashion <br />™ Influential cultural directions--fads, merchandising and lifestyle trends, new <br />books and magazines, recent films, plays, art, architecture, entertainment etc. <br />™ Historical perspectives---well-known symbols, recurring on retrospective <br />fashion designers, significant anniversaries of events <br />™ Retail image decisions---unique or 'signature' architectural, decorative or <br />stylistic elements exclusively characteristic of the retailer's image or the store's <br />design <br />™ Holidays: Mothers Day, Fathers Day, Valentine Day <br />™ Nostalgia--(1970.1980.1990) <br />™ New developments in props or decorative items available from the display <br />industry---innovative items like metal shopping bags, crystal clear up-scaled <br />ice cubes, unusual looking mannequins and alternatives. <br />Mechanics of window Display Magic: <br />The window display is the first message we are sending to regular and potential <br />customers. Therefore we must carefully plan he merchandise and how it is presented. Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 91<br />It is not unlike how we get dressed each day. We carefully coordinate the clothes you <br />want to wear and the manner in which our style your hair or apply make-up. The <br />storefront window displays should be given the same level of importance. Here some <br />useful guidelines: <br />™ Select the merchandise category--example, kids cloths, T-shirts etc <br />™ Select the color story: If T Shirts come in both bright and pastels, choose first <br />one color group for the window <br />™ Select the theme <br />™ Select the props <br />™ Select mannequins <br />™ Select accessories <br />™ Sketch proposed window presentation. <br />To sum up, it is our strong belief and conviction that visual merchandising, if <br />appropriately implemented, will go a long way to entice the customers into the store. <br />The following prerequisites of an effective visual merchandising are quite <br />helpful:<br />™ Window display should be changed weekly or fortnightly to ensure freshness. <br />The display and layout should differentiate the store from competition. Colors <br />and design should be characteristic of the brand image. <br />™ Use symbols as directions: Distance between the aisles should facilitate the <br />easy for movement shoppers. <br />™ Impulse purchase items (perfumes, watch straps, gifts) should be close to the <br />entry and exit doors for non-serious or causal customers would like to browse <br />the whole store. Their purchase is not pre-planned and because these impulse <br />purchase items are relatively cheaper they might buy them in a whim. Also <br />when customers wait at the billing counter the people accompanying the buyer <br />may snoop around and make a purchase too. <br />™ Avoid too many floors, as they mess up the items <br />™ Racks should not be too high especially in book stores because customers <br />might not be able to reach the books <br />™ Lighting should not be poor and at the same time should not be very bright. <br />Shadows are essential for that added effect Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 92<br />™ The display should not be contrast to the section in which it is. Also it should <br />not be unaesthetic. <br />The whole point of visual merchandising is to help the retailers to <br />communicate brand message so that customers can make better-informed <br />choices. Consumers increasingly shop by what attracts their eye whether it is <br />perfume, or sand witch or chocolates <br />CHAPTER 16 ‐ ConclusionVisual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 93<br />Visual merchandising when used effectively is no doubt, a powerful tool to <br />entice customers in making a purchase decision. Retailers can attract more customers <br />and increase sales by proper use of visual merchandising techniques. <br />With new competitors entering into India Retail Sector such as Bharti WalMart, Tesco and many more, it becomes even more necessary for Indian domestic <br />retailers to focus and give importance to visual merchandising techniques in order to <br />create a good customer shopping experience and use it as a customer retention tool. <br />Through effective use of visual merchandising a store can improve its image <br />and also build a brand that helps in achieving long term goals of the retailer. <br />AnnexureVisual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 94<br />SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY   <br />BOOKS: <br />™ Retail Management by Ron Hasty & James Reardon, Pearson Publication <br />™ Retailing in India, ICFAI Publications, <br />™ Marketing Management by Philip Kotler (Chapter on Retailing) <br />™ Holly Bastow Shoop, Dale Zetocha – North Dakota University, Gregory <br />Passewtiz, Visual Merchandising for Retailers, d.o.p – May 2001<br />JOURNALS & MAGZINES <br />™ Business Today <br />™ Marketing Mastermind <br />™ Journal of Marketing <br />™ Back numbers of A & M <br />™ International Journal of Management Sciences <br />WEBSITES: Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 95<br />™ www.pantaloon.com <br />™ www.acumen.com <br />™ www.ibef.com <br />™ www.mbaindia.com <br />™ www.slideshare.com <br />™ www.wikipedia.org <br />™ www.mint.com <br />™ www.timesofindia.comVisual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />QUESTIONNAIRE<br />VISUAL MERCHANDISING IN THE RETAIL SECTOR <br />(A Case Study of Best Practices and Effective Strategies of Visual Merchandising at <br />Big Bazaar, Bangalore) <br />Dear Respondent, <br /> I am a student of M.P.BIRLA INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT, <br />Bangalore. I am doing a survey for my research project entitled "VISUAL <br />MERCHANDISING IN THE RETAIL SECTOR (A Case Study of Best Practices <br />and Effective Strategies of Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar, Bangalore). In <br />this connection, I need some information from you. Below is the questionnaire <br />crafted for this purpose. Kindly give responses to the questions contained in the <br />questionnaire. I humbly assure you that the information so provided will be kept <br />confidential and shall be used for academic purpose only <br /> Dilipa S Naik <br />Name _______________________ Age ___________ <br />Gender _______________ <br />Income per annum: <br /> <50,000 50,000-1L 1L-3L >3L Not Applicable <br />Page 96Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 97<br />1) How often do you visit Big Bazaar? <br />a. Once in 3 days ( ) <br />b. Once in a week ( ) <br />c. Monthly ( ) <br />d. No Time Frame ( ) <br />2) What is your opinion of the Store Display? <br />a. Very Good ( ) <br />b. Good ( ) <br />c. Satisfactory ( ) <br />d. Poor ( ) <br />e. Very Poor ( ) <br />3) How important is the ambience of the store while shopping? <br />a. Very Important ( ) <br />b. Important ( ) <br />c. Not Important ( ) <br />d. Not at all Important ( ) <br />4) How do you rate the store on basis of Store Design & Display? <br />a. Excellent ( ) <br />b. Good ( ) <br />c. Average ( ) Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 98<br />d. Poor ( ) <br />5) How do you rate the store on basis of Colours & Lighting? <br />a. Excellent ( ) <br />b. Good ( ) <br />c. Average ( ) <br />d. Poor ( ) <br />6) How do you rate the store on basis of Props & Decorative items? <br />a. Excellent ( ) <br />b. Good ( ) <br />c. Average ( ) <br />d. Poor ( ) <br />7) How do you rate the store on basis of Fixtures & Hardware? <br />a. Excellent ( ) <br />b. Good ( ) <br />c. Average ( ) <br />d. Poor ( ) <br />8) How Informative was the signs in the store? <br />a. Very Informative ( ) <br />b. Informative ( ) <br />c. Not Informative ( ) <br />d. Not at all Informative ( ) Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 99<br />9) Did you face problem in reaching for items in the rack? <br />a. Yes ( ) b. No ( ) <br />10) Do you agree that items such as chocolates, biscuits, soft drinks should be <br />close to entry and exit doors for casual customers? <br />a. Agree ( ) <br />b. Somewhat Agree ( ) <br />c. Disagree ( ) <br />11) Do you agree that window display should be changed weekly or for every <br />fortnight to ensure fresh display? <br />a. Agree ( ) <br />b. Somewhat Agree ( ) <br />c. Disagree ( ) <br />12) Did the distance between the aisles facilitate for easy movement of the <br />shoppers? <br />a. Yes ( ) b. No ( ) <br />13) Are Seasonal and high margin merchandise placed in high profile locations? <br />a. Yes ( ) b. No ( ) <br />14) Overall, is the store appearance professional? <br />a. Yes ( ) b. No ( ) c. Somewhat ( ) <br />15) Please give recommendation to improve Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar <br />more appealing. Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 100<br /> <br />EXPALANATION TO RESEARCH INSTRUMENT<br />USED<br />The research instrument used for this survey is questionnaire. The reasons why this <br />instrument is chosen are:- <br />• It is free from all bias. <br />• It covers a wide area. <br />• It helps in getting original data. <br />• Not expensive. <br />• It is easy to tabulate and understand <br />• It can be collected through Email Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 101<br />Directions for further Research<br />The following areas of research constitute 'green pastures' for further research: <br />™ Category Manage in Retailing Units: A Diagnostic Study <br />™ Creating a Shopping Experience in Retailing Units: A Phenomenographic <br />INFERENCE <br />™ Business Intelligence and Retailing: An Analytical Study <br />™ Private Labels in Retailing Units: A Diagnostic Study <br />™ Dynamics of Supply Chain Management in Retail Industry: Diagnosis & <br />Prognosis <br />™ Use of RFID Technology in Retailing Units: An Analytical Study <br />™ Category Killers in Retailing: A Diagnostic Study <br />™ Super Franchising in Retailing: An Analytical Study <br />™ Non-Store Retailing: Contemporary Issues <br />™ Retail Store Graphics: An Explorative Study <br />™ Micro-analysis of Visual Merchandising Variables <br />™ Magic of Window Display and its interface with Visual Merchandising Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar<br />MPBIM   2009                                                                                                                          <br />Page 102<br />™ Customers' Perceptions/Insights of Visual Merchandising <br />™ Impact of Visual Merchandising on transforming the shoppers into buyers <br />™ Impact of Visual Merchandising on transforming the online buyers into offline Buyers<br />