Respected teacher and dear friends,
Welcome to our presentation of Democracy
WHAT IS DEMOCRACY?
PRINCIPALS OF DEMOCRACY
REASONS WHY THIS FORM GOVERNMENT LEADS
THE COUNTRY TO DEVELOPMENT
SOME PEOPLE DISLIKE DEMOCRACY, WHY?
MERITS OF DEMOCRACY
DEMERITS OF DEMOCRACY
COUNTRIES FOLLOW DEMOCRACY
THE POINTS WHICH FAVOUR OF DEMOCRACY
What is democracy?
Democracy refers to a political system in which
government is form by the people, exercised either
directly or through elected representative. Main
Points: People Elected government. There is freedom
of speech. There is no one party government In the
country. Right to give vote to elect their
representatives. The common people, considered as
the primary source of political power. The principles
of social equality and respect for the individual
within a community.
Principals of democracy
Free elections are used to select representatives of the people.
The powers of government are based on the consent of the governed.
Public questions are decided by the will of the majority.
Rule of law guarantees rights and freedoms. Freedom to live or travel
anywhere in the country. Freedom to work at any job for which one qualifies.
Freedom to marry and raise a family. Freedom to receive free education in
public schools. Freedom to join a political party, union, or other legal group.
Reasons why this form of government leads the
country to development
There is the element of decentralized.
The Rise of political institutions.
Rise of commerce.
Spread of education.
Dissolution of monasteries led to redistribution of wealth.
Shift of power from feudal lords to the monarch.
Free Media, Judicial, and other institutions of country.
Some people dislike democracy, why?
The reason is that they like dictatorship.
They say that today the democracy is the lie, It is not true democracy.
It is the fake democracy.
It hand power to the people who are generally stupid.
Democracies are not democratic• In a country that uses a Single transferable vote it
would almost certainly produce a hung parliament where power is decided in back rooms
not by the voters.
Voters can be bribed, threatened etc. (In Country like Afghanistan, Bribing One tribal
leader could change the Election) and votes can be tampered with.
Not everyone Votes
Many voters vote based on personality not the policy.
Elections Are very expenses and huge revenue is generated on it.
Violence during election.
Lots of national reserve is used in elections.
Some people dislike democracy due to political stability , economic growth etc. like in
Merits of democracy
1. Ethical Defence:
Democracy recognizes the worth of a man. It rejects the right of one or a few to rule over the others. Under democracy the community as a whole is the
custodian of sovereignty of state.
Dewey says, "The foundation of democracy is faith in the capacities of human nature, faith in human intelligence and in the power of pooled co-operative
2. Common Welfare:
It is, therefore, only in democracy that common welfare can be promoted. The government will respond to the needs of all since power of sovereignty vests in
all. Those who are excluded from power are also denied the privileges of power. It is only in democracy that a citizen is at once the subject and the ruler and
"just government is government by consent of the governed.
" As J.S. Mill puts it, "the participation in governmental affairs lifts the individual above the narrow circle of his egotism and broadens his interests. Democracy
makes an individual interested in his country and gives him a sense of responsibility."
3. Rule of Law:
It is only in democracy that the rule of persons and classes is replaced by the "rule of law"; where fundamental rights are guaranteed and treated as limitations
upon the government.
4. Democracy develops the Spirit of Patriotism:
As J.S. Mill puts it, "Democracy strengthens the love of country because citizens feel that the government is their own creation and the rulers their servants
rather than masters". This conception imbibes in them the spirit of patriotism and nationalism.
5. Responsible to the People:
A democratic government cannot become tyrannical or arbitrary as a monarchy or an aristocracy can. It is subject to regular and constant criticism and popular
pressure. It alone provides responsibility of the rulers. The party in power can retain power only by invoking the sanction of popular support which can be
possible only if it serves popular interests.
The opposition parties keep a check and watch upon the ruling party. The latter has always to explain its policy and convince the electorate of its soundness. All
decisions are to be arrived at by discussion, argument and persuasion. Democracy avoids suppre-ssion of thought and action.
6. Peaceful change of Government:
People have a right to change the government peacefully. No other form of government provides such mechanism. It thus avoids violent revolutions and
provides for flexibility. As Dr. Lindsay observes, "A democratic society sure of itself can be indefinitely elastic in its methods.
It can as in a time of crisis, give enormous powers into the hands of government, in cheerful confidence that, the crisis past, it can take them away.
" All other forms of Govern-ment are rigid and can only be thrown away through violent revolutions or revolt. History is replete with examples when absolute
government had to face popular wrath in form of rebellions and revolts.
It ensures equality and liberty. There are no ruler and ruled. All are citizens. People can live and regulate their lives according to their needs and choice. The will
of the state comes to be in accord with the general will.
John Stuart Mill rightly says that in democracy "the whole people or some numerous portion of them exercise the governing power through deputies
periodically elected by them." All the people equally participate in the exercise of the sovereign power.
8. More obedience to laws:
Since laws are made by popular legislatures through the elected representatives of the people, the people would render unflinching obedience to such laws.
These laws would not be a command of the sovereign but would reflect the needs and respond to the impulses of the people.
Democracy has an immense educative value. J.S. Mill rightly pointed out that a citizen who has no vote is either a malcontent or an indifferent citizen." Citizens
in democracy participate in the election of parliaments in the process of law making, and in the execution of laws.
The ruling and opposition parties constantly educate the people. The voter gets many opportunities to be politically educated at panchayat, local, provincial and
10. Stable Government:
Democracy serves as a training school for citizenship; it strengthens patriotism and thereby minimizes the possibilities of discontent and revolutions.
As Gettle says, "Popular intelligence and virtue are its most valuable results. Popular election, popular control and popular responsibility ensure not only
efficiency in government but also stability in the state."
Democracy is a self Government. It is a government of the people, by the people, for the people. People are more satisfied and contented in a democracy as they
are directly or indirectly associated with the affairs of the state.
People prefer self-government to any other form of Government (Dictatorship or Monarchy) even though that may be more efficient. "Efficient Government is
no substitute for self-government."
12. Guarantee of Freedom:
Democracy implies the recognition of the duties of the Government and rights of the people. It postulates a measure of personal freedom and equal
consideration for all the people. As J.S. Mill puts it, "Democracy is superior to other forms of government because the rights and interests of every person are
secure from being disregarded".
13. Democracy against Psychology of Power:
In democracy, there is very little chance of working of psychology of power since the government is amenable to the control of the people who can change them
at any moment. In all other forms of Government, the rulers are liable to become power-lords and tyrants.
Demerits of democracy
1. Quantity rather than Quality:
It lays emphasis on quantity as opposed to quality. Every person whether stupid or genius is treated equal while
inequality is a biological phenomenon. It turns into government by "the ignorant and the intellectual." It standardizes
life on a low level.
Mencken says that democracy is based on the assumption that all wisdom rests with inferior four-fifths of
mankind, who according to Carlyle are "mostly fools." Government in democracy works on 'majority mecha-nism.
' Decidedly the intellectuals and wise people are in minority and majority is in the hands or intellectuals and mediocre.
Democracy thus tends to be a Government of the mediocre since in it, votes are counted but not weighed.
It very often breeds inefficiency. The political leaders are more busy with forming political alliances and thereby
maintaining their positions rather than looking after the administration.
In practice, the administration is run by the bureaucrats who owe no responsibility to the people. Fagot calls democracy
as "cult of incompe-tence."
It breeds corruption like 'spoils system', 'lobby-ing', 'log-rolling', etc. Unhealthy political compromises are
made, coalitions are formed throwing all principles to winds thereby. Privileges and power are distributed among the
supporters of the regime rather than given to those who deserve. Democracy thus encourages nepotism, jobbery and
4. Political Parties:
It leads to formation of political parties which mislead, misinform and misguide the electorate. They distort
issues, falsify facts, appeal to emotions, make falser and Utopian promises.
5. A Government of Careerists, Opportunists, Self-seekers and Demagogues:
In democracy, people who have no principle of their own flourish while genuine persons with good intentions lag
behind. Such people are generally election shy and shun the botheration of elections and political manoeuvrings.
People who belong to the class of careerists, opportunists, self-seekers and demagogues succeed easily in politics and
they reach the scats of authority. Really capable people having compe-tence are pushed back to the wall.
It is very expensive type of government. Parlia-ments, cabinets, election machinery are all a costly affair and a burden
on the tax payer. Millions of dollars are spent on the presidential election in the U.S.A., to take one example.
Freitschke describes democracy as a "corrupt dollar worshipping plutocracy or oligarchy of the rich". According to Lecky, "democracy neither produces equality
The rich classes and political leaders exploit the ignorant and simple masses.
Further masses are opposed to intellectual progress and scientific devel-opment.
8. Cannot meet emergencies:
It is pointed out that democracies are unfit to meet emergencies like the Economic Depression of 1922 and the two world wars. The Governments had also to
assume dictatorial powers in democratic states.
Democracy leads to majority rule which tyrannizes the minority. It leads to revolutions and mob violence. It subjects the people to rule of numerous rather than
rule of the wise.
The opponents of democracy point out that it is a process of dis-education rather than education. It lowers standards, it puts premium on emotion rather than
reason, on ignorance rather than intelligence and knowledge. It creates among masses a false sense of equality.
Every voter thinks that he is equal to every other voter and fit to govern. The masses are less interested in advancement of science, culture, art, literature, etc., as
compared to the privileged classes. "It produces a civilization" which Burns describes as "banal, mediocre, or dull".
11. Curtailment of Liberty:
Democracy, it is alleged, does not extend the domain of liberty and equality. It promotes practices like Mac- Carthyism in the U.S.A. or Preventive Detention Act
in India whereby liberty and freedom of the people are completely taken away at the discretion of the executive.
The power of the state is used by the party in power to perpetuate its rule rather than for advancement of the people. As President Lowell said, one grievous
failure of democracy in the U.S.A. is the misgovernment of her large cities. Lacky is of the opinion that democracy is opposed to liberty.
12. Difficult system of Government:
Democracy is a difficult form of government for assumptions on which it rests are difficult of fulfilment. It assumes civic capacity on the part of the citizen. This
capacity according to Bryce lies in "intelligence, self-control and con-science". The citizen must be able to understand the interest of the
community, subordinate his own will to the General will and must feel his responsibility to the community and be prepared to serve it by voting and by choosing
the best men.
The fact remains that in most of the countries of the world these assumptions cannot be fulfilled. The people, by and large show indifference to public life. They
neglect to study public affairs. Self-interest reveals itself in buying of votes. Party discipline kills independent thinking.
Failure of democracy in almost all the underdevel-oped countries is matter of common knowledge because of the fact that basic qualities enumerated above are
not yet developed in them.
13. Political Democracy without Economic Democracy is mean-ingless:
Political democracy in a class divided society under capitalism tends to develop into the rule of the few capitalists. The capitalists possess all the resources
needed for elections whereas a vast majority of people, workers peasants and lower middle classes are without all those means which can enable them to come
to the forefront.
Politics for the rich is just a business enterprise while the same is beyond the reach of the poor. Thus we see justification in the remarks that "in U.K. it is the
Bank of England that rules (implies capitalists) and in America there is Dollar Democracy which implies the government by the economically dominant
Countries follow democracy
Trinidad and Tobago
United States of
the points which are in favour of democracy:
Citizens trust democratic government.
Fulfilled the need of people.
Democratic government have respect in the world.
Gives people the widest range of freedoms.
People get to vote for the people who rule them.
The voice of every person of voting age can be heard.
The courts are independent and can defend the Constitution and law without
fear of reprisal.
Types of democracies followed by countries
democratic and parliamentary
People shouldn't be afraid of their government. Governments should be afraid of their people.”
:::Alan Moore, V for Vendetta
:::What difference does it make to the dead, the orphans and the homeless, whether the mad destruction is wrought under the name of
totalitarianism or in the holy name of liberty or democracy?”
“But collective thinking is usually short-lived. We're fickle, stupid beings with poor memories and a great gift for self-destruction.”
:::Suzanne Collins, Mocking jay
“Anti-intellectualism has been a constant thread winding its way through our political and cultural life, nurtured by the false notion that
democracy means that 'my ignorance is just as good as your knowledge.'”
“The best argument against democracy is a five-minute conversation with the average voter.”
“The first duty of a man is to think for himself”
“Democracy must be something more than two wolves and a sheep voting on what to have for dinner.”
:::James Bovard, Lost Rights: The Destruction of American Liberty
“You have to remember one thing about the will of the people: it wasn't that long ago that we were swept away by the Macarena.”
I am a firm believer in the people. If given the truth, they can be depended upon to meet any national crisis. The great point is to bring them
the real facts, and beer.”
He was the president of Chile, a country in South America. He was a leader elected by the
people. Allende was the founder leader of the Socialist Party of Chile and led the Popular
Unity coalition to victory in the presidential election in 1970. After being elected the
president, Allende had taken several policy decisions to help the poor and the workers.
These included reform of the educational system, free milk for children and redistribution of
lands to the landless farmers. He was opposed to foreign companies taking away natural
resources like copper from the country. The landlords, the rich and the church opposed his
policies. Some other political parties in Chile also opposed his government.
Death of Allende
On the morning of 11th September 1973, the military took over the
seaport, The Defence minister was arrested by the military when he arrived at
his office. The military commanders asked the President to resign. Allende
refused to resign or leave the country. But realizing the danger to the country
and to his life, he addressed the people on the radio. Then the military
surrounded the president’s house and started bombing
President Allende died in the military attack . This was the sacrifice he was
talking about in his last speech. A government and people elected was overthrown
by the military through conspiracy and violence. What took place in this story is a
military coup. General Augusto Pinochet army general, led the coup. The
government of U.S.A was unhappy with the rule of Allende and have known to
support the coup destroying Allende.
Pinochet became the President of the country and ruled for the next 17
years. From a government that was elected by the people, the power shifted
to the military officers. They could do as they wished and no one could
question them. Thus a military dictatorship was established in Chile.
Pinochet’s government was tortured and killed several of those who
supported Allende and those who wanted democracy to be restored.
Democracy in Polland
This event in Poland happened in 1980. At that time
Poland was ruled by Polish United Worker’s Party. This
was one of many communist parties that ruled in several
countries of east Europe at that time. In these countries
no other political party was allowed to function. The
people could not freely choose the leaders of the
communist party or the government.
After discuss the above, points of democracy, we
come to know that the democracy form of
government is the best form of the government in
which the country will develop to the great developed
country of the world, the country where there is
equal rights for all mankind, abundance of
food, availability of shelter and other necessaries of
life, the country where is the rule of law and the rule
of the poor people of the country. If these countries
with democratic form of government, full fill the
above requirements of the life, than this nation will
become a developed nation of the world.
By group 2
Submitted to Aswathi miss
Athul . M . Suresh
Fadil Shihab .K
Muhammed Sahal V.P
Sagar Das C.K
Salman Nasar K.T
Vijay Das .P
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