EGYPT Middle East & North Africa By: Sally Steele
Egypt’s Location Officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, a country in north-eastern Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Israel and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. The principal geographic feature of the country is the Nile River.
Big part of Egypt – The Nile River Why was the Nile River so important to the Ancient Egyptians?
4,160 miles in length and is the longest river in Africa and in the world
22% of the Nile’s course runs through Egypt
Nile creates a fertile green valley across the desert
Ancient Egyptians lived and farmed along the Nile, using the soil to produce food for themselves and their animals
Flows northward through northeastern Africa
Ancient Egypt could not have existed without the river Nile. Since rainfall is almost non-existent in Egypt, the floods provided the only source of moisture to sustain crops.
Every year, heavy summer rain in the Ethiopian highlands, sent a torrent of water that overflowed the banks of the Nile. When the floods went down it left thick rich mud ( black silt) which was excellent soil to plant seeds in after it had been ploughed.
The ancient Egyptians could grow crops only in the mud left behind when the Nile flooded. So they all had fields all along the River Nile.
Three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the national emblem (a gold Eagle of Saladin facing the hoist side with a shield superimposed on its chest above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in the white band; design is based on the Arab Liberation flag of red, white, and black
Languages of Egypt and area in which they are spoken.
The official language is Arabic, but English is widely spoken in commerce and government
Cereals. Rice is one of the major field crops, grown on nearly 500 000 feddans, and is considered the second most important export crop after cotton. Wheat is the major winter cereal grain crop and the third major crop in terms of area planted in Egypt and the leading agricultural export crop.
Sugar crops. Sugar cane is the main sugar crop in upper Egypt. About 90 percent of the yield is used for sugar extraction. Sugar beet also grows in large areas in the Nile delta, and contributes to the sugar industry in Egypt.
Food legumes. These include a number of bean crops that are used for human consumption, such as broad beans and soybeans.
Forage crops. Egyptian clover, berseem, is the major winter forage crop cultivated in the Nile Valley and delta. It is the most widely grown field crop and occupies an area which totals 1.2 million feddans.
Fruits. Citrus, primarily oranges that represent 85 percent of total citrus production, makes up 50 percent of total fruit production. The fruit-planted area has expanded over the last three decades to reach about 200 000 feddans. Other subtropical fruits are also grown in Egypt, including grapes, stone fruits and pome fruits.
Vegetables. Tomatoes are grown in three seasons - winter, summer and autumn - on about 3 percent of Egypt's total planted area. Losses in tomato crops have been large as a result of tomato leaf curl virus, early and late blight, and nematodes.