Roots Of Nonverbal Behavior Post
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Roots Of Nonverbal Behavior Post

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Roots Of Nonverbal Behavior Post Roots Of Nonverbal Behavior Post Presentation Transcript

  • Roots of Nonverbal Behavior Chapter 2
  • Background
    • 20 th century debated nature vs. nurture
    • “ Behaviorists” believe genetics can be changed
    • Today most believe combination of nature AND environment
    • Much of nonverbal has innate AND learned aspects
  • Roots of Nonverbal
    • Ekman & Friesen (1969)
    • THREE PRIMARY SOURCES OF NV BEHAVIOR:
    • 1.) Inherited neurological programs
    • 2.) Experience common to all member of the species
    • 3.) Experience varies with culture, class, family, etc.
    • -----------------------------------------------------------
    • Biological & cultural forces overlap
    • EXAMPLES:
    • clearing throat, laughing, topless beaches
  • Development of Nonverbal Behavior Across Evolutionary Time
    • How do we define what’s innate & what’s learned?
    • Phylogeny - roots of behavior in human evolutionary history
    • ----------------------------------------
    • BEST EVIDENCE COMES FROM:
    • 1.) Sensory deprivation – behavior in blind and/or deaf people who cannot learn via auditory or visual channels
    • 2.) Neonates – behaviors observed within minutes or hours after birth
    • 3.) Identical twins- evidence from twins brought up in different environments
    • 4.) Nonhuman primates – shows continuity of nonverbal behavior
    • 5.) Multicultural studies – similar behaviors for similar purposes around the world
  • Sensory Deprivation
    • Is the early NV behavior seen in children innate?
    • ----------------------------------------------------
    • HOW:
    • Examine children blind AND deaf from birth (ages 2 to 10)
    • WHY:
    • Void of learning via visual and auditory cues
    • RESULTS:
    • Many spontaneous expressions same as other children
    • (i.e., sadness, crying, laughing, smiling, surprise, etc.)
    • CRITICISM:
    • Could learn through touch or reinforcement
    • SUPPORT:
    • Same results among children w/o arms or with other severe birth defects
  • Sensory Deprivation
    • OTHER FINDINGS: SIMILAR MOVEMENT
    • -Seeking contact (stretching out hands)
    • -Seek embracing when distressed
    • -Similar refusal gestures
    • -Eye patterns (feeling coy, turn toward & away)
  • Sensory Deprivation
    • DIFFERENCES:
    • -Visible when children grow older
    • -Display rules
      • Can’t learn from imitation
      • Less subtle
      • Suitable intensity(based on situations)
      • Less able to mask emotions
      • Less mimicking (learned)
    • CONCLUSION:
    • Combination of nature AND nurture
  • Evidence from Infants
    • OVERALL:
    • Newborns seem to have facial muscles needed for almost all human facial expressions
    • THEREFORE…
    • Same display as adults? Same emotions as adults?
    • EVIDENCE IS MIXED:
    • Hard to tell which emotion newborn is conveying
  • Evidence from Infants
    • RESEARCH DEBATE:
    • 1.) Start w/same basic expressions (arousal & distress) which are shaped by experience
    • ------------------OR-------------------
    • 2.) Born w/full repertoire of emotional expressions (same as seen in adults)
    • MOST STUDIES BASED ON OPTION 2
    • Differential Emotions Theory (DET) – proposes strong genetic basis for facial expressions (i.e., emotions produce same facial patterns in infants AND adults).
  • Evidence from Infants
    • STUDY FINDINGS:
    • -Young infants display some expressions seen in adults (joy, surprise, and interest)
    • -Expressions are easily recognized (validity)
    • -Infants do not display negative emotions (i.e., fear, anger, disgust, sadness etc.)
    • -Counter findings: by 7 months, can express anger expressions
  • Evidence from Infants
    • OVERALL PROBLEMS:
    • Opportunities for errors
    • Can see expression, don’t know what infant is experiencing
    • Fail to observe possible “infant only” expressions
    • CONCLUSIONS:
    • Lacking solid evidence for “biological-only” point of view
  • Evidence from Infants
    • OTHER STUDIES:
    • -Agree infants facial expressions convey information about their states
    • -Infant expression of pain similar to adults
    • lowered brow
    • eyes squeezed tightly shut
    • vertical wrinkles at side of nose
    • taut, cupped tongue
  • Evidence from Infants
    • OTHER STUDIES:
    • -Infants 12 to 21 days old imitated adults (tongue protrusion, mouth opening, lip protrusion, sequential finger moving)
    • -Imitation from memory
    • 9-month-old (24-hour delay)
    • 14-month-old (week delay)
  • Evidence from Twin Studies
    • STUDY FINDINGS:
    • Fifty percent heredity influence (identical twins)
    • including: job satisfaction, preferred religion, attitudes & values, IQ, job interests, extraversion, emotionality
    • Heredity influence varies by behavior
    • Intelligence 50% - 70%
    • Personality 50%
    • Job interests 40%
    • Social attitudes 34%
    • Non-genetic influence accounts for at least half of behavior
    • (family, environment, cultural factors, etc.)
  • Evidence from Twin Studies
    • WAIT, WHAT ABOUT NONVERBAL BEHAVIOR?
    • No research solely about NV and identical twins
    • --------------------------BUT---------------------------------
    • Some evidence of similar NV behavior from other studies (Example: Farber, 1981)
    • -Twins reared apart (similar vocal pitch, tone, & talkativeness)
    • -Similar mannerisms (posture, laughter, style of walking, head turning, etc.)
    • -Overall, observed similar body language
  • Evidence from Nonhuman Primates
    • Since we’re primates, can explore phylogenetic origins
    • Expressive & signaling behaviors = indication of social organization
    • A few caveats:
    • -humans little use of body color change
    • -almost no referential gestures w/each other
    • -human response not limited to direct stimuli
    • -human repertoire hard to match
  • Evidence from Nonhuman Primates
    • FACIAL EXPRESSIONS:
    • Tense-mouth display (anger & fear)
    • Facial threat display
    • COMPLEMENTARY CUES:
    • Raised hair
    • Muscle tenseness
    • Varying degrees of intensity
  • Evidence from Nonhuman Primates
    • VARIETY OF SOCIAL FUNCTIONS:
    • (similar expressions have different meanings)
    • EX: fear grimace
    • Submissiveness (status emphasized)
    • Play face (status not emphasized)
  • Evidence from Nonhuman Primates
    • SEQUENCE OF BEHAVIOR: (Greetings)
    • -Look from a distance
    • -Look at them during greeting
    • -Look away prior to reestablishing interaction gaze
    • CONCLUSION:
    • Evidence that human communication & communication patterns is partly biological
  • Evidence from Multicultural Studies
    • -Areas of similarity (coyness, flirting, embarrassment, open-handed greetings, lower posture for submission, etc.)
    • -Although similar, culture can dictate WHEN people display nonverbal behavior (cultural norms)
  • Evidence from Multicultural Studies
    • EYE BROW FLASH:
    • -Found among multiple cultures
    • -Friendly greeting behavior AND other meanings
    • Approval or agreeing
    • Seeking confirmation
    • Flirting
    • Thanking
    • Emphasizing a statement
  • Evidence from Multicultural Studies
    • UNIVERSALITY OF FACIAL EXPRESSIONS:
    • -People from 5 distinct cultures shown photos
    • (happiness, fear, surprise, sadness, anger, disgust/contempt)
    • -High agreement of expression/emotion
    • -Other study tested people from 21 countries
  • Evidence from Multicultural Studies
    • POTENTIAL PROBLEM:
    • -Exposure to mass media & traveling
    • SOLUTION:
    • -Looked at isolated cultures (no mass media, no travel)
    • -Similar results
  • Evidence from Multicultural Studies
    • WORTH MENTIONING:
    • -Happy expressions = Nearly universal meaning
    • -Smile most salient feature of happy expressions
    • CAVEAT:
    • Not all smiles will be interpreted as happy, BUT happy expressions will have a common meaning universally
  • Body Language Basics
    • -Quick to make judgments, don’t look at eyes first
    • Body language negotiates interpersonal attitudes
    • -Can tell a lot from listening to person’s voice
    • -Reveals emotions and thoughts
    • crossing arms
    • groping gestures
    • -Most of us unaware of body language signals
  • Body Language Basics
    • -Women are more perceptive
    • “ Women’s intuition
    • -Couple expression study
    • Women 82% correct
    • Men 42% correct
    • Male exceptions (artists, actors, nurses, gay men)
    • -Brain scans
    • Women 14 to 16 areas
    • Men 4 to 6 areas
  • Body Language Basics
    • -Fortune tellers, 80% accuracy “reading a person”
    • -So good, may be convinced of psychic abilities
    • -More female psychics (extra brain wiring)
  • Body Language Basics
    • RULES FOR ACCURATE READING:
    • 1.) Read in clusters, don’t interpret just one
    • -Take multiple meanings into consideration EX: scratching head (dandruff, uncertain, lying, forgetfulness)
    • -Gestures come in sentences
  • Body Language Basics
    • 2.) Look for congruence
    • -Body language carries 5 times impact of verbal
    • -Inconsistency tells us something
    • -Women tend to ignore verbal when incongruent
  • Body Language Basics
    • 3.) Read gestures in context
    • Take the situation/circumstances into consideration
    • EX: At bus stop, cold and wet
    • Inside could mean wishing for a
    • restroom OR sick & experiencing chills