SPA - Systems and Products Assurance: Systemic View

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Module: EThICS 039.BG01E.09_SPA_Systemic View
Topic: SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE
Subject: SPA - Systems and Products Assurance: Systemic View
Scope:

PURPOSE OF THE MODULE

INTRODUCTION
Acronyms
Motivations for SPA, from Customers and Users
Motivations for SPA, from Developers and Manufacturers
Why Design for Reliability (DFR)?
The Paradigms for Design for Reliability (DFR)
The Risk of Thinking Only on Averages
Fig. 1: The (In)Visibility of the Total Costs
Fig. 2: Model of the Composition of the LCC
Technologies of SPA
Fig. 3: Requirements for Projects of Systems
Scope of Technologies and Specialties of RDI
Scope of Technologies and Specialties of SPA
Main Objectives of SPA
Some Benefits of the SPA Technologies
Major Difficulties of SPA

INTEGRATED VISION OF SPA
Motivations for the Integration of RDI and SPA
Fig. 4: Simultaneous and Proactive Engineering of RDI and SPA
Fig. 5: Elementary Cycle of Project Validation and Assurance
Fig. 6: Integrated Organization of RDI and SPA Specialties
Fig. 7: Initial Steps of RDI of Systems and Products
Fig. 8: Integrated Steps and Tasks of SCR
Fig. 9: Technologies of Research, Development and Innovation
Fig. 10: Responsibilities of Management of SPA - Integration
Responsibilities of Management of SPA - Budget
Responsibilities of Management of SPA - Risks
Management of Information and Knowledge of SPA
Fig. 11: Management of Information and Knowledge of RDI
Fig. 12: Programs e Plans of SPA for Projects

APPENDICES
References
EThICS Engineering - Services and Areas of Action

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SPA - Systems and Products Assurance: Systemic View

  1. 1. Engineering Technology, Intelligence Consulting & Systems EThICS ENGINEERING EThICS 039.BG01E.09 RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND INNOVATION SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE - Systemic View PURPOSE OF THE MODULE INTEGRATED VISION OF SPA INTRODUCTION Acronyms Motivations for SPA, from Customers and Users Motivations for SPA, from Developers and Manufacturers Why Design for Reliability (DFR)? The Paradigms for Design for Reliability (DFR) The Risk of Thinking Only on Averages Fig. 1: The (In)Visibility of the Total Costs Fig. 2: Model of the Composition of the LCC Technologies of SPA Fig. 3: Requirements for Projects of Systems Scope of Technologies and Specialties of RDI Scope of Technologies and Specialties of SPA Main Objectives of SPA Some Benefits of the SPA Technologies Major Difficulties of SPA Motivations for the Integration of RDI and SPA Fig. 4: Simultaneous and Proactive Engineering of RDI and SPA Fig. 5: Elementary Cycle of Project Validation and Assurance Fig. 6: Integrated Organization of RDI and SPA Specialties Fig. 7: Initial Steps of RDI of Systems and Products Fig. 8: Integrated Steps and Tasks of SCR Fig. 9: Technologies of Research, Development and Innovation Fig. 10: Responsibilities of Management of SPA - Integration Responsibilities of Management of SPA - Budget Responsibilities of Management of SPA - Risks Management of Information and Knowledge of SPA Fig. 11: Management of Information and Knowledge of RDI Fig. 12: Programs e Plans of SPA for Projects APPENDICES References EThICS Engineering - Services and Areas of Action Antonio Sallum Librelato - Director – EThICS Engineering - November - 2013 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 1
  2. 2. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 Ref.: [EE_039.BG01.04] Purpose of Module The main purpose of this module is to present, in an introductory way, the following topics: Understanding Systems and Products Assurance (SPA) and the technologies applied. Motivations, goals, advantages and difficulties of technology applications for SPA. Integrated vision of the SPA technologies with other disciplines for Research, Development and Innovation (RDI). The management technologies and engineering for SPA will be detailed in other specific modules. 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 2
  3. 3. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 INTRODUCTION 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 3
  4. 4. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 Ref.: [EE_039.BG01.04] INTRODUCTION Acronyms ACRONYM CIS CISP DFR DPSP DSP EAP EDP ESR FMEA IPSP LCC LCPP MPSPA MRP MTBF NRA NSD OMR 30/11/2013 MEANING Construction and Integration of Systems Construction and Integration of Systems and Products Design For Reliability Definitive Project of Systems and Products Development of Systems and Products Engineering of Analog Processing Engineering of Digital Processing Engineering of Systems and Requirements Failure Modes and Effects Analysis Installation Project of Systems and Products Life Cycle Cost Life Cycle of Projects e Products Master Plan of Systems and Products Assurance Management of RDI Programs Mean Time Between Failures Needs and Requirements Analysis New Systems Development Operational Management of RDI ACRONYM PRAA PSPA PPSP PrSPA RDI SAT SCD SCE SCR SMR SPA SRAA STE TCA TCI TCO TMR TPP TSR TTA MEANING Products Risks and Assurance Analysis Plan of Systems and Products Assurance Preliminary Project of Systems and Products Program of Systems and Products Assurance Research, Development and Innovation Strategic Analysis of Technologies System Concept Definition Systems Concepts Exploration Systems Concepts Research Strategic Management of RDI Systems and Products Assurance Systems Risks and Assurance Analysis Special Technical Studies Total Cost of Acquisition Technological and Competitive Intelligence Total Cost of Ownership Tactical Management of RDI Technical Presentations of Projects Technology and Systems Research Technology Transfer and Absorption Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 4
  5. 5. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 INTRODUCTION Ref.: [EE_039.BC02.07][EE_039.BG01.04] [KLEY_01][RAHE_01][RAHE_03] Motivations for SPA, from Customers and Users Get durable solutions, and cost-effective, not only on the Total Cost of Acquisition (TCA), but in particular on the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO). Being aware about the guarantees and costs (costeffectiveness) throughout the life cycle (LCC). Possess detailed and anticipated knowledge about costs of acquisition, deployment, use, maintenance and replacement of systems. Tending not to accept solutions which have uncertainty of performance or solutions that prove to be of low availability, higher maintenance costs and shorter lifetimes, even at low acquisition costs. [RAHE_01][RAHE_03] The repetition of events of failures and multiple noneffectiveness of the solutions will be cause for successive complaints and demands from customers and users. [KLEY_01] 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 5
  6. 6. EThICS ENGINEERING EThICS 039.BG01E.09 SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE INTRODUCTION Ref.: [EE_039.BC02.07][EE_039.BG01.04] [KLEY_01] Motivations for SPA, from Developers and Manufacturers The failures in the field will bring inevitable repairs losses, warranty claims, customer dissatisfaction, call-back of products (recall), loss of sales and, in extreme cases, loss of life. [KLEY_01] Complaints and demands generated by customers and users can lead to damages to the image, market losses and liabilities to the supplier. Act proactively, from the early stages of projects, to create solutions that ensure better effectiveness at lower costs, throughout its life cycle. Demonstrate in advance that the solutions offered include the means for longer useful life and lower life cycle costs. 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 6
  7. 7. EThICS ENGINEERING EThICS 039.BG01E.09 SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE INTRODUCTION Ref.: [EE_039.BC02.07][EE_039.BG01.04][KLEY_01] Motivations for SPA, from Developers and Manufacturers Deficiencies of effectiveness that are not remedied in the steps of non-recurring RDI will manifest in multiple systems and products resulted in recurrent stages of production, support and use, causing outages, costs and inefficiencies of results. Moreover, the preventive and proactive action, made ​in the nonrecurring steps will charge once, but will result in reductions in recurrent costs, multiple times, for each unit of product, in the recurring steps. [KLEY_01] 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 7
  8. 8. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 INTRODUCTION Ref.: [RAHE_03] Why Design for Reliability (DFR)? Reliability is defined as the probability of performing ALL the functions (including safety functions) satisfactorily for a specified time and specified use conditions. The causes and probabilities of failures related to all factors of assurance of systems and products should be analyzed. The functions and conditions of use are established by the requirements. Two causes for the low reliability come from requirements: Missing or vague requirements. Number of fault events that will be tolerable. To prevent failures, it is necessary be able to predict them, through analysis of failure modes and effects (FMEA), and remove them from products, during the initial stages of the project. 30/11/2013 Propriedade Intelectual de EThICS Engineering 8
  9. 9. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 INTRODUCTION Ref.: [RAHE_03] Why Design for Reliability (DFR)? The use of MTBF as a measure of the reliability of a product no longer meets the users and customers expectations! Depending on the statistical distribution of failures data, roughly 50% to 70% failures may occur during the time indicated by the MTBF! No user today can tolerate such a high number of failures! Ideally, a user does not want any failures for the entire expected life! The real question is: Why not design for zero failures if we can increase profits and gain more market share? Zero failures implies zero mission-critical failures or zero safetycritical system failures. As a minimum, systems in which failures can lead to catastrophic consequences must be designed for zero failures. 30/11/2013 Propriedade Intelectual de EThICS Engineering 9
  10. 10. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 INTRODUCTION Ref.: [RAHE_03] Why Design for Reliability (DFR)? The aim for design for reliability (DFR) is to design-out failures of critical system functions in a system. The number of such failures should be zero for the expected life of the product. For complex systems, we may find impossible to have zero failures, since there are multiple factors that may affect the reliability of the system: Software interactions. Wiring connections. Human factors. Issues of compatibility may occur, among components and materials, among subsystems, and among hardware and software interactions. Then, for complex systems, it may be impossible to obtain zero failures, but we must at least prevent the potential failures we know about. 30/11/2013 Propriedade Intelectual de EThICS Engineering 10
  11. 11. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 INTRODUCTION Ref.: [RAHE_03] Why Design for Reliability (DFR)? Since failures can come from unknown and unexpected interactions, we should try to design-in fallback modes for unexpected events. At a company meeting, customers were asked by the manufacturer to describe the warranty they would wish to have, answered, in consensus: No warranty is the best warranty! To understand the paradox: the best warrant would be the one that would never experience a claim. In other words: the customers wanted a failure-free design for reliability! In summary, we can say that we need: To define functions correctly. To design not to fail. To implement all the paradigms for DFR. 30/11/2013 Propriedade Intelectual de EThICS Engineering 11
  12. 12. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 INTRODUCTION Ref.: [RAHE_03] The Paradigms for Design for Reliability (DFR) Knowledge of the right things comes from practicing the use of lessons learned! Here are the lessons that RAHEJA teach us, by way of the eight paradigms: 1. Learn To Be Lean Instead of Mean. 2. Spend a Lot of Time on Requirements Analysis. 3. Measure Reliability By Life-Cycle Costs. 4. Design for Twice the Life. 5. Safety-Critical Components Should Be Designed for Four Lives. 6. Learn to Alter the Paradox of Cost and Performance into a Win-Win Situation. 7. Design to Avoid Latent Manufacturing Flaws. 8. Design for Prognostics Health Monitoring. 30/11/2013 Propriedade Intelectual de EThICS Engineering 12
  13. 13. EThICS ENGINEERING EThICS 039.BG01E.09 SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE INTRODUCTION Ref.: [SAVA_01] The Risk of Thinking Only on Averages 30/11/2013 Propriedade Intelectual de EThICS Engineering 13
  14. 14. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 Ref.: [BATA_01][BLAN_01][BLAN_02] [EE_039.BC02.07][KAWA_01] INTRODUCTION Fig. 1: The (In)Visibility of the Total Costs Barely Part of the Total Cost of Acquisition What is done here, at each project and at each produced unit,... ...defines what happens here, and that is repeated at each acquisition and in each period of the rest of the life cycle of each one! Most part of the TCO is associated to the Investments Costs and Sustainment Costs. During the steps of the RDI and PSP, those costs are often neglected, when there is more focus only on the purchase costs. 30/11/2013 The TCO is represented by the complete “iceberg” of costs! Cost of RDI + PSP + Infra Part of the Non-Recurrent Investments Costs + Recurrent Investment Costs + Sustainment Costs 21/01/13 Before having the full possession of the system or product, the client often does not realize the costs beyond what is "visible.“ After the inauguration, he will have to look the "invisible“ part of the iceberg. Remainder of the Total Cost of Acquisition + Total Cost of Operation Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 14
  15. 15. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 Ref.: [BLAN_01][EE_039.BC02.07] INTRODUCTION Fig. 2: Model of the Composition of the LCC PREPARATION COSTS SUSTAINMENT COSTS RDI Costs Replication Cost Cost of Deployment Costs of Schedule and Non-Schedules Maintenance Cost of Use of Facilities Disposal Costs Non-Recurring Recurring Non-Recurring Recurring Recurring Recurring Occurs only once for all Occur for each unit units produced produced Occur for every installation of each unit Occur for each unit Occur for each unit installed and for each installed and for each maintenance cycle operation cycle Occur only once for each unit installed TSR Technology and Systems Research PSP Production of Systems and Products Installation Project ILS Integrated Logistic Support Operation Legal Permission SCR Systems Concepts Research Factory Acceptance Tests Design and Construction of Infrastructure Replacement and Renovation Training for Continued Operation Demolition and Disposal DSP Development of Systems and Products Qualification and Certification Improvement of Equipment and Infrastructure Modification of Systems and Equipment Consumption of Energy , Water, Communications and Other Repairs and Restorations Improvement of Utilities Materials, LaborWork, Charges Supply of Materials and Consumables Depreciation Systems Integration and Commissioning Transportation and Insurance Rents Improving the Environmental Sustainability SPA Systems and Products Assurance Trading and Contracting Management and Documentation Packaging, Transportation and Insurance Management and Documentation Initial Preparations for Operation Management and Documentation Outsourced Services Management and Documentation TCA TOTAL COST OF ACQUISITION Management and Documentation Management and Documentation COO COST OF OPERATION TCO TOTAL COST OF OWNERSHIP (06/04/13) 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 15
  16. 16. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 INTRODUCTION Ref.: [RAHE_01][EE_039.BG01.04] Technologies of SPA Are the processes designed to ensure that a product will perform well during their expected lifetime. [RAHE_01] Due to different degrees of complexity, it is usual specifying such integrated processes as: [RAHE_01] Systems Assurance: for large systems such as aircraft, power plants and similar. Product Assurance: for consumer or industrial products . An organization of RDI shall develop and implement plans, methods and processes that bring the best results of the projects in terms of effectiveness and life cycle cost. The scope presented below covers the technologies that are most useful for most projects. Other technologies may be used, depending on the characteristics and nature of the systems and product development. 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 16
  17. 17. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 INTRODUCTION Ref.: [RAHE_01][EE_039.BG01.04] Technologies of SPA Those technologies: Require proactive actions that should be undertaken in an integrated and simultaneous way with the other specialized technologies required for research, development, production, implementation, operation and maintenance, depending on the nature and technology of the systems and products. When applied in the early stages of projects, allow to guarantee the products and reduce life cycle costs. When not applied properly, the products obtained often have deficiencies in performance and cost-effectiveness during the later stages of the life cycle, resulting in complaints and demands by customers and increased costs for both parties. 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 17
  18. 18. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 Ref.: [BLAN_01] INTRODUCTION Fig. 3: Requirements for Projects of Systems Design for Functionality (Performance) Accuracy, capacity, computer throughput, power output, processing time, range, reaction time, rate, sensitivity, size, speed, weight, responsiveness, etc Design for Reliability Design for Flexibility Design for Maintainability Design for Transportability Design for Usability Design for Productivity (human factors) Design for Safety and Security Design for Supportability RDI OF SYSTEMS Design for Quality Design for Disposability (serviceability: logistics, maintenance) Design for Environment Design for Interoperability (sustainability) Design for Availability 28/03/13 Design for Testability Design for Affordability (LCC-Effectiveness) 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 18
  19. 19. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 Ref.: [EE_039.BG01.04] INTRODUCTION Scope of Technologies and Specialties of RDI The basic technologies (disciplines, specialties) for RDI are: Management: Engineering: Management of RDI Programs Strategic Management Tactical Management Operational Management Technical Management of Projects 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering Requirements Systems Electrical, Electronics and Telecommunications Mechanics Parts, Materials and Processes Aeronautics Software and Computing Civil Installation and Maintenance Other, according to the nature of the project´s object 19
  20. 20. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 Ref.: [RAHE_01][EE_039.BG01.04] INTRODUCTION Scope of Technologies and Specialties of SPA The basic technologies (disciplines, specialties) for SPA are: Management: Engineering : Management of Systems and Products Assurance Management of Risks of Hazards and Uncertainties Management of CostEffectiveness Management of Software Assurance Management of Configuration Management of Rights and Penalties of SPA 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering Quality Assurance Reliability Assurance Maintainability Systems Safety Systems Security Human Factors Supportability and Logistics Sustainability Verification and Validation Other, analogous 20
  21. 21. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 INTRODUCTION Ref.: [RAHE_01][EE_039.BG01.04] Main Objectives of SPA Proactive Action Plan and execute the actions and control the results, in an integrated way, at each step of the LCPP. Think, analyze and act preemptively to the facts and processes of creation and use of products and systems. Disciplinary Integration Plan, execute and control the actions of specialties of design and assurance, integrated, simultaneous and cooperatively, at every step of LCPP. Performance Assurance Specify, implement, verify and validate each solution of the project, system and product, to comply with the requirements of performance, over the LCPP, and in function of each technology of SPA. 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 21
  22. 22. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 INTRODUCTION Ref.: [RAHE_01][KLEY_01][EE_039.BG01.04] Main Objectives of SPA Reduction of Life Cycle Costs: Establish balanced solutions between cost and effectiveness of system. [RAHE_01] Evaluate the cost elements of the LCC and manage the actions and solutions for its reduction and optimization, especially regarding the TCO. Risks Mitigation: Evaluate the risks of hazards and uncertainties inherent to every solution proposed or effective, according to the technologies employed and to the performance requirements to be achieved. [RAHE_01] Manage processes and projects in order to employ solutions that reduce and mitigate risks throughout the project , systems and products life cycle. [KLEY_01] 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 22
  23. 23. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 INTRODUCTION Ref.: [EE_039.BG01.04] Some Benefits of the SPA Technologies Management of Systems and Products Assurance: Establishes SPA resources to be applied during the development, production and support throughout the life cycle, including: Programs of SPA Organizational Plan. Master and Specific Plans. Budgets and Plans for Specialized Resources. Concepts and Principles, Methods and Processes, Procedures and Techniques. Documentation and Control of Execution and of Results. User and Maintenance Manuals. Terms of Warranty of Products. Promote the proactive and integrated action of SPA, in the organization and during the life cycle. 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 23
  24. 24. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 INTRODUCTION Ref.: [RAHE_01][EE_039.BG01.04] Some Benefits of the SPA Technologies Management of Risks of SPA: Identifies and minimizes risks of hazards and uncertainties in developing new products and systems. Act proactively in implementing solutions at lower risk. Management of Configuration: Ensures that the information (and documents) on the settings of solutions of hardware, software and interfaces be available throughout the life cycle of systems and products in each of the places of usage. Prevents that solutions incompatible with the settings already available to users be sent to the field. It allows performance analysis of different configuration states of products and systems. Lets know the nature and reasons, identify authors and recounting all changes and versions of configuration items. 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 24
  25. 25. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 INTRODUCTION Ref.: [RAHE_01][EE_039.BG01.04] Some Benefits of the SPA Technologies Management of Software Assurance: Ensures software solutions meet the systems functional and operational requirements and also the requirements for quality, reliability, safety, security, maintainability and logistics established for the software. Management of Rights and Penalties of SPA: Establishes the equity and feasibility of warranty terms offered to customers and users Assesses and mitigates the risks of penalties arising from noncompliance, for systems and products, to requirements, standards and laws. Establishes the technical means of protecting the rights of the company in the use of its products and systems. 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 25
  26. 26. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 INTRODUCTION Ref.: [RAHE_01][EE_039.BG01.04] Some Benefits of the SPA Technologies Engineering of Quality Assurance: Aims that the requirements of customer satisfaction are incorporated into the design. Ensures that the specifications obtained in the design and production meet the requirements. Mitigates the risks associated with errors and defects of manufacturing. Ensures that the appropriate quality procedures are adopted to: Design. Qualification and selection of manufacturers and suppliers. Qualification and selection of materials and components. Qualification and selection of processes for the manufacturing, assembling and test. 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 26
  27. 27. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 INTRODUCTION Ref.: [RAHE_01][EE_039.BG01.04] Some Benefits of the SPA Technologies Engineering of Reliability Assurance: Lower rates of defects in products throughout their life. Reduces the costs incurred by the manufacturer due to warranty against defects. Reduces costs incurred by customers as logistics support. Attracts customers, when the costs are reasonable. Engineering of Maintainability: Minimizes time of non-productive systems and products. Reduces repair time. As a consequence, reduces maintenance costs. Engineering of Systems Safety: Allows identification, elimination and control of risks related to security along the life cycle of the product, process or system, making them safer. 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 27
  28. 28. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 INTRODUCTION Ref.: [RAHE_01][EE_039.BG01.04] Some Benefits of the SPA Technologies Engineering of Systems Protection: Allows identification of external threats to the system or product, and the adoption of systemic solutions protected against such threats. Engineering of Human Factors: Recognizes the role of humans in products, processes and systems. Promotes effective integration between humans and products, processes and systems. Help designers in preventing accidents induced by humans, through projects more immune to human errors during use. Mitigates the risks to humans that interface with the product, process or system. 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 28
  29. 29. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 INTRODUCTION Ref.: [RAHE_01][EE_039.BG01.04] Some Benefits of the SPA Technologies Engineering of Supportability and Logistics: Reduces support costs in the field, many of which result from low quality, reliability, maintainability and safety, through analysis of the project from the beginning. Improves the performance of systems in use through intelligent plans for integrated logistics support to systems, products and operations. Engineering of Verification and Validation: Ensures that the elicited requirements have its validity examined and established. Ensures that requirements to be met by the product, process or system to be fully considered by the designers.. Prevents intermediate solutions and still not entirely valid to be used in the subsequent stages of the project. Ensures that appropriate methods and procedures of verification are applied during all stages of project. 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 29
  30. 30. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 INTRODUCTION Ref.: [RAHE_01][EE_039.BG01.04] Some Benefits of the SPA Technologies Engineering of Sustainability: Prevents the design of solutions that do not meet the requirements of preserving the environment and of reducing waste of non-renewable natural resources. Promotes the use and the economy of renewable materials and the reuse and recycling of parts of products, processes and systems. 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 30
  31. 31. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 INTRODUCTION Ref.: [RAHE_01][EE_039.BG01.04] Major Difficulties of SPA Caused by the Requirements: Systems performance requirements nonexistent, vague, incomplete or ambiguous. [RAHE_01] Caused by Inadequate Knowledge: Lack of knowledge about the SPA technologies, methods and processes and ignorance of the relationships between SPA technologies and the trade-offs of solutions to be analyzed. [RAHE_01] Caused by the Policy of the Organization: [RAHE_01] The priorities of attendance of cost, schedule or management programs and projects compromises are in conflict with the priorities of meeting the requirements of performance, effectiveness and guarantees. The project plans and availability of resources are incompatible (not realistic) with the demands of SPA actions. The vision of RDI does not foster integration between the actions of SPA and the research, design and development of systems and products. Attitudes are reactive rather than proactive. 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 31
  32. 32. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 INTEGRATED VISION OF SPA 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 32
  33. 33. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 INTEGRATED VISION Ref.: [EE_039.BG01.04] Motivations for the Integration of RDI and SPA The systems and products assurance is built through the choices and constructions performed by the designers (experts), at each stage of the project, based on the requirements, methods and procedures outlined for this. The integration between the teams of specialists and SPA and RDI allows to plan and execute joint and proactive actions, at every step of RDI, through collaborative and concurrent engineering work. The verifications and validations are done at each stage of project review, to validate compliance with the requirements both technical and functional, as the requirements for the systems and products assurance, prior to release of the solution for use in the next stages of the project. (Fig 4 and Fig 5). The integration between the teams allows adaptation to the demands of such projects, throughout the stages of the life cycle, resulting in greater synergy and better resource economics. 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 33
  34. 34. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 INTEGRATED VISION Ref.: [EE_039.BG01.04] Fig. 4: Simultaneous and Proactive Engineering of RDI and SPA Operational, Technical and Functional Requirements. Methods of Project. RDI Plan of the Project. SPECIALTIES: Management of RDI. Engineering of RDI. Performance and SPA Requirements. Methods of SPA. SPA Plan of the Project. EACH STEP OF THE RDI PROJECT SPECIALTIES: Management of SPA. Technologies of SPA. 20/03/13 Documentation of Project and of Results. 30/11/2013 EACH SOLUTION OF THE PROJECT Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 34
  35. 35. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 Ref.: [EE_039.BG01.04] INTEGRATED VISION Fig. 5: Elementary Cycle of Project Validation and Assurance Operational, Technical and Functional Requirements. Methods of Project. RDI Plan of the Project. Performance and SPA Requirements. Methods of SPA. SPA Plan of the Project. PROJECT EXECUTION Documentation of Project and of Results. EACH SOLUTION OF THE PROJECT PROJECT REVISION V? = is the solution valid? A? = is the solution assured? V&A? NON YES EACH SOLUTION OF THE PROJECT 20/03/13 30/11/2013 V&G Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering NEXT STEP OF THE PROJECT 35
  36. 36. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 INTEGRATED VISION Ref.: [EE_039.BG01.04] Integrated Organization of RDI and SPA Specialties Based on designs of complex electronics systems, with precedents or not, one can create an organization as a model of experts integration into functional groups, such as: MRP – Group of Management of RDI Programs ESR – Group of Engineering of Systems and Requirements SPA – Group of Systems and Products Assurance EDP – Group of Engineering of Digital Processing EAP – Group of Engineering of Analog Processing CIS – Group of Construction and Integration of Systems The organization of groups of specialists allows greater flexibility and synergy through concurrent engineering, mainly in the integration among specialists of RDI and SPA, at each stage of the project life cycle. 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 36
  37. 37. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 Ref.: [EE_039.BG01.04] INTEGRATED VISION Fig. 6: Integrated Organization of RDI and SPA Specialties ORGANIZATION OF THE SPECIALTIES MRP – Management of RDI Programs SPA – Systems and Products Assurance ESR – Engineering of Systems and Requirements EAP – Engineering of Analog Processing EDP – Engineering of Digital Processing CIS – Construction and Integration of Systems Directory MRP ESR Specialized Companies SPA Other Areas of the Company RDI EAP EDP CIS 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 27/03/13 37
  38. 38. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 Ref.: [EE_039.BE01.07] INTEGRATED VISION Fig. 7: Initial Steps of RDI of Systems and Products RDI SOURCES OF INFO & KNOWLEDGE TCI SAT TTA TSR TECHNOLOGY & SYST RESEARCH NSD Needs & Req STE TPP SCR SYSTEMS CONCEPTS RESEARCH NRA SCE SCD MRP MANAG RDI PROGR STE TME OME DSP DEVELOP SYST AND PROD PPSP SRAA DPSP CISP SYST & PROD PRAA 26/11/11 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 38
  39. 39. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 INTEGRATED VISION Ref.: [EE_039.BE01.07] Acronyms of RDI MRP SMR TMR OMR TSR TCI SAT STE NSD TPP TTA SCR NRA SCE SCD SRAA DSP PPSP DPSP CIPS IPSP PRAA 30/11/2013 Management of RDI Programs Strategic Management of RDI Tactical Management of RDI Operational Management of RDI Technology and Systems Research Technological and Competitive Intelligence Strategic Analysis of Technologies Special Technical Studies New Systems Development Technical Presentations of Projects Technology Transfer and Absorption Systems Concepts Research Needs and Requirements Analysis Systems Concepts Exploration System Concept Definition Systems Risks and Assurance Analysis Development of Systems and Products Preliminary Project of Systems and Products Definitive Project of Systems and Products Construction and Integration of Systems and Products Installation Project of Systems and Products Products Risks and Assurance Analysis Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 39
  40. 40. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 Ref.: [EE_039.BE01.07] INTEGRATED VISION Fig. 8: Integrated Steps and Tasks of SCR 26/11/11 SCR - SYSTEMS CONCEPTS RESEARCH NRA Needs and Requirements Analysis SCE Systems Concepts Exploration • • • • • • • Vision of Problem Needs Analysis Operational Analysis Functional Analysis Feasibility Definitions Needs Validation Operational Requirements Definition • • Risk management System assurance requirements TCO - Total Cost of Ownership Go-No Go decision • • • • • • • • • • • SCD System Concept Definition Performance Requirements Formulation Basic System Architecting Alternative Concepts Exploration Alternative Concepts Evaluation Alternative Concepts Validation • • • System Concept Selection System Concept Definition System Development Planning Risk management System assurance requirements TCO - Total Cost of Ownership Go-No Go decision • Risk management System assurance requirements TCO - Total Cost of Ownership Final Go-No Go decision • • • SRAA - Systems Risks and Assurance Analysis 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 40
  41. 41. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 Ref.: [EE_039.BE01.07] INTEGRATED VISION Fig. 9: Technologies of Research, Development and Innovation RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT & INNOVATION 28/03/13 REQUIREMENTS ENGINEERING Research, Consolidation, Validation and Management of Requirements Analysis of the Problem • • SYSTEMS ENGINEERING • • • • • Vision of Problem Needs Analysis Systems Concepts Exploration System Concept Definition Systems and Subsystems Project PRODUCT ENGINEERING • • • • Preliminary and Definitive Project of Equipment, Units, Modules and Parts Construction, Integration and Tests Documentation of Projects, Systems and Products Technical Management of Projects MANAGEMENT AND ENGINEERING OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE FACTORS • • • • • • Quality Assurance Reliability Assurance Safety Security Human Factors Maintainability 30/11/2013 • • • • Supportability and Logistics Sustainability Verification and Validation Other Factors • Management of: • • • • • Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering Systems and Products Assurance Risks Cost-Effectiveness Software Assurance Configuration Rights and Penalties of Assurances 41
  42. 42. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 INTEGRATED VISION Ref.: [EE_039.BG01.04] Responsibilities of Management of SPA Main Responsibilities of Management: Integration. Budget consistent with the objectives. Management of risks. Management of Information and Knowledge. 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 42
  43. 43. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 INTEGRATED VISION Ref.: [EE_039.BG01.04] Responsibilities of Management of SPA - Integration Integration: From the point of view of customers and users, the system performance depends on the integration of at least five elements, that only the suppliers can integrate: Hardware and Software. Persons. Interfaces. Infrastructure e Support Equipments. Operational and Natural Environments. Methods and Procedures. The systems shall be robust against errors, defects and hazards, when in the environment of use, throughout the lifecycle. 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 43
  44. 44. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 Ref.: [RAHE_01] INTEGRATED VISION Fig. 10: Responsibilities of Management of SPA - Integration INSTALATIONS INFRA USER SOFTWARE HARDWARE SYSTEM 08/04/13 INTERFACES OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT SUPPORT EQUIPMENT PROCEDURES NATURAL ENVIRONMENT Human behavior is the most unpredictable among the elements, and can be the weakest link in the chain of operations, and should be viewed as integrated and in parallel to the system. 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 44
  45. 45. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 INTEGRATED VISION Ref.: [EE_039.BG01.04] Responsibilities of Management of SPA - Budget Consistent Budget: Given a system, resources must be managed effectively. These resources should be used for highly detailed analysis during the early stages of the project. Investments are more effective in those moments. Budgets inconsistent or not available, are impeditive to the effective action to mitigate risks and reduce inefficiency in the cost of the life cycle, or even in reducing security risks. Managers must learn to anticipate the required investment for the implementation of many possible improvements during the project, establishing clear objectives for this. Managers must be committed to the provision of financial resources consistent with the plans and needs of projects throughout the stages of the life cycle. 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 45
  46. 46. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 INTEGRATED VISION Ref.: [EE_039.BG01.04] Responsibilities of Management of SPA - Risks Management of Risks: Risk = Probability of Occurrence x Severity of the Effects In addition to the data of the past, must be considered that there is always a potential new disaster waiting to happen The proactive projects enable consider such possibilities. The theoretical risk aspects must be considered as a starting point. Then, analysis must expand to comprehend reality. Complex systems can fail by thousand forms and modes. Each hazard or defect can have many levels of severity, from no ill effects to loss of the system and of lives. Complex products may fail more than once in different ways. 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 46
  47. 47. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 INTEGRATED VISION Ref.: [EE_039.BE01.07] Management of Information and Knowledge of SPA References of SPA of Foreign Origin of the Company: Books and Periodicals. Standards. Theses, Articles and Tutorials. Third-party References. Requirements from Clients and Customers. References of SPA of Internal Origin of the Company: Proposals and Contracts. Documentation About Management of SPA Generated by the Projects: Programs of SPA. Master Plan of SPA. SPA Plans of each Project. 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 47
  48. 48. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 INTEGRATED VISION Ref.: [EE_039.BE01.07] Management of Information and Knowledge of SPA Documentation About SPA Technologies Generated by the Projects: General subject, for all Projects. Master Plan of SPA. Concepts and Principles. Methods and Processes. Procedures and Techniques. Specific subject, for each Project: SPA Plan of the Project. Reports of Results. Scope of Information of the SPA Documentation: Should be covered all technologies and disciplines of SPA, individually or jointly, integrated as needed and convenience. 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 48
  49. 49. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 INTEGRATED VISION Ref.: [EE_039.BE01.07] Fig. 11: Management of Information and Knowledge of RDI GENERAL FLUX OF THE RDI COLLECTION REFERENCES FOREIGN ORIGIN OF THE COMPANY REFERENCES FROM INSIDE THE COMPANY RDI COLLECTION 08/04/13 STEPS OF RDI PROJECTS 30/11/2013 DOCUMENTS GENERATED BY THE STEPS OF THE RDI PROJECTS Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 49
  50. 50. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 Ref.: [EE_039.BE01.07] INTEGRATED VISION Fig. 12: Programs e Plans of SPA for Projects Collection of Good Practices Management of Systems Requirements PrSPA PROGRAM OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE MPSPA Master Plan of Systems and Products Assurance PROJECT X Requirements for the Project X PSPA-X Plan of Systems and Products Assurance Project X 08/04/13 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 50
  51. 51. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 APPENDICES 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 51
  52. 52. EThICS ENGINEERING EThICS 039.BG01E.09 SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE APPENDICES References [BATA_01] BATTAGLIA, M. Design for supportability. Available at <https://c3.nasa.gov/dashlink/static/media/other/Design4Supportability.pdf>. Accessed in 12/04/2011. 16p. [BLAN_01] BLANCHARD, B. S. System engineering management. 4th ed. Hoboken NJ: John Wiley, 2008. 539 p. [BLAN_02] BLANCHARD, B. S.; VERNA, D.; PETERSON, E. L. Maintainability: a key to effective serviceability and maintenance management. New York, NY: John Wiley, 1995. 537 p. [EE_039.BC01.09] LIBRELATO, A. S. EThICS 039.BC01.09: CVPP - Ciclo de Vida de Projetos e Produtos - Visão Geral. Novembro, 2011. 13 p. [EE_039.BC02.07] LIBRELATO, A. C. EThICS 039.BC02.07: Conceitos e Princípios de LCC & Efetividade. Março, 2013. 59 p. [EE_039.BE01.09] LIBRELATO, A. S. EThICS 039.BE01.09: PDI - Pesquisa, Desenvolvimento e Inovação - Visão Geral. Abril, 2012. 44 p. [EE_039.BG01.08] LIBRELATO, A. S. EThICS 039.BG01.08: GSP - Garantia de Sistemas e Produtos - Visão Sistêmica. Abril, 2013. 54 p. [EE_039.CE06.05] LIBRELATO, A. C. EThICS 039.CE06.05 Pesquisa e Conceituação de Sistemas - Metodologia. Dezembro, 2011. 74 p. 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 52
  53. 53. EThICS ENGINEERING SYSTEMIC VIEW OF SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS ASSURANCE EThICS 039.BG01E.09 APPENDICES References [EE_903.026.00] LIBRELATO, A. C. EThICS 903.026.00 Planejamento Estratégico Conceitos Gerais. Julho, 2006. 28 p. [KAWA_01] KAWAUCHI, Y.; RAUSAND, M. Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis in oil and chemical process industries. RAMS Group, NTNU, Norway. 1999. 82 p. [KLEY_01] KLEYNER, A. Foreword. Foreword of [RAHE_02]. Pages xv-xvi. [RAHE_01] RAHEJA, D. G.; ALLOCO, M. Assurance technologies principles and practices - a product, process, and system safety perspective. 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 2006. 472 p. [RAHE_02] RAHEJA, D. G.; GULLO, L. J. Design for reliability. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 2012. 308 p. [RAHE_03] 1-14. RAHEJA, D. Design for reliability paradigms. Chapter 1 of [RAHE_02]. Pages [SAVA_01] SAVAGE, S. L. The flaw of the averages: why we underestimate risk in the face of uncertainty. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 2009. 392 p. 30/11/2013 Intellectual Property of EThICS Engineering 53
  54. 54. Engineering Technology, Intelligence Consulting & Systems EThICS ENGINEERING EThICS 039.BG01E.09 APPENDICES SERVICES Consulting Assessorship Study, Analysis & Diagnostic Planning Research & Development Deployment Training Mentoring ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY AREAS OF ACTION ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGY Antonio Sallum Librelato – Director +5512 3941 8277 – a.sallum@uol.com.br – skype: a_sallum1 Profile: http://www.linkedin.com/in/sallum 54

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