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A Methodology Proposal to Design Radars - Systems Approach
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A Methodology Proposal to Design Radars - Systems Approach


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Module: [LIBR_01]_SIGE XIII_Method Prop to Design Radars …

Module: [LIBR_01]_SIGE XIII_Method Prop to Design Radars
Subject: A Methodology Proposal to Design Radars - Systems Approach
Article by Antonio Sallum Librelato and Osamu Saotome, presented and published during the XIII SIGE. ITA, 27 a 30 de setembro de 2011.


Motivations for the Systems Concepts Research (SCR) method

Principles of SCR
Phases of the SCR
Purposes of SCR

Purposes of NRA
Steps and Tasks of NRA

Purposes of SCE
Steps and Tasks of SCE

Purposes of SCD
Steps and Tasks of SCD

Purposes of SRAA
Steps and Tasks of SRAA



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  • 1. ISSN: 1983 7402 ITA, 27 a 30 de setembro de 2011 A Methodology Proposal to Design Radars - Systems Approach Antonio Sallum Librelato1 and Osamu Saotome2 1 EThICS Engineering - Rua Prof. Maria Lima Cesar, 181, Ap. 12 - CEP 12216-141 - São José dos Campos - SP - Brasil 2 Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica - Praça Marechal Eduardo Gomes, 50 – Vila das Acácias – São José dos Campos – SP - Brasil Abstract  When creating new systems, it is In the reference [2], the system engineering processesrecommended that, before starting the engineering comprehend mainly the definition of the problem, needs,development phases of the project, the concept phase be feasibility, functional and performance analysis, theexecuted. The proposed Systems Concepts Research (SCR) operational and logistical requirements, resulting on themethod was structured by one of the authors1 and refers to system synthesis, analysis and design optimization.the concept phase of the project life cycle, in special when The reference [3] presents the System Architectureapplied to systems based on complex and critical Development, comprising requirements, operations, behaviortechnologies, like radar systems. Additionally to the usual and physical elements of systems.specialized tasks of systems development, this method Reference [4] considers the importance of the systemsintegrates the specialized tasks of systems and products and products assurance technologies, like quality, reliabilityassurance. The objectives of this article are: safety, maintainability, and others, considering also their • To present the steps and tasks of the SCR method; combined effects and influence on the system cost- • To reinforce the advantages of doing it before the effectiveness and risks. system development phase; and The reference [5] presents a methodology for radar • The convenience and advantages of the integrated systems analysis, considering the systems, requirements, and and simultaneous execution of the analysis of risks, parameters for the development of new radars. cost-effectiveness and system assurance, as part of There is a consensus among those references that the the SCR method. phase of system concept definition must be executed before Keyword  research, assurance, radar. the beginning of the phase of system development, and that, doing so, it will result on reducing costs and risks, with better I. INTRODUCTION effectiveness of systems. Nevertheless, none of the mentioned references establishes a clear integrated method to Motivations for the Systems Concepts Research (SCR) do this, and that is the purpose of the present work..method: The proposed SCR method was structured to create an The project of complex and critical systems, like radars, is appropriate framework to permit the practical benefits ofsubmitted to challenging factors presented by the current those principles, by:environment. These factors are the main motivations to adopt • Comprising all the tasks usually recommended by thethe SCR method, as follows [2]: references for the concept phase, as above, and • Increasing systems complexities. • Additionally integrating the tasks necessary to assure • Evolving technology changes. best results on the cost-effectiveness of systems, • Extended systems life cycles. comprising: • Shorter technologies life cycles. Management of: • Constantly changing requirements. Systems and Products Assurance, • More emphasis on “systems” (versus components). Risks, Cost-effectiveness, • Greater utilization of commercial off-the-shelf Configuration, (COTS) products. Software Assurance, • Higher overall life-cycle costs. Rights and Penalties of Assurance and • Increasing demand for mitigation and control of Warranties. uncertainty and hazard risks during the development • Engineering of: phase, mainly when based on new and not well mature Quality, technologies [4]. Reliability, In the reference [1], the main tasks of the concept Maintainability,development comprise needs analysis, concepts exploration Safety,and definition. Security,A. S. Librelato,, Tel +55-12-39418277. O. Saotome,, Tel +55-12- 39475818.
  • 2. ISSN: 1983 7402 ITA, 27 a 30 de setembro de 2011 Human Factors, • Assure that a real and valid need exists, with at least Supportability and logistics, one feasible solution to attend it. Sustainability, • Define a valid set of operational, functional and Verification and Validation, and performance requirements to be attended by the Other analogous. concept. By acting in advance to the development of systems and • Explore technologies and systems capable to fulfill theproducts, the SCR creates opportunities for: needs and requirements. • Consolidating the requirements, since the beginning of • Select the system concept that best accomplish the the project studies. established needs, requirements, restrictions, • Active participation of the main stakeholders on the assurances, and balance of cost-effectiveness. project. • Planning the subsequent phases of development, • Reduction of the future life cycle costs of the system. production, support, usage and discard of the selected • Reduction of hazard and uncertainty risks. concept. • Improvement of the effectiveness of solutions. • Analysis and evaluation of the required and available III. NRA - NEEDS AND REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS knowledge and technologies for the execution of the project. Purposes of NRA: • Conscious and comparative selection of the most • Understand what the problem to be solved by the adequate solution, from distinct alternatives. future system is. • Reduction of the management and engineering efforts • Establish that a necessity for a new system really to develop the system. exists and is valid. • Direction and recommendation of actions to mitigate • Establish that the desired system is technically and and control of risks, costs, and systems assurance. economically feasible. • Elicit and analyze the requirements applied to the II. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SCR METHOD project and to the system. Principles of SCR: Steps and Tasks of NRA: The SCR method comprises a series of interactive tasks. • Vision of Problem:It will require specialized knowledge and skills on Description of the motivations, nature, magnitude,management and engineering of systems, requirements, risks, and context of the main problem to be solved.product assurance, costs and project planning and product Evaluation of the risks derived if the problem willdevelopment. Depending on the specific conditions of not be solved.procurement and supply of systems, the work share between • Needs Analysis:client and manufacturer (or supplier) will vary. Anyway, the Description of the needs, goals and objectives tocomplete composition of tasks is practically the same. be attended. The SCR method brings great benefits on obtaining the Description of the suppositions and restrictions tobest solution for the needs, reduction of time and costs, be considered by the project of the system.increase on the system assurance, performance and Identification of the system stakeholders andeffectiveness, and better satisfaction of customers, users and definition of interests, responsibilities andproducers [1] [4]. authorities. Definitions about the required system life cycle, Phases of the SCR: use start date, useful life span, and operation and The method here presented consists of four steps, where maintenance cycles.the specialized tasks of systems, requirements and systems • Operational Analysis:assurance engineering are integrated and executed, as follow: Analysis of the objectives and goals of the • NRA - Needs and Requirements Analysis operations. • SCE - Systems Concepts Exploration Description, dimensioning and scenery profiling of • SCD - System Concept Definition the system mission. • SRAA - Systems Risks and Assurance Analysis Description of the system operational concepts. Description and space and time values of the Purposes of SCR: environmental conditions, during the operations. As part of the life cycle of projects, the SCR aims to: Architecture concept of the system and • Create a clear definition about which system concept subsystems, and their space distributions for the shall be developed, according to which plans and operations. conditions, to well attend the needs, requirements and Definitions about internal and external interfaces cost-effectiveness established for the project and among systems and subsystems. system. Statement of the main expected benefits.
  • 3. ISSN: 1983 7402 ITA, 27 a 30 de setembro de 2011• Functional Analysis: Evaluation of performance and cost-effectiveness Description of the system functional concepts and characteristics of each alternative. requirements: Definition, integration and validation of the Translation of operational objectives into performance characteristics. system functions. • Performance Requirements Synthesis: List and flux of functions (specific, primary Description, classification and qualification of and secondary). each alternative. Reasons to exert each function. Description of why, when, where, duration V. SCD - SYSTEM CONCEPT DEFINITION and frequency of the functions. Allocation of functions to the system and Purposes of SCD: subsystems elements. • Select the best solution of system concept to attend the Simulation of the functions isolated and combined. established requirements and restrictions.• Feasibility Definitions: • Select a preferable (most attractive) system concept. Description, analysis and evaluation of the • Define its basic architecture and functional currently available solutions. characteristics. Comparison of the available solutions with the • Develop a detailed plan to the subsequent phases of system concepts requirements. system and product development, manufacturing and Evaluation of feasibility of each system functional implementation. concept.• Needs Validation: Steps and Tasks of SCD Characterization and validation of the needs to be • Performance Requirements Analysis: satisfied, presenting their evidences. Analysis and refinement of the performance and• Operational Requirements Synthesis: functional requirements. Elicitation, analysis and validation of all • Functional Analysis and Formulation: operational requirements and constraints. Definition and simulation of the functional components.IV. SCE - SYSTEMS CONCEPTS EXPLORATION Modeling and demonstrations with prototypes of the alternatives.Purposes of SCE: • Implementation Concept Selection:• Present a variety of alternatives as solutions of system Selection and justification of the preferred system concepts, which will attend the established concept. requirements and restrictions. • Concept Validation and Description:• Explore which are the potential concepts of systems Modeling of system concept and its environment. that may attend the needs. Functional and architectonic specifications of the• Formulate and validate a set of system performance system concept. requirements for each of the system concepts. System concept validation and description. • System Development Planning:Steps and Tasks of SCE: Planning for the system development, production,• Operational Requirements Analysis: support, use and discard. Critical analysis of the operational objectives. Detailed revision and analysis of the operational VI. SRAA - SYSTEMS RISKS AND ASSURANCE concept and requirements. ANALYSIS Feasibility analysis of the operational requirements. Purposes of SRAA:• Performance Requirements Formulation: • Assure and validate that the requirements and Derivation of subsystems functions and restrictions of systems assurance and cost- performance requirements. effectiveness could be attended by the selected system Formulation of performance characteristics. concept.• Implementation Concepts Exploration: • Evaluation of risks and cost-effectiveness. Assessment and analysis of technologies and • Validation of system assurance requirements. systems possibilities. • Recommendations for mitigation and control of risks, Formulation of alternatives of implementation costs and system assurance, for each alternative of concepts. system concept. Execution of proof-of-concepts experiments, to • Execute this step in parallel and simultaneously with evaluate the exequibility of the alternatives. the other three steps of the SCR.• Performance Requirements Validation:
  • 4. ISSN: 1983 7402 ITA, 27 a 30 de setembro de 2011Steps and Tasks of SRAA Detailed recommendations for the achievement of• During the Needs and Requirements Analysis system assurance and cost-effectiveness elements (NRA): of the selected system concept. Risks classification and analysis criteria. Assessment and evaluation of the potential risks VII. CONCLUSIONS for the project, the system, and the operations. Assessment, limits characterization, and evaluation The main structure of steps and tasks of the Systems of the main system assurance requirements, Concepts Research (SCR) method was presented, ready to be comprising: applied to a general radar project case. As it is a generic Configuration management, software framework, it will be necessary to adequate the terminology assurance, rights and penalties of assurance, to each specific application, according to types of systems verification and validation. and technologies, to apply to other cases. Quality, reliability, maintainability, safety, The level of details and assessment shall also be tailored security, human factors, supportability and to each case, in conformance with the degree of uncertainty, logistics, sustainability, and other analogous. difficulty and newness. Preliminary evaluation and analysis of the TCO - The four steps of the SCR method comprise the most Total Cost of Ownership perceived by the market. common tasks recommended for the concept of systems, as Go-No Go decision. well as to include and integrate the risks, cost-effectiveness• During the Systems Concepts Exploration (SCE): and assurance disciplines, simultaneous with the systems and Characterization, evaluation and comparison of requirements engineering tasks. risks and system assurance parameters of each Taking radar systems as a goal of systems concept, the alternative of system concept. SCR method will permit a structured and complete analysis Analysis and evaluation of each trade-off and synthesis, including the flexibility to look for the most solutions. recent technologies available for radar systems, like the Analysis of viability of accomplishment of the Software Defined Radio (SDR) technology and method. system assurance requirements and of the cost- effectiveness balance. REFERENCES Go-No Go decision. Recommendations for the mitigation and control [1] A. Kossiakoff; W. N. Sweet. Systems Engineering - Principles and Practice. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 2003. of risks. [2] S. Blanchard. System Engineering Management. 4th ed. Recommendations for the provisioning of systems Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 2008. assurance and cost-effectiveness. [3] S. Wasson. System Analysis, Design, and Development -• During the System Concept Definition (SCD): Concepts, Principles and Practices. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, Detailed analysis and revision of the terms of 2006. assurance and cost-effectiveness. [4] G. Raheja; A. Allocco. Assurance Technologies Principles and Practices. 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 2006. Go-No Go decision. [5] J. Bogush, Jr. Radar and the Atmosphere. Norwood, MA: Artech Detailed recommendations for mitigation and House, 1989. control of risks for the selected system concept. >>>>>> = <<<<<<