Learners with Emotional or       Behavioral Disorders                                          Chapter 8Hallahan, Kauffman...
Topics            Terminology            Definition            Classification            Prevalence            Causes...
Topics (cont’d)            Psychological and behavioral             characteristics            Educational consideration...
Terminology                Emotionally disturbed – as used in the                 Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA...
Definition   Definitional problems         Lack of precise definitions of mental health and          normal behavior    ...
Possiblecombinationsof terms.Choose one ormore in set Acombined withone in set B. Exceptional Learners, 12th Edition      ...
Definition (cont’d)     Current definitions            Behavior is extreme            Problem is chronic            Be...
The National Alliance                 on Mental Illness ( NAMI)Mental illnesses are medical conditions thatdisrupt a perso...
Definition (cont’d)     Federal definition            Excludes social maladjustment which some states             interp...
Classification                Two broad dimensions of disordered                 behavior                        Externa...
Prevalence         Estimates of 6 to 10 percent of school-          age population         Less than 1 percent identifie...
Activity                        HOT POTATO    Instructions: 1.You will need a ball.                 2.Pass the ball around...
Causes                Biological disorders and diseases                        Medication helpful but not the only inter...
Identification      Difficult to identify             When the child is young, problems may be              undetected  ...
Identification (cont’d)      Three step screening system for       elementary schools             Teacher lists and rank...
Psychological and Behavioral           Characteristics                Intelligence and achievement                      ...
HyperactivityExceptional Learners, 12th Edition   8-   © 2012, 2009, 2006 PearsonHallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen         17  ...
Educational Considerations                Objectives:                        Controlling misbehavior                    ...
Teaching Students with Severe Emotional andBehavioral Disorders: Best Practices Guide To Intervention FromFirwood & Oak Gr...
Best Practices TEACHING STRATEGIES Teach alternative ways to express anger. Teach different ways of expressing anger, othe...
Best Practices                                 Encourage students to ……(a)Share feelings with others.(b)Role-play strong e...
Best Practices ( cont’d) Establish link between self-esteem and language. Inappropriate language is a negative reflection ...
Best PracticesTeach about emotions. Post a list of feelingwords in the classroom.(a)Beside each word, put a photograph of ...
Best Practices ( cont’d)Post lists of offensive and non-offensive words.Generate lists of “okay words in class” and “not o...
Best Practices cont’dSend lists home to family members. Informfamiliesof acceptable versus unacceptable language in thecla...
Educational           Considerations (cont’d)                Strategies that work                        Systematic, dat...
Educational Considerations           (cont’d)                Service delivery                        Trend toward inclus...
Educational Considerations                (cont’d)   Disciplinary considerations       Functional behavioral assessment ...
RTI- Response To            Intervention                  STRATEGIES THAT WORKHow does a team develop a Behavior Intervent...
Class Dojohttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FRjsfWpfG0kExceptional Learners, 12th Edition   8-   © 2012, 2009, 2006 PearsonHa...
Assessment of Progress                Progress monitoring and outcome                 measures                        Ev...
Early Intervention                Identification                        Diagnosis in very young children challenging    ...
Exceptional Learners, 12th Edition   8-   © 2012, 2009, 2006 PearsonHallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen         33               ...
Transition to Adulthood                Programs available                        Regular public high school classes     ...
Transition to Adulthood (cont’d)                Incarcerated youth neglected                Employment difficulty due to...
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    1. 1. Learners with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders Chapter 8Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen: Exceptional Learners: An Introduction to Special Education, Twelfth Edition © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    2. 2. Topics  Terminology  Definition  Classification  Prevalence  Causes  IdentificationExceptional Learners, 12th Edition © 2012, 2009, 2006 PearsonHallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen 8-2 Education, Inc.
    3. 3. Topics (cont’d)  Psychological and behavioral characteristics  Educational considerations  Assessment of progress  Early intervention  Transition to adulthoodExceptional Learners, 12th Edition © 2012, 2009, 2006 PearsonHallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen 8-3 Education, Inc.
    4. 4. Terminology  Emotionally disturbed – as used in the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA)  Behaviorally disordered – used by many professionals and Council for Exceptional Children  Emotional or behavior disorder – introduced in 1990 by National Mental Health and Special Educational Coalition; generally accepted terminology of the fieldExceptional Learners, 12th Edition © 2012, 2009, 2006 PearsonHallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen 8-4 Education, Inc.
    5. 5. Definition Definitional problems  Lack of precise definitions of mental health and normal behavior  Differences among conceptual models  Imprecise measurement of emotion and behavior  Emotional or behavioral disorders often overlap other disabilities  Differences in the professionals who diagnose and serve children and youthsExceptional Learners, 12th Edition © 2012, 2009, 2006 PearsonHallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen 8-5 Education, Inc.
    6. 6. Possiblecombinationsof terms.Choose one ormore in set Acombined withone in set B. Exceptional Learners, 12th Edition © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen 8-6 Education, Inc.
    7. 7. Definition (cont’d) Current definitions  Behavior is extreme  Problem is chronic  Behavior unacceptable because of social or cultural expectations Exceptional Learners, 12th Edition © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen 8-7 Education, Inc.
    8. 8. The National Alliance on Mental Illness ( NAMI)Mental illnesses are medical conditions thatdisrupt a person’s thinking, feeling, mood, abilityto relate to others and daily functioning .( NichyDisability Fact Sheet #5 (FS5), June 2010, EmotionalDisturbance;p2)IDEA’s definition, emotional disturbances caneffect an individual in areas beyond theemotional. Depending on the specific mentaldisorder involved, a person’s physical, social, orcognitive skills may also be affected. ( NichyDisability FactEdition Exceptional Learners, 12 Sheet #5 (FS5), June 2010, Emotional th © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen 8-8 Education, Inc.
    9. 9. Definition (cont’d) Federal definition  Excludes social maladjustment which some states interpret as conduct disorder-aggressive, disruptive, antisocial behavior National Mental Health and Special Education Coalition definition  A disability characterized by behavioral or emotional responses that adversely affect educational performance  Acknowledges multiple disabilities  Does not have arbitrary exclusionsExceptional Learners, 12th Edition © 2012, 2009, 2006 PearsonHallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen 8-9 Education, Inc.
    10. 10. Classification  Two broad dimensions of disordered behavior  Externalizing  Internalizing  Co-morbidity – the occurrence of two or more conditions in the same individual  SchizophreniaExceptional Learners, 12th Edition 8- © 2012, 2009, 2006 PearsonHallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen 10 Education, Inc.
    11. 11. Prevalence  Estimates of 6 to 10 percent of school- age population  Less than 1 percent identified as emotionally disturbed  Most identified students exhibit externalizing behavior  Boys outnumber girls about 5 to 1Exceptional Learners, 12th Edition 8- © 2012, 2009, 2006 PearsonHallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen 11 Education, Inc.
    12. 12. Activity HOT POTATO Instructions: 1.You will need a ball. 2.Pass the ball around in the circle. 3.Stop when the counselor says “STOP.” 4. Counselor will ask the person holding the potato this question. What situations makes you angry? 5. Do about 3 rounds and stop.Exceptional Learners, 12th Edition 8- © 2012, 2009, 2006 PearsonHallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen 12 Education, Inc.
    13. 13. Causes  Biological disorders and diseases  Medication helpful but not the only intervention needed  Pathological family relationships  Parents need positive support resources  Undesirable experiences at school  Spiral of negative interactions  Negative cultural influences  Increase in level of violence, drug abuse, and changing social standardsExceptional Learners, 12th Edition 8- © 2012, 2009, 2006 PearsonHallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen 13 Education, Inc.
    14. 14. Identification  Difficult to identify  When the child is young, problems may be undetected  When there is an error in teacher judgment  When the child does not exhibit problems at school  Importance of teacher’s informal judgmentExceptional Learners, 12th Edition 8- © 2012, 2009, 2006 PearsonHallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen 14 Education, Inc.
    15. 15. Identification (cont’d)  Three step screening system for elementary schools  Teacher lists and ranks students  Completes two checklists for three highest ranked pupils  Pupils whose scores exceed norms are observed by other professionalsExceptional Learners, 12th Edition 8- © 2012, 2009, 2006 PearsonHallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen 15 Education, Inc.
    16. 16. Psychological and Behavioral Characteristics  Intelligence and achievement  Typically, below average IQ (less than 90)  Social and emotional characteristics  Aggressive, acting-out behavior (externalizing)  Immature, withdrawn behavior and depression (internalizing)Exceptional Learners, 12th Edition 8- © 2012, 2009, 2006 PearsonHallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen 16 Education, Inc.
    17. 17. HyperactivityExceptional Learners, 12th Edition 8- © 2012, 2009, 2006 PearsonHallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen 17 Education, Inc.
    18. 18. Educational Considerations  Objectives:  Controlling misbehavior  Teaching academic and social skills  Balancing behavioral control with academic and social learning  Importance of integrated servicesExceptional Learners, 12th Edition 8- © 2012, 2009, 2006 PearsonHallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen 18 Education, Inc.
    19. 19. Teaching Students with Severe Emotional andBehavioral Disorders: Best Practices Guide To Intervention FromFirwood & Oak Grove Schools ( p. 14 -16, Project Coordinator /SeattleUniversity, Larry Matsuda, 2005) BEST PRACTICES TEACHER Clearly define offensive language. Students may hear……. *Swearing at home or in the community. *Talk with students about what is and is not offensive language in the classroom. *Begin by teaching positive ways to express emotions and helping students distinguish positive emotional expression from negative. *For younger children, read Andrew’s angry words (Lachner & The, 1997) or Elbert’s bad word (Wood, 1996) and discuss. Exceptional Learners, 12th Edition 8- © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen 19 Education, Inc.
    20. 20. Best Practices TEACHING STRATEGIES Teach alternative ways to express anger. Teach different ways of expressing anger, other than swearing, such as…. (a) finding a quiet place to calm down (b) crying in privacy (c) squeezing a stress ball (d) taking a walk (e)breathing deeply (f) giving oneself a time-out (g) writing a letter (h) doing self-soothing exercises. Encourage students to use these strategies when feeling anger or frustration.Exceptional Learners, 12th Edition 8- © 2012, 2009, 2006 PearsonHallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen 20 Education, Inc.
    21. 21. Best Practices Encourage students to ……(a)Share feelings with others.(b)Role-play strong emotions.(c)Use journaling for self-expression.(d)Create incentives/Create a classroom-widereward systemExceptional Learners, 12th Edition 8- © 2012, 2009, 2006 PearsonHallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen 21 Education, Inc.
    22. 22. Best Practices ( cont’d) Establish link between self-esteem and language. Inappropriate language is a negative reflection on students who use it and may mean that these students do not think very highly of themselves. Positively reinforce the use of appropriate language to help increase their self-esteem.Exceptional Learners, 12th Edition 8- © 2012, 2009, 2006 PearsonHallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen 22 Education, Inc.
    23. 23. Best PracticesTeach about emotions. Post a list of feelingwords in the classroom.(a)Beside each word, put a photograph of the studentsthemselves demonstrating the feeling, or have them cutout magazine pictures that demonstrate the feeling.(b) Talk about how each specific emotion feels, how thebody physically looks and what the body does whenfeeling the emotion.(c) Give the clear message that all emotions are okay,but not all ways to express or cope with them are okay.Exceptional Learners, 12th Edition 8- © 2012, 2009, 2006 PearsonHallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen 23 Education, Inc.
    24. 24. Best Practices ( cont’d)Post lists of offensive and non-offensive words.Generate lists of “okay words in class” and “not okaywords in class” with students. Provide instruction aboutwhat type of language to use where, when, and withwhom. For example, ask them how they would expressanger in front of their grandmother versus in front ofteammates when playing basketball.Exceptional Learners, 12th Edition 8- © 2012, 2009, 2006 PearsonHallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen 24 Education, Inc.
    25. 25. Best Practices cont’dSend lists home to family members. Informfamiliesof acceptable versus unacceptable language in theclassroom. Tell them that some words that are used athome in private may not be words for students to use in theclassroom. Ask families to model appropriate language athome as much as possible.Exceptional Learners, 12th Edition 8- © 2012, 2009, 2006 PearsonHallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen 25 Education, Inc.
    26. 26. Educational Considerations (cont’d)  Strategies that work  Systematic, data-based interventions  Continuous assessment and progress monitoring  Provision for practice of new skills  Treatment matched to the problem  Multicomponent treatment  Programming for transfer and maintenance  Commitment to sustained interventionExceptional Learners, 12th Edition 8- © 2012, 2009, 2006 PearsonHallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen 26 Education, Inc.
    27. 27. Educational Considerations (cont’d)  Service delivery  Trend toward inclusion  Different needs require different placements  Instructional considerations  Need for social skills  Needs of juvenile delinquents  Special challenges for teachersExceptional Learners, 12th Edition 8- © 2012, 2009, 2006 PearsonHallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen 27 Education, Inc.
    28. 28. Educational Considerations (cont’d) Disciplinary considerations  Functional behavioral assessment (FBA)  Is a process in applied behavior analysis(ABA) and the IDEA ACTS of 1997, 2004. ( Beyond Behavior: Best Practices to Support Student Behavior (2011, p42 ,Michaud,Regan,)  A team reviews the behavior of a student before, during, and after the behavior occurs to determine if there is a significant pattern. ( A-B-C Pattern)  Positive behavioral supports and behavioral intervention plans Exceptional Learners, 12th Edition 8- © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen 28 Education, Inc.
    29. 29. RTI- Response To Intervention STRATEGIES THAT WORKHow does a team develop a Behavior Intervention Plan(BIP)? There are 4 key steps1.Designing a function based intervention2.Maximizing intervention success3. Implementing the intervention4.Evaluating the interventionEXAMPLES: Positive reinforcement when student does theright thing; Planned ignoring when student does not do theright thing; Time out when student is not doing the right thing. Exceptional Learners, 12th Edition 8- © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen 29 Education, Inc.
    30. 30. Class Dojohttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FRjsfWpfG0kExceptional Learners, 12th Edition 8- © 2012, 2009, 2006 PearsonHallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen 30 Education, Inc.
    31. 31. Assessment of Progress  Progress monitoring and outcome measures  Evaluating the progress and outcomes of behavioral interventions  Measuring progress and outcomes in academic skills  Testing accommodationsExceptional Learners, 12th Edition 8- © 2012, 2009, 2006 PearsonHallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen 31 Education, Inc.
    32. 32. Early Intervention  Identification  Diagnosis in very young children challenging  Children’s behavior responsive to social conditions  Prevention problems  Parents and teachers trained in behavior management  Costliness of programs and personnel needed  Professionals do not always agree upon the behaviors that should be preventedExceptional Learners, 12th Edition 8- © 2012, 2009, 2006 PearsonHallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen 32 Education, Inc.
    33. 33. Exceptional Learners, 12th Edition 8- © 2012, 2009, 2006 PearsonHallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen 33 Education, Inc.
    34. 34. Transition to Adulthood  Programs available  Regular public high school classes  Consultant teachers who provide individualized work and behavior management  Resource rooms and self-contained classes  Work-study programs  Special private schools, alternative schools, private or public residential schoolsExceptional Learners, 12th Edition 8- © 2012, 2009, 2006 PearsonHallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen 34 Education, Inc.
    35. 35. Transition to Adulthood (cont’d)  Incarcerated youth neglected  Employment difficulty due to academic skills  May require intervention throughout lifeExceptional Learners, 12th Edition 8- © 2012, 2009, 2006 PearsonHallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen 35 Education, Inc.

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