Schemata exist in long-term memory and allow “someone to solve a certain category of problems and at the same time saving working memory by chunking information elements and production rules into a whole” (Dempsy, 2006).
Research on the Cognitive Load Theory has shown that instructional designers who reduce unnecessary cognitive loads on students increased the level of learning (Lee, Plass, & Homer, 2006).
“ Gagne’s theory describes fundamental principles for designing and delivering effective instruction while incorporating nine events of instruction to activate internal learning processes.” (Hampton & Reiser, 2004)
“ A system is technically a set of interrelated parts which work together toward a definite goal. The parts of the system depend on each other for input and output, and the entire system uses feedback to determine if its desire goal has been reached” (Dick & Carey, 2005).
Allows teaching and learning without the need for face to face interaction.
WebCT used by the University of Houston is an examples of a virtual learning environment.
Tiu, Johnson, Qumsieh, and Salinas (2009) found that the percentage of students taking online courses has increase greatly throughout education. In fact, the University of Houston-Clear Lake online enrollment has increased by 36% in the last 5 years.
Goals serve as a motivational force to performance.
A goal must be challenging and specific.
“ So long as a person is committed to the goal, has the requisite ability to attain it, and does not have conflicting goals, there is a positive, linear relationship between goal difficulty and task performance” (Locke & Latham, 2006, p. 265).
Intrinsic motivation inspires individuals to engage in an activity for the pleasure of engaging. Many students attend school because of intrinsic motivation, but I believe quite a few students are extrinsically motivated, i.e. seek a reward. The reward could be the degree that is being earn or any other material reward that would be offered. At some point students receive the reward and become intrinsically motivated as they seek education for the simple pleasure of learning.
Intrinsic motivation is more authentic and is a better fuel for individuals as it’s motivation that stems naturally without any interest in a compensation.
In my opinion, a combination of both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation will provide the best outcome.
References Brennan, T., & Glover, J. (1980). AN EXAMINATION OF THE EFFECT OF EXTRINSIC REINFORCERS ON INTRINSICALLY MOTIVATED BEHAVIOR: EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal , 8 (1), 27. Retrieved August 27, 2009, from Academic Search Complete database. Bullock, C., & Ory, J. (2000, Fall2000). Evaluating Instructional Technology Implementation in a Higher Education Environment. American Journal of Evaluation , 21 (3), 315. Retrieved August 27, 2009, from Academic Search Complete database. Bye, D., Pushkar, D., & Conway, M. (2007, February). MOTIVATION, INTEREST, AND POSITIVE AFFECT IN TRADITIONAL AND NONTRADITIONAL UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS. Adult Education Quarterly , 57 (2), 141-158. Retrieved August 28, 2009, from Academic Search Complete database. Cheng, Y., & Yeh, H. (2009). From concepts of motivation to its application in instructional design: Reconsidering motivation from an instructional design perspective. British Journal of Educational Technology , 40 (4), 597-605. Retrieved August 27, 2009, from Academic Search Complete database. Tiu, S., Johnson, P., Qumsieh, M., & Salinas, P. (2009). Demographics of Students Enrolled in Online Classes (University of Houston – Clear Lake Fact Book ). Retrieved from University of Houston – Clear Lake , Office of Institutional Effectives website: http://prtl.uhcl.edu/portal/page/portal/OIE/IR_PUBLICATIONS/FACT_BOOK/Fact%20Book%202008.pdf Dempsey, J. (2006). Cognitive Load Theory (2006). In Instructional Design Workbook: Theories . Retrieved from: http://www.southalabama.edu/htdocs/oll/chikatla/iddtheorywb/htmlcognitiveload/terms5.htm Dick, W., Carey, L., Carey, J.O. (2005) The Systematic Design of Instruction (6 th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Allyn and Bacon. Hampton, S., & Reiser, R. (2004). Effects of a Theory-Based Feedback and Consultation Process on Instruction and Learning in College Classrooms. Research in Higher Education , v45 (n5), p497. Retrieved August 28, 2009 from the ERIC database. Kerssen-Griep, J., Hess, J., & Trees, A. (2003). Sustaining the Desire to Learn: Dimensions of Perceived Instructional Facework Related to Student Involvement and Motivation to Learn. Western Journal of Communication , 67 (4), 357-381. Retrieved August 28, 2009 from the Academic Search Premier database. Lee, H., Plass, J., & Homer, B. (2006). Optimizing Cognitive Load for Learning From Computer-Based Science Simulations. Journal of Educational Psychology , 98 (4), 902-913. Retrieved August 28, 2009 from the PsycARTICLES database.
References Locke, E., & Latham, G. (2006). New Directions in Goal-Setting Theory. Current Directions in Psychological Science , 15 (5), 265-268. Retrieved August 27, 2009 , from Academic Search Complete database. Pastor, M. (2009). Short-Term Memory . Retrieved August 28, 2009, from SDSU Department of Educational Technology website http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/Articles/stmemory/start.htm Reeve, J. (2005). Understanding motivation and emotion (4th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons. Reiser, R. A. & Dempsey, J.V. (2007). Trends and Issues in Instructional Design (2 ND ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall. Technology-Enhanced Classroom. (2009). In Eductech Wiki . Retrieved August 28, 2009 from: http://edutechwiki.unige.ch/en/Technology-enhanced_classroom Why Study Motivation. (2009). In Csupomana.edu . Retrieved August 28, 2009 from: http://www.csupomona.edu/~msharifzadeh/chapter3.html Woolf, N., & Quinn, J. (2009, February). Learners’ perceptions of instructional design practice in a situated learning activity. Educational Technology Research & Development , 57 (1), 25-43. Retrieved August 28, 2009, from Academic Search Complete database.