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Foundations and Framework of Instructional Design

Foundations and Framework of Instructional Design

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  • 1. Foundations and Framework of Instructional Design Pablo Salinas
  • 2. Learning Theories
  • 3. Psychological Foundation Theories
    • Cognitive Information Processing
    • Schema Theory and Cognitive Load
    • Situated Learning
    • Gagne’s Theory of Instruction
  • 4. Cognitive Information Processing
    • Three memory systems in a learner:
      • Sensory
        • A learner observes a pattern and begins to identify the pattern.
      • Short-Term Memory
        • The learner mentally processes the pattern briefly and can associate the pattern with long term memory.
      • Long-Term Memory
        • The learner learns and applies the information for an extendedindefinite amount of time.
    (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007)
  • 5. Cognitive Information Processing The environment plays an important role in learning. Graphic adapted from (Pastor, 2009, p. 1)
  • 6. Schema Theory and Cognitive Load
    • Knowledge is represented in long-term memory packets called Schemata.
    • Schemata maintain related information in categories. For example, when we think of going to a doctor’s office we think of nurses, medicines, injections, and so on.
    • Automation, such as partially completed math problems, allows for the construction of schemata to be more effective as mental “processing” is minimized and the working memory capacity is increased.
    (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007)
  • 7. Schema Theory and Cognitive Load
    • Schemata exist in long-term memory and allow “someone to solve a certain category of problems and at the same time saving working memory by chunking information elements and production rules into a whole” (Dempsy, 2006).
    • Research on the Cognitive Load Theory has shown that instructional designers who reduce unnecessary cognitive loads on students increased the level of learning (Lee, Plass, & Homer, 2006).
  • 8. Situated Learning
    • Focuses more on social and cultural determinants of learning rather than psychology.
    • People learn through routine practice in everyday life rather than by text.
    • Individuals can learn from the current business community by observation and sharing resources.
    (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007)
  • 9. Situated Learning
    • Reiser and Dempsey describe situated learning as “an opportunity for learners to collaborate within the community and build a legacy for others to build upon” (Reiser & Dempsy, 2007, p. 40).
    • Woolf and Quien (2009) affirm some studies reveal only learners who have a high tolerance for ambiguity are successful in situated learning activities.
    • One can integrate both descriptions and understand that not all learners successfully obtain knowledge through the community. Some individuals learn best in a focused environment.
  • 10. Gagne’s Theory of Instruction
    • Focuses on instruction and how to relate it to design
    • Includes 3 components:
      • Taxonomy of learning outcomes that portray human learning capacities
      • Internal and external learning conditions for each learning outcome
      • Nine instructional events that enhance a learning cognitive process
    (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007)
  • 11. Gagne’s Theory of Instruction
    • “ Gagne’s theory describes fundamental principles for designing and delivering effective instruction while incorporating nine events of instruction to activate internal learning processes.” (Hampton & Reiser, 2004)
  • 12. Learning Environment
  • 13. Systems Approaches and Design Practices
    • Provide processes that enable designers to better handle diverse training issues.
    • The fast-changing world of computer technology requires constant evaluation and flexibility of the processes (Bullock, 2000).
    • Design practices will either “constrain or enable diverse learning environments” (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, p. 55).
    • The learning environment is a based on learning needs.
  • 14. Systems Approach and Design Practice
    • “ A system is technically a set of interrelated parts which work together toward a definite goal. The parts of the system depend on each other for input and output, and the entire system uses feedback to determine if its desire goal has been reached” (Dick & Carey, 2005).
  • 15. Virtual Learning Environments
    • Virtual learning environments are largely computer based and involve sharing information between students and instructors.
    • A virtual learning environment has the potential to improve communication through a non-traditional form of instruction.
    (Leese, 2009)
  • 16. Virtual Learning Environments
    • Allows teaching and learning without the need for face to face interaction.
    • WebCT used by the University of Houston is an examples of a virtual learning environment.
    • Tiu, Johnson, Qumsieh, and Salinas (2009) found that the percentage of students taking online courses has increase greatly throughout education. In fact, the University of Houston-Clear Lake online enrollment has increased by 36% in the last 5 years.
  • 17. Technology Enhanced Classrooms
    • Instructors use technology to boost the students learning experience.
    • Classrooms that have specific devices, i.e. computers, electronic whiteboard, or control stations for the instructor (EDuTech Wiki, 2007).
    • Information can be saved on disk and easily presented to students.
  • 18. Interactive Web Sites
    • The user can navigate through a website and decide what he or she wants to see in a more personalized fashion.
    • The interaction increases interest which allows for a unique learning style that is guided by the user.
  • 19. Learning Motivation Theories/Models
  • 20. Intrinsic Motivation
    • The cause of motivation exists within an individual and task (Cheng & Yeh, 2009)
    • “ Behavior that is performed for it’s own sake” (Csupomoma.edu, 2009).
    • There is no tangible reward other than the pleasure of the experience (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007).
    • Describing ones work experience as rewarding is an indication of intrinsic motivation.
  • 21. Intrinsic Motivation
    • “ Students who demonstrate intrinsic learning motivation initiate learning activities and maintain an involvement in learning” (Griep, Hess, & Tress, 2003)
    • “ It emerges spontaneously from psychological needs, personal curiosities, and innate strivings for growth” (Reeve, 2005,p.134).
  • 22. Extrinsic Motivation
    • The individual is rewarded after completing the learning activity.
    • The person knows they will receive a reward with the accomplishment of the task.
    • People who are extrinsically motivated mainly seek to complete the task for the reward .
    • Different types of reward result in different effects (Brennan & Glover, 1980).
  • 23. Extrinsic Motivation
    • Extrinsically motivated students are interested in following the proper procedure or guidelines that will lead to the reward (Bye, Pushkar, & Conway, 2007).
    • A pay increase or promotion are examples of extrinsic motivation.
  • 24. Goal Setting Theory
    • Goals serve as a motivational force to performance.
    • A goal must be challenging and specific.
    • “ So long as a person is committed to the goal, has the requisite ability to attain it, and does not have conflicting goals, there is a positive, linear relationship between goal difficulty and task performance” (Locke & Latham, 2006, p. 265).
  • 25. ERG Theory
    • Alderfer believes that there are three important needs: existence, relatedness, and growth.
    • ERG suggests that as more concrete needs are satisfied, less concrete needs become more important.
    • Motivated students are interested in continuing to learn.
    (Csupomona.edu, 2009).
  • 26. Philosophical Beliefs
    • Motivational Theory
      • Intrinsic motivation inspires individuals to engage in an activity for the pleasure of engaging. Many students attend school because of intrinsic motivation, but I believe quite a few students are extrinsically motivated, i.e. seek a reward. The reward could be the degree that is being earn or any other material reward that would be offered. At some point students receive the reward and become intrinsically motivated as they seek education for the simple pleasure of learning.
      • Intrinsic motivation is more authentic and is a better fuel for individuals as it’s motivation that stems naturally without any interest in a compensation.
      • In my opinion, a combination of both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation will provide the best outcome.
  • 27. References Brennan, T., & Glover, J. (1980). AN EXAMINATION OF THE EFFECT OF EXTRINSIC REINFORCERS ON INTRINSICALLY MOTIVATED BEHAVIOR: EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal , 8 (1), 27. Retrieved August 27, 2009, from Academic Search Complete database. Bullock, C., & Ory, J. (2000, Fall2000). Evaluating Instructional Technology Implementation in a Higher Education Environment. American Journal of Evaluation , 21 (3), 315. Retrieved August 27, 2009, from Academic Search Complete database. Bye, D., Pushkar, D., & Conway, M. (2007, February). MOTIVATION, INTEREST, AND POSITIVE AFFECT IN TRADITIONAL AND NONTRADITIONAL UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS. Adult Education Quarterly , 57 (2), 141-158. Retrieved August 28, 2009, from Academic Search Complete database.     Cheng, Y., & Yeh, H. (2009). From concepts of motivation to its application in instructional design: Reconsidering motivation from an instructional design perspective. British Journal of Educational Technology , 40 (4), 597-605. Retrieved August 27, 2009, from Academic Search Complete database.   Tiu, S., Johnson, P., Qumsieh, M., & Salinas, P. (2009). Demographics of Students Enrolled in Online Classes (University of Houston – Clear Lake Fact Book ). Retrieved from University of Houston – Clear Lake , Office of Institutional Effectives website: http://prtl.uhcl.edu/portal/page/portal/OIE/IR_PUBLICATIONS/FACT_BOOK/Fact%20Book%202008.pdf Dempsey, J. (2006). Cognitive Load Theory (2006). In Instructional Design Workbook: Theories . Retrieved from: http://www.southalabama.edu/htdocs/oll/chikatla/iddtheorywb/htmlcognitiveload/terms5.htm   Dick, W., Carey, L., Carey, J.O. (2005) The Systematic Design of Instruction (6 th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Allyn and Bacon.   Hampton, S., & Reiser, R. (2004). Effects of a Theory-Based Feedback and Consultation Process on Instruction and Learning in College Classrooms. Research in Higher Education , v45 (n5), p497. Retrieved August 28, 2009 from the ERIC database.   Kerssen-Griep, J., Hess, J., & Trees, A. (2003). Sustaining the Desire to Learn: Dimensions of Perceived Instructional Facework Related to Student Involvement and Motivation to Learn. Western Journal of Communication , 67 (4), 357-381. Retrieved August 28, 2009 from the Academic Search Premier database.   Lee, H., Plass, J., & Homer, B. (2006). Optimizing Cognitive Load for Learning From Computer-Based Science Simulations. Journal of Educational Psychology , 98 (4), 902-913. Retrieved August 28, 2009 from the PsycARTICLES database.  
  • 28. References Locke, E., & Latham, G. (2006). New Directions in Goal-Setting Theory. Current Directions in Psychological Science , 15 (5), 265-268. Retrieved August 27, 2009 , from Academic Search Complete database.   Pastor, M. (2009). Short-Term Memory . Retrieved August 28, 2009, from SDSU Department of Educational Technology website http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/Articles/stmemory/start.htm Reeve, J. (2005). Understanding motivation and emotion (4th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons.   Reiser, R. A. & Dempsey, J.V. (2007). Trends and Issues in Instructional Design (2 ND ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall.   Technology-Enhanced Classroom. (2009). In Eductech Wiki . Retrieved August 28, 2009 from: http://edutechwiki.unige.ch/en/Technology-enhanced_classroom   Why Study Motivation. (2009). In Csupomana.edu . Retrieved August 28, 2009 from: http://www.csupomona.edu/~msharifzadeh/chapter3.html Woolf, N., & Quinn, J. (2009, February). Learners’ perceptions of instructional design practice in a situated learning activity. Educational Technology Research & Development , 57 (1), 25-43. Retrieved August 28, 2009, from Academic Search Complete database.