WRITING SKILLSWRITING SKILLSCED 1224CED 1224LECTURE 4LECTURE 4Murni SalinaFaculty of Education & Social SciencesUNISEL Bestari Jaya
NarrationNarration Around 2 a.m. something woke Charles Hanson up. He layin the dark listening. Something felt wrong. Outside,crickets sang, tree-frogs chirruped. Across the distantforest floated two muffled hoots from a barred owl. It wastoo quiet. At home in New Jersey, the nights are filled withthe busy, comforting sounds of traffic. You always have thecomforting knowledge that other people are all around you.And light: At home he can read in bed by the glow of thestreetlight. It was too quiet. And much too dark. Evenstarlight failed to penetrate the 80-foot canopy of trees thecamper was parked beneath. It was the darkest dark hehad ever seen. He felt for the flashlight beside his bunk. Itwas gone. He found where his pants were hanging and, ashe felt the pockets for a box of matches, something rustledin the leaves right outside the window, inches from hisface. He heard his wife, Wanda, hold her breath; she wasawake, too. Then, whatever, was outside in the darknessalso breathed, and the huge silence of the night seemed tocome inside the camper, stifling them. It was then hedecided to pack up and move to a motel.
Comments on narrationComments on narration Normally chronological (though sometimes usesflashbacks) A sequential presentation of the events that add up to astory. A narrative differs from a mere listing of events. Narrationusually contains characters, a setting, a conflict, and aresolution. Time and place and person are normallyestablished. In this paragraph, the "story" componentsare: a protagonist (Hanson), a setting (the park), a goal(to camp), an obstacle (nature), a climax (his panic), anda resolution (leaving). Specific details always help a story, but so doesinterpretive language. You dont just lay the words on thepage; you point them in the direction of a story. This narrative serves as the opening anecdote thatillustrates the topic of the story.
ExpositionExpositionThis family was a victim of a problem theycould have avoided-a problem that, accordingto Florida park rangers, hundreds of visitorssuffer each year. "Several times a month,"ranger Rod Torres of OLeno State Park said,"people get scared and leave the park in themiddle of the night." Those people picked thewrong kind of park to visit. Not that therewas anything wrong with the park: The hikerscamped next to them loved the wild isolationof it. But it just wasnt the kind of place thecouple from New Jersey had in mind whenthey decided to camp out on this trip throughFlorida. If they had known about the differentkinds of parks in Florida, they might havestayed in a place they loved.
Comments on expositionComments on exposition Exposition is explanatory writing Exposition can be an incidental part of a descriptionor a narration, or it can be the heart of an article Aside from clarity, the key problem with exposition iscredibility. What makes your explanation believable?Normally, writers solve this problem by citingauthorities who have good credentials and goodreason to be experts in the subject. This paragraph also happens to serve as the justifierfor the little article: the paragraph that, after anindirect opening, specifies the topic of the article, whyit is important, and what is to come.
DefinitionDefinition"Park" is difficult to define in Florida,because there are so many kinds of parks.Basically, a park is a place to go foroutdoor recreation-to swim, picnic, hike,camp, walk the dog, play tennis, paddleyour canoe, and, in some places take ridesin miniature trains or swish down awaterslide. Florida has a rich variety ofparks, ranging from acres of RVs ringedaround recreation halls, to impenetrablemangrove wilderness. To make thingsmore complicated, not all of them arecalled "parks," and even the ones called"parks" come in several varieties.
Comments on definitionComments on definitionNever define anything by the "accordingto Websters" method. Meaning is found inthe world, not in the dictionary. Bring theworld into your story and use it to defineyour terms.Saying what something is NOT can helpreaders; but make a strong effort to saywhat it IS.
DescriptionDescriptionOLeno is a good example of a state park in Florida.Surrounded by the tall, shaded woods of a beautifulhardwood forest, the Santa Fe River disappears in alarge, slowly swirling, tree-lined pool. Afterappearing intermittently in scattered sinkholes, theriver rises three miles downstream in a big boil,then continues on to meet the Suwannee and thesea. Nearby, stands of cypress mirror themselvesin the still waters, walls of dense river swamp risebefore you, sudden sinkholes open in thewoodlands-rich with cool ferns and mosses. Fartherfrom the river, expanses of longleaf pinelandsstretch across rolling hills. In the midst of thislovely setting, you find 65 campsites, 18 rusticcabins, and a pavilion for group meetings. A divingplatform marks a good place to swim in the soft,cool waters of the Santa Fe, and canoeing up thisdark river is like traveling backwards in time in thedirection of original Florida.
Comments on descriptionComments on description Description is not what you saw, but what readers need tosee in order to imagine the scene, person, object, etc. Description requires you to record a series of detailedobservations. Be especially careful to make realobservations. The success of a description lies in the difference betweenwhat a reader can imagine and what you actually saw andrecorded; from that gap arises a spark of engagement. Use sensory language. Go light on adjectives and adverbs.Look for ways to describe action. Pay special attention tothe sound and rhythm of words; use these when you can. Use the description to make your point, or to move yourstory along.
ComparisonComparisonForest and river dominate OLeno State Park. Bycontrast, Lloyd Beach State Recreation Area, nearFort Lauderdale, is dominated by the oily bodiesof sun-worshippers who crowd into it everysummer weekend. Where OLeno gives you somuch quiet you can hear the leaves whispering,Lloyd Beach is a place of boisterous activity. Youcan walk a few yards in OLeno and pass beyondevery sign of human civilization. When you walkat Lloyd Beach, you have to be careful to stepover the picnic baskets, umbrellas, jam boxes,and browning bodies. At night, OLeno wrapsitself with the silence of crickets and owls. LloydBeach is busy with fishermen till well pastmidnight. If you want to fish near town, or diveinto the busy bustle of an urban beach, LloydBeach is the place to go. But if you want to standat the edge of civilization and look across timeinto an older natural world, OLeno is the park tovisit.
Comments on comparisonComments on comparison There is a helpful technique for writing a comparison. If youfollow it, your comparisons will benefit. Before writing a comparison, draw up a chart and fill it in, tomake certain you have all the elements necessary to write acomparison. As in the model below, list the two items beingcompared, and the criteria by which they will be compared. Ifyou do not make such a chart, there is a chance you will havea hole in your comparison. Criteria OLenoLloyd Beachnoisequietnoisypeoplesolitudeavailablebusy crowdswater resourcesriver to swim andcanoeAtlantic beachnatural featuresforestbeachwildlife abundant, forest type fish andseabirds Then choose whether to to "down the columns" or "across therows" in writing your description. Either describe all of OLenoand compare it to all of Lloyd Beach by working "down"columns two and three, or take the first category, "noise" andcompare the two parks in terms of it, then the next category,and so on "across the rows." Once you commit to a "down" or "across" strategy, stick withit till the end of the comparison.
Process AnalysisProcess Analysis Pretend you are reading an article on how to put up a particular brand oftent. When you find the park you are looking for, you will need to makecamp. One person can set up the FamilyProof Tent, though it is easier withtwo, yet almost impossible with three or more. Heres how: First, clear a 9 by 9 foot area of snags, limbs, and anything that mightpierce the bottom of the tent. Unfold the tent so that the corners of thewaterproof bottom form a square. Peg down the corners of the bottom. Next, snAP Test, Together all four external tent-poles (they are heldtogether by shock cords to make sure you get the pieces matched up). Place a pole near each of the pegs. Thread each pole through the twoloops leading toward the top of the tent. After you have all four poles in place, lift one of the poles. While holdingthe pole up, pull its guy rope tight and peg the guy rope down, so that thepole is held up by the guy rope and the pegs on opposing sides of the tentbottom. Lift the pole on the opposite side of the tent in the same way, but thistime, fit it into the upper end of the standing pole before securing its guywire. Assemble the two remaining tent poles in a similar manner. Finally, unroll the front flAP Test, To form an awning. Prop up the awningwith the two remaining poles and secure them with guy ropes. Now you are ready to move in.
Comments on process analysisComments on process analysisIn describing how a process happens or how toperform a series of actions, always think of yourreaders: can they follow this?Analyze the process into a series of steps. Putthe steps into sequence.Then isolate the steps: number then, use bullets,put them in separate paragraphsUse illustrations keyed to the steps whenappropriate: people can often read diagramsbetter than they can read lists of stepsAlways ask an outsider to read your processanalysis to see if it can be followed. Once you areclose to a subject, it is difficult to know when youhave left something out.
PersuasionPersuasion Before you go camping in Florida, plan ahead. Dont windup in the wilds when you want to be near Disney World,and dont wind up on a concrete RV pad when you reallywant the forest primeval. Find out what parks are available,and what they are like. Get good information on what toexpect, and what your options are. This can make all thedifference in the quality of your vacation.
Comments on persuasionComments on persuasion This paragraph is but a small example of the kind ofwriting used widely in editorials and columns, and it uses adirect, exhortatory approach: Believe Me and Do It! This persuasive paragraph also serves as the ending to thislittle article and brings a sense of closure in the form of,"OK, now get up and act!" To persuade people to change their minds or take anaction, more is needed than your opinion or sense ofconviction. You need to supply them with the information,analysis, and context they need to form their ownopinions, make their own judgments, and take action. Remember: Readers are interested in only one opinion--their own. If you can help them formulate and deepen thatopinion, they will be glad they read your article.