PARAPHRASING

  • 3,292 views
Uploaded on

A quick lesson on paraphrasing... answer questions that follow....

A quick lesson on paraphrasing... answer questions that follow....

More in: Education
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • These items are obviously useful, they must be more handy for people who want to use them.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • These items are obviously useful, they must be more handy for people who wants to use it.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
3,292
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
201
Comments
2
Likes
3

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Murni Salina B.Sc. Ed (TESL) UTM Skudai PARAPHRASING
  • 2. Paraphrasing Techniques
    • Change to Synonyms
    • Change Word Forms
    • Change from a Clause to a Phrase
    • Change from Quoted Speech to Indirect Speech
    • Change from Active Voice to Passive Voice
    • Interpret Meaning Identify the underlying meaning of a statement.
    • Change Transitions
  • 3. 1. Change to Synonyms
    • Replace the original words with words that mean the same.
    • The stallion was content with the mare.
    • The stallion was happy with the mare.
  • 4. When You can’t find a Synonym
    • Replace the original word with a definition.
    • The stallion was content with the mare.
    • The male horse was happy with the female horse .
  • 5. 2. Change Word Forms
    • Use an adverb instead of an adjective
    • Use a verb to replace a noun.
    • John is an accurate typist.
    • John types accurately .
  • 6. 3. Change from a Clause to a Phrase
    • After he ate lunch, John took a nap.
    • After eating lunch , John took a nap.
    • The house that is across the street is old.
    • The house across the street is old.
  • 7. 4. Change from Quoted Speech to Indirect Speech
    • Mrs. Lee said, “I am ready for lunch.”
    • Mrs. Lee said she was ready for lunch .
  • 8. 5. Change from Active Voice to Passive Voice
    • A hotel employee will carry your bags.
    • Your bags will be carried by a hotel employee.
  • 9. …… and replace with words synonyms.
    • A hotel employee will carry your bags.
    • Your bags will be carried by a hotel employee.
    • Your luggage will be picked up by a bell boy.
  • 10. 6. Interpret Meaning Identify the underlying meaning of a statement.
    • Mrs. Lee said, “I am ready for lunch.”
    • Mrs. Lee complained about being hungry.
  • 11. 7. Change transitions
    • Although it was raining, Bob walked to work.
    • It was raining, but Bob walked to work.
    • It was raining; however, Bob walked to work.
  • 12. …… and change word forms
    • Although it was raining, Bob walked to work.
    • It was raining, but Bob walked to work.
    • It was raining; however, Bob walked to work.
      • Despite the rain, Bob went to work on foot.
  • 13. 8. Combine Techniques Change to a phrase & add synonyms or definitions
    • After he ate lunch, John took a nap.
    • After eating lunch , John slept a little .
  • 14. 8. Combine Techniques Change to a phrase & add synonyms or definitions
    • The house that is across the street is old.
    • The house across the street is old.
    • The house on the other side of the street is old.
    • The dwelling on the other side of the road is ancient .
  • 15. EXAMPLE OF A PARAGRAPH FROM THE ORIGINAL SOURCE:
    • "I had to explain to him that I was deaf. I said, 'Wait; I can't hear; please talk slowly.' He looked at me and said, 'What?' I told him again I was deaf, and he said, 'Oh.' He pointed to a door and told me to go through that door. I followed his instructions. I opened the door and walked through it, closing the door behind me. I found that I was in the hallway near the elevator where I had just come up. I was shocked! He had rejected me without any explanation. I got into the elevator, and as it descended, I felt very letdown. I couldn't understand why he didn't give me a chance to explain that I could do the job well. It didn't require hearing!“
    • - Bernard Bragg, My First Summer Job , A Handful of Stories , 19.
  • 16. A POSSIBLE PARAPHRASE FOR THE ABOVE PARAGRAPH (ANSWER)
    • In A Handful of Stories , Bernard Bragg tells a story of trying to get a job. One time he told a potential employer he was deaf, and the man just pointed to the door. Mr. Bragg, not realizing the man was telling him to leave, opened the door and stepped out. Not until he went out the door did he realize he had been rejected because he was deaf (19).
  • 17. PARAPHRASING EXERCISES
    • Read the following passages carefully and write a paraphrase of each one.
  • 18. EXERCISE 1
    • Lead has been known to be a poison for many centuries. In fact, there is evidence that it contributed to the fall of the Roman Empire. There is no doubt that in the second century BC Rome’s wealthy ruling class suffered from a disproportionately high level of stillbirths, sterility and brain damage. And a high lead content has been found in the bones of such ancient Romans. One widely supported hypothesis is that the cause of both facts was lead poisoning from leaden wine-cups and plates which only the rich could afford.
    • (Williams 1982, p. 83).
  • 19. EXERCISE 2
    • In modern times, over 90% of atmospheric lead poisoning comes from car exhausts, as a result of the burning of leaded petrol. Lead poisoning is therefore a particularly serious threat in cities, especially to young children who live near busy city streets. But atmospheric lead pollution is even having a global effect.
    • (Williams, 1982, p. 83).
  • 20. EXERCISE 3
    • Demography is the study of the change in size, distribution and character of the human population; and the two most basic factors in demography are the birth-rate and the death-rate. The former expresses the number of children born per thousand people per year. The latter indicates the number of people who die per thousand people per year. If we consider the Earth as a whole, we see that the population growth or decline is caused by the difference between the number or births and deaths over a given period. There are normally more births than deaths, and this is known as a natural increase in population.
    • (Williams, 1982, p. 97).
  • 21. EXERCISE 4
    • There have been many cases of countries adopting advanced technology in which the results proved disastrous in terms of employment and foreign exchange. For example, in one poor country, 5,000 shoemakers were kept very busy by their customers. Many other shoemakers earned their living by supplying material to the shoemakers: leather, handtools, cotton laces, wooden lasts, and cartons. The country then imported two plastic-injection moulding machines, costing over US $60,000. All the PVC for making the shoes was also imported, which meant more spending outside the country. The plastic shoes were cheaper than the leather ones, and outlasted them, and so most of the 5,000 shoemakers soon found themselves out of a job. So did most of their suppliers. The plastic shoe factory, on the other hand, employed only about 40 people.
    • (Williams, 1982, p. 44).