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# Primary and sec data

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### Primary and sec data

1. 1. Primary andPrimary andSecondary DataSecondary DataINTRODUCTIONSUBMITTED BY –ABDUL SALIMID NO ABM-12192
2. 2. Objectives of this lesson:Primary and Secondary DataDEFINITION AND TYPES OF DATADESCRIBE PRIMARY DATA,METHODEOF COLLECTION,MERIT AND DEMERIT.DESCRIBE SECONDARYDATA,SOURCE,MERIT AND DEMERITCONCLUSIONREFRENCEQUESTION AND ANSWER
3. 3.  DATA- Data is information in raw or unorganizedform(such as alphabet, number or symbols) thatrefers to or represent ,ideas, object. data islimitless and present everywhere in the universe. TYPES:- PRIMARY DATA - collected by the researcherhimself SECONDARY DATA - collected by others to be"re-used" by the researcherTYPES OF DATA
4. 4. Data that has been collected from first-hand-experience is known as primary data. Primary datahas not been published yet and is more reliable,authentic and objective. Primary data has not beenchanged or altered by human beings, therefore itsvalidity is greater than secondary dataPRIMARY DATA
5. 5. A. Observation methodB. Indirect Oral InterviewsC. Questionnaire methodD. Schedule MethodE. From Local AgentsF. Survey MethodA.B.C.METHOD OF COLLECTION OFPRIMARY DATA
6. 6. A. DIRECT PERSONALOBSEVATIONSTRUCTUREDUNSTRUCTUREDPARTICIPATIVENON-PARTICIPATIVE
7. 7. Standardized interviewsa. Structuredb. UnstructuredNon-standardized interviewsa. One to one1.Face to face,2.telephonic,3.internet mediated interviewsb. One to many(focus group)INDIRECT ORAL INTERVIEW
8. 8.  Questionnaire- A questionnaire is a researchinstrument consisting of a series of question and otherprompts for the purpose of gathering information fromrespondent.Self administered questionnaireInterviewer -administeredquestionnaireTelephone questionnaireDelivery and questionnairePostal or mail questionnaireQuestionnaire method
9. 9.  SURVEY- A detailed study of geographical area togather data attitudes, impressions, opinions, satisfactionlevel etc., by polling a section of the population TYPE1.CENSUS SURVEY2.CONTINOUS OR REGULARSURVEY3.AD-HOC SURVEYSURVEY
10. 10. Degree of accuracy is quite high.It does not require extra caution.It depicts the data in great detail.Primary source of data collection frequentlyincludes definitions of various terms and units used.For some investigations, secondary data are notavailable.MERIT OF PRIMARYDATA
11. 11. Collection of data requires a lot of time.Requires lot of finance.In some enquiries it is not possible to collectprimary data.Requires a lot of labour.Requires a lot of skill.DEMERIT OF PRIMARYDATA
12. 12. Data collected from a source that hasalready been published in any form iscalled as secondary data. The reviewof literature in any research is basedon secondary data. Mostly frombooks, journals and periodicals.SECONDARY DATA
13. 13. • Published printed source Books Journals/periodicals Magazines/Newspapers• Published Electronic Sources e-journals General websites WeblogsSOURCE OF SECONDADRYDATA
14. 14. • Unpublished Personal RecordsDiariesLetters• Government RecordsCensus Data/population statistics:Health recordsEducational institutes recordsContd…………
15. 15. • Public Sector Records:NGOss survey dataOther private companies recordsContd……..
16. 16. MERIT OF SECONDARY DATA Use is very convenient. Saves time and finance. In some enquiries primary data cannot becollected. Reliable secondary data are generally available formany investigations.MERIT OF SECONDARY DATA
17. 17. DEMERIT OF SECONDARYDATA Very difficult to find sufficiently accuratesecondary data. Very difficult to find secondary data which exactlyfulfils the need of present investigation.Extra caution is required to use secondary data. Not available for all types of enquiries.DEMERIT OF SECONDARYDATA
18. 18. Because of the above mentioned disadvantages of secondary data, we willlead to evaluation of secondary data. Evaluation means the following fourrequirements must be satisfied:- Availability- It has to be seen that the kind of data you want is available ornot. If it is not available then you have to go for primary data. Relevance- It should be meeting the requirements of the problem. For thiswe have two criterion:- Units of measurement should be the same. Concepts used must be same and currency of data should not be outdated. Accuracy- In order to find how accurate the data is, the following pointsmust be considered: - Specification and methodology used; Margin of error should be examined; The dependability of the source must be seen. Sufficiency- Adequate data should be available.EVALUATION OF SECONDARYDATA
19. 19. • Secondarydataareinformationpreviouslygatheredforadifferentpurposethatmayberelevanttotheproblemathand.• Secondarydatacancomefromsourcesinternaltotheorganizationorexternal.• Theinternetandsyndicatedfirmshave,inmanyways,enabledthegatheringofsecondarydata.• Secondarydataaregenerallyuseful,low-cost,rapidlyavailablesourcesofinformation.• Always look for secondary data first•CONCLUSION
20. 20. REFRENCES• INTERNET• C.R.KOTHARI• CLASS NOTES