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Responsible Party Assailly
Responsible Party Assailly
Responsible Party Assailly
Responsible Party Assailly
Responsible Party Assailly
Responsible Party Assailly
Responsible Party Assailly
Responsible Party Assailly
Responsible Party Assailly
Responsible Party Assailly
Responsible Party Assailly
Responsible Party Assailly
Responsible Party Assailly
Responsible Party Assailly
Responsible Party Assailly
Responsible Party Assailly
Responsible Party Assailly
Responsible Party Assailly
Responsible Party Assailly
Responsible Party Assailly
Responsible Party Assailly
Responsible Party Assailly
Responsible Party Assailly
Responsible Party Assailly
Responsible Party Assailly
Responsible Party Assailly
Responsible Party Assailly
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Responsible Party Assailly

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  • 1. Young people, alcohol and health Dr. Jean-Pascal Assailly, psychologist, researcher and expert for the World Bank
  • 2. Sources • ESPAD Study: www.espad.org • HBSC Study: www.hbsc.org/ • ESCAPAD Study (french only): www.ofdt.fr/BDD/publications/docs/eisxstra.pdf • YOUNG PEOPLE AND ALCOHOL, trends, causes, consequences and strategies of prevention, Dr. Assailly • WHO Global status report on alcohol and health, 2011 : www.who.int 1.Alcoholism - epidemiology. 2.Alcohol drinking - adverse effects. 3.Social control, Formal - methods. 4.Cost of illness. 5.Public policy. I.World Health Organization.
  • 3. Sociological, medical and psychological aspects
  • 4. Differences young men/women GIRLS  DRINK LESS ALCOHOL  FEWER ALCOHOL RELATED PROBLEMS  DRINKING FOLLOWS THE AGENDA OF FEMINISM  HIGHEST VOLUME IN NORDICS COUNTRIES BOYS  HIGHER CONSUMPTION ON THEIR MOST RECENT DRINKING DAY THAN GIRLS  BINGE DRINKING DURING THE PAST 30 LAST DAYS MORE COMMON AMONG BOYS THAN GIRLS General Trends
  • 5. Differences young men/women General Trends GIRLS AND BOYS  SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES FOUND IN ALL COUNTRIES  HIGHER INTOXICATION SCORE IN A COUNTRY  GIRLS ARE FOLLOWING THE BAD EXAMPLE OF BOYS GENDER DIFFERENCES  DRINKING AS A MARKER OF MASCULINITY
  • 6. Differences young men/women Beverage type: beer and spirits GIRLS  33% OF GIRLS’ CONSUMPTION: SPIRITS BOYS  50% OF BOYS’ CONSUMPTION: BEER Causes of alcohol misuse GIRLS  NEGATIVE INTERNAL STATE  FAMILY CONFLICTS BOYS  PEER PRESSURE  SOCIAL EXPECTANCIES
  • 7. Differences young men/women Consequences GIRLS  CONSEQUENCES OF HEAVY ALCOHOL USE OR USE DISORDERS MORE NEGATIVE FOR WOMEN • MORE PHYSICAL HARM AND SEXUAL ASSAULT • RANGE OF REPRODUCTIVE PROBLEMS
  • 8. Alcohol-related brain damage Young ‘at-risk’ drinkers: vulnerability markers? Definition Alcohol-related brain damage (ARBD) is a result of chronic excessive alcohol misuse
  • 9. Alcohol-related brain damage Specific drinking patterns in young people Critical period in brain development particularly vulnerable to alcohol misuse Influence of substance use on mental health: vulnerability Early prevention and treatment 1 2 3 4
  • 10. Is alcohol use a risk factor or a risk marker? Age of onset of regular drinking CONSEQUENCES  Immediate consequences of alcohol use (blackouts, hangovers)  Brain deficits  School failure  Alcohol dependency  Traffic accidents (related to alcohol) and violations  Delinquency and antisocial behavior Individuals who start regular alcohol at 14 years and before are at increased risk of developing alcohol use disorders
  • 11. →Positive consequences at least as strongly associated with drinking as negative consequences. →Possible role of Fun/Social consequences in the escalation and maintenance of high-risk drinking. The types of the consequences of drinking  Fun/social  Relaxation/coping  Positive image  Physical  Behavioral  Driving
  • 12. The beliefs of students about drinking Copying with internal state (anxiety) Copying with external state (social situation) Enhancement of internal positive state (pleasure)Enhancement of external positive state (friendship) Positive global effects Reduction of negative emotional states Activation and agression Activation and sexual pleasure Relaxation and tension reduction
  • 13. The “false” consensus Overestimation by students of the extent of their fellow students' alcohol consumption  Campaigns measuring and communicating the real prevalence have produced positive effects on binge drinking, changing the perceived social norm (20% instead of 80% !!) Definition Overestimation of the prevalence of drinking on the campus
  • 14. Peers influences on drinking behavior Important role models of friends and siblings Strong similarity in drinking between best friends and adolescents but best friends are not permanent! Ambivalent value of popularity among peers Importance of alcohol in peer-selection processes
  • 15. Drink and driving Presence of alcohol in 30% of fatal traffic accidents of young people: first cause of death of young people, important cause of license suspension Driver designation: no data on students about this impact Mobility offers: no data on students about the impact of alcohol consumption
  • 16. Second hand” and environmental effects” Direct impacts of campuses with many binge drinkers  Having sleep or study interrupted  Having to take care of a drunken student  Being insulted or assaulted  Being the victim of unwanted sexual advances  Having personal property vandalized Impacts on universities  More alcohol outlets within a mile, lower socioeconomic status environment, lowered quality of neighborhood life Impacts of alcohol outlets  Importance of the number of nearby alcohol outlets mediating the relationship between universities
  • 17. Effects and impacts of drinking
  • 18. Consequences of drinking on health SHORT TERM CONSEQUENCES Acute alcohol intoxication Young people less body mass than adults and more likely to lose control and to take risks Young people more vulnerable than adults Sedative effect of alcohol less important for young adults compared to adults Blackouts or loss of memory due to an episode of heavy drinking Alcohol myopia
  • 19. Consequences of drinking on health FOCUS ON TWO CONSEQUENCES BLACKOUT MYOPIA  25% of university students who drank reported blackouts during the school year.  Incidence doubled (54%) among frequent binge drinkers.  Blackout for girls with an average of only 5 drinks. Males averaged 9 drinks per occurrence.  More blackouts and forgetting events among young people than adult drinkers  Intoxication  Underestimation of the possible negative consequences of decisions and overestimation of the positive consequences  Applied to all types of decision- making  Conjunction with pre-existent individual characteristics, type of relationship with the partner and motivations
  • 20. Consequences of drinking on health LONG TERM CONSEQUENCES SLEEP DEPRESSION ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE SOCIAL RISKS TAKING (unprotected sex) FRIENDSHIP
  • 21. What is moderate and what is excessive?
  • 22. How to define what is moderate and excessive drinking?
  • 23. No more than 4 drinks in one occasion Being able of abstinence one day Daily use not excess 20 g of pure alcohol How to define what is moderate and excessive drinking? MODERATE? WOMEN no more than 2 units per day MEN no more than 3 units per day
  • 24. How to define what is moderate and excessive drinking? BUT… No consistent definitions of moderate or heavy drinking Underestimations of the volume of alcohol included in standard drinks Inconsistencies in research reports about the relative benefits and harms of different types of alcoholic beverages Differences in the way self-reported “drinks” different across different countries, within countries, and between different beverage types and in different drinking settings 1 2 3 4
  • 25. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION! Questions welcome…but answers not guaranted!!
  • 26. And what about you? do you feel concern? …Let’s go further together with Responsible Party

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