Introduction To Molecular Biology

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Introduction To Molecular Biology

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Introduction To Molecular Biology

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO MOLECULAR BIOLOGY SALWA HASSAN TEAMA
  2. 2. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY Molecular biology; the study of gene structure and functions at the molecular level to understand the molecular basis of hereditary, genetic variation,….. and the expression patterns of genes. The Molecular biology study the flow of information from DNA to RNA to protein. The Molecular biology field overlaps with other areas, particularly genetics and biochemistry. The Molecular biology allows the laboratory to be predictive in nature; events that occur in the future.
  3. 3. THE GENOME  The totality of genetic information within one mature cell of an organism.  Encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA).  The diploid genome of the typical human cells contains approx.7x10⁹ base pairs that are divided into 23 chromosomes.
  4. 4. THE GENOME DATABASE Organized in six major organism groups:  Eukaryotes,  Bacteria,  Archaea,  Viruses,  Viroids and  Plasmids.
  5. 5. THREE DOMAIN OF LIFE  Eukaryotic  Prokaryotic  Archaea
  6. 6. Eukaryotes are generally more advanced than prokaryotes EukaryotesProkaryotes
  7. 7. EUKARYOTIC CELLS  Eukaryotic cells are found in animals, plants, fungi and protists cell;  Cell with a true nucleus, where the genetic material is surrounded by a membrane;  Eukaryotic genome is more complex than that of prokaryotes and distributed among multiple chromosomes;  Eukaryotic DNA is linear;  Eukaryotic DNA is complexed with proteins called histones;  Numerous membrane-bound organelles;  Complex internal structure;  Cell division by mitosis.
  8. 8. PROKARYOTIC CELL  Prokaryotic Cell; Unicellular organisms, found in all environments. These include bacteria and archaea;  Without a nucleus; no nuclear membrane (genetic material dispersed throughout the cytoplasm;  No membrane-bound organelles;  Cell contains only one circular DNA molecule contained in the cytoplasm;  DNA is naked (no histone);  Simple internal structure; and  Cell division by simple binary fission.
  9. 9. ARCHAEA Archaea is prokaryotes; organisms without nucleus but some aspects of their molecular biology are more similar to those of eukaryotes.
  10. 10. Modified from Strachan and Read . Source: http://geneticssuite.net/node/33
  11. 11. HUMAN GENOME Jane Ades. Source: National Human Genome Research Institute In normal human cell DNA contained in the nucleus, arranged in 23 pairs of chromosomes.
  12. 12. THE CHROMOSOME The Chromosome: the storage place for all genetic information, the number of chromosomes varies from one species to another. Human chromosome: Twenty three pairs of chromosomes: Twenty two pairs of chromosomes (autosomes); One pair (sex chromosome) determines the sex of individual (female) (XX) or (male) (XY).
  13. 13. THE GENE Source: National Human Genome Research Institute Most of the genes consist of; short coding sequences or exons are interrupted by a longer intervening noncoding sequence or introns; although a few genes in the human genome have no introns.
  14. 14. THE GENE  The basic units of inheritance.  It is a segment within a very long strand of DNA with specific instruction for the production of one specific protein.  Located on chromosome on it's place or locus.  Allele: A variant of the DNA sequence at a given locus. Each allele inherited from a different parent.
  15. 15. CENTRAL DOGMA OF MOLECULAR BIOLOGY DNA molecules serve as templates for either complementary DNA strands during the process of replication or complementary RNA during the process of transcription. RNA molecules serve as a template for ordering amino acids by ribosomes during protein synthesis.
  16. 16. GENERAL STRUCTURE OF NUCLEIC ACID
  17. 17. GENERAL STRUCTURE OF NUCLEIC ACID DNA and RNA are long chain polymers of small compounds called nucleotides. DNA: Four different types of nucleotides differ in nitrogenous base: A is for adenine; G is for guanine; C is for cytosine and T is for thymine. RNA: thymine base replaced by uracil base. Nitrogenous base: these bases are classified based on their chemical structures into two groups: Purine: Double ringed structure (Adenine and Guanine) and Pyrimidine: Single ring structures (cytosine, thymine or uracil).
  18. 18. NUCLEOTIDE Each nucleotide is composed of a nitrogen base; five carbon sugar (ribose in RNA or deoxyribose in DNA) and a phosphate group. The phosphate joins the sugars in a DNA or RNA chain through their 5' - and 3' - hydroxyl group by phosphodiester bonds.
  19. 19. THE STRUCTURE OF DNA
  20. 20. DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (DNA)  The gigantic molecule which is used to encode genetic information for all life on Earth.  The genetic material of all cellular organisms and most viruses.  DNA molecule is incredibly long. It is tightly packed.  DNA forms: A Form, B Form and Z Form,…B-DNA is the naturally occurring form of DNA inside cells.
  21. 21. DNA DOUBLE HELIX The structure of DNA was described by British Scientists Watson and Crick as long double helix shaped structure.  Linked as a twisted ladder.  The curving sides of the ladder represent the sugar- phosphate backbone of the two DNA strands; the rungs are the base pairs.  Possess antiparallel polarity.  Stabilized by hydrogen bonds between the bases.
  22. 22. DNA COMPLEMENTARITY Within the structure of DNA, the number of thymine is always equal to the number of adenine, and the number of cytosine is always equal to guanine. The bases pair in a specific way: Adenine A with thymine T (two hydrogen bonds) and guanine G with cytosine C (three hydrogen bonds).
  23. 23.  A Form  B Form  Z Form  .. DNA FORMS
  24. 24. DNA FORMS These forms are distinguished by:  The number of base pair  The angle between each base pair  The helical diameter of the molecule  Right or left hand direction of double helix B Form
  25. 25. DNA ORGANIZATION The nucleus of eukaryotic cells contains DNA, histones, and non- histone proteins. These three elements combine to form the chromatin fibers of the nucleus. Four histones, H2A, H2B, H3 and H4, combine by twos to form the core particle of nucleosomes, the basic structural units of chromatin, which have a core of histones around which the DNA winds. The remaining histone, H1, ties DNA to the nucleosome and possibly also sets up linkages that wind nucleosome chains into chromatin fibers.
  26. 26. DNA ORGANIZATION
  27. 27. DNA The molecule of life carry all the instruction that provide almost all information necessary for a living organism to grow and function. DNA responsible for preserving, copying and transmitting information within cells and from generation to generation.. DNA
  28. 28. The RNA
  29. 29. THE RNA RNA is a polymer of purine and pyrimidine ribonucleotides linked together by phosphodiester bridgs analogous to those in DNA. RNA possesses several specific difference: RNA: Sugar moiety is ribose rather than the 2' deoxyribose of the DNA. Pyrimidine components contains uracil instead of thymine in DNA. RNA exists as a single strand, however, the single strand is capable of folding back on itself like hairpin thus acquiring double strand characteristics. Since RNA molecule exist as single strand, its guanine content does not necessarily equal to its uracil content.
  30. 30. THREE MAJOR CLASSES OF RNA:  Messenger (mRNA),  Transfer (tRNA) and  Ribosomal (rRNA) Minor classes of RNA include:  Small nuclear RNA,  Small nucleolar RNA,  ……………… ……….
  31. 31. MESSENGER RNA  Transcripts of structural genes that encode all the information necessary for the synthesis of a polypeptide/s of protein.  Intermediate carrier of genetic information; deliver genetic information to the cytoplasm where protein synthesis takes place.  The 5' terminus is capped by 7 methyguanosine triphosphate.  Synthesis of the poly (A) tail involves cleavage of its 3' end and then the addition of about 200 adenine residues.
  32. 32. TRANSFER RNA  Small molecules consisting approx. 70-80 nucleotides.  All tRNAs share a common secondary structure represented by a coverleaf.  They have four- base paired stems defining three stem loops (the D loop, anticodon loop, and T loop) and the acceptor stem to which amino acids are added in the charging step.  tRNA molecules serves as an adaptor for translation of information in the sequence of the mRNA into specific amino-acids.
  33. 33. mRNA tRNA
  34. 34. RIBOSOMAL RNA  The RNA component of the ribosome.  Provide a mechanism for decoding mRNA into amino acids and interacts with tRNAs during translation by providing peptidyl transferase activity.
  35. 35. RIBOSOME  Factory for protein synthesis.  Composed of ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins; known as a Ribonucleoprotein (RNP).  Translate messenger RNA (mRNA) to build polypeptide chains using amino acids delivered by transfer RNA (tRNA).
  36. 36. POLYSOMES Most mRNA are translated by more than one ribosome at a time; the result, a structure in which many ribosomes translate a mRNA in tandem, is called a polysomes.
  37. 37. THE GENETIC CODE  The purine and pyrimidine bases of the DNA molecule are the letters or alphabet of the genetic code.  Series of codons in part of a mRNA molecule. Each codon consists of three nucleotides.  The sequence of codons in the mRNA defines the primary structure of the final protein.
  38. 38. The triplet sequence of mRNA that specify certain amino acid.  64 different combination of bases ; 61 of them code for 20 amino acid (AA); the last 3 codon (UAG,UGA,UAA) don not code for amino acids , they are termination codons. Degenerate  More than on triplet codon specify the same amino acid  They are mainly different in the third base. The base pairing between the last nuleotide with the corresponding anticodon is not strict this is called wobble. Specific (Unambiguous)  Each codon specifies a particular amino acid, the codon ACG codes for the amino acid threonine, and only threonine. Universal: It is the same for all species i.e. plants, animals with the exception of mitochondrial genome. Non overlapping  This means that successive triplets are read in order. Each nucleotide is part of only one triplet codon. THE GENETIC CODE
  39. 39. THE PROTEIN  The basic building materials of a cell, made by cell itself; the final product of most genes.  Chain like polymers of a few or many thousands of amino acids.  Proteins can be composed of one or more polypeptide chains.
  40. 40. FOUR LEVELS OF PROTEIN STRUCTURE Primary structure: Formed by joining the amino acid sequence into a polypeptide. Secondary structure: Different conformation that can be taken by the polypeptide: alpha helix and strands of beta sheet. Tertiary structure: Result from folding the secondary structure components of the polypeptide into three-dimensional configuration. Quaternary structure: complex of several protein molecules or polypeptide chains, usually called protein subunits, which function as part of the larger assembly or protein complex.
  41. 41. FOUR LEVELS OF PROTEIN STRUCTURE
  42. 42. DNA REPLICATION  The DNA duplication.  The transfer the genetic information from a parent to a daughter cell.  The DNA base sequences are precisely copied.
  43. 43. Types of DNAReplication Source: Wikipedia
  44. 44. George Rice. Montana State University.Source: http://serc.carleton.edu/microbelife/research_methods/genomics/replication.html
  45. 45. POST-REPLICATIVE MODIFICATION OF DNA  Methylation; one of the major post- replicative reactions.  Site of methylation of eukaryotic DNA is always on cytosine residues in CG dinucleotide.  DNA methylation plays an important role for epigenetic gene regulation in development and disease.
  46. 46. MITOCHONDRIA Mitochondria is a membrane enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. These organelles range from 1-10 micrometers (μm) in size. Mitochondria generates most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Mitochondria is involved in a range of other processes, such as signaling, cellular differentiation, cell death, as well as the control of the cell cycle and cell growth. Mitochondria has been implicated in several human diseases, including mental disorders, cardiac dysfunction, and may play a role in the aging process. Mitochondria has its own DNA.
  47. 47. MITOCHONDRIAL DNA Human cells have hundreds of mitochondria, each containing a number of copies of a small circular molecule, mitochondrial chromosome. The mitochondrial DNA is only 16 kb in length (less than 0.03 % of the length of the smallest nuclear chromosome) and encodes only a few dozen genes. Although the products of these genes function in mitochondria, the majority of proteins found in mitochondria, in fact, product of nuclear genes. Mitochondrial genes exhibit exclusively maternal inheritance.
  48. 48. GENE EXPRESSION Gene expression process by which a gene product (an RNA or polypeptide ) is made.
  49. 49. From DNA to Protein Transcription RNA polymerase makes a copy of information in the gene (complementary RNA) complementary to one strands of DNA. Translation It occurs on ribosomes, messenger RNA decoded or translated to determine the sequence of amino acid in the protein being synthesized.
  50. 50. CONTROL OF GENE EXPRESSION
  51. 51. TYPES OF CONTROL IN EUKARYOTES Transcriptional, prevent transcription, prevent mRNA from being synthesized. Posttranscriptional, control mRNA after it has been produced. Translational, prevent translation; involve protein factors needed for translation. Posttranslational, after the protein has been produced.
  52. 52. MUTATION
  53. 53. DNA DAMAGE/DNA REPAIR Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1934590910007071
  54. 54. Salwa Hassan Teama Nucleic acid fractionation Polymerase chain reaction Probes, Hybridization Vector, Molecular cloning Nucleic acid enzymes Microarray DNA sequencing Electrophoretic separation of nucleic acid Blotting techniques • DNA: Southern blotting • RNA: Northern blotting • Protein: Western blotting Molecular cytogenetic analysis COMMON TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES OF MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
  55. 55. HUMAN GENOME PROJECT  The human genome project is an attempt to sequence of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA, store this information in databases,  Improve tools for data analysis, transfer related technologies to the private sector, and  Address the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) that may arise from the project.
  56. 56. HUMAN GENOME PROJECT 1990, American geneticists started an ambitious quest to map and sequence the entire human genome. 1999, the final draft of human chromosome 22. 2000, the final draft of human chromosome 21. 2001, working draft of the whole human genome. 2004, the finished sequence of the euchromatic part of human genome.
  57. 57. FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS AND OTHER TECHNOLOGIES Genomics: Involves the sequencing of the complete genome, including structural gene, regulatory sequences and noncoding DNA segments in the chromosome of an organism and the interpretation of all the structural and functional implications of these sequences and of many transcripts and proteins the genome encode. Genomic information offers new therapies and diagnostic methods for treatment of many diseases. Transcriptomics: is the systematic and quantitative analysis of all the transcript present in a cell or a tissue under a defined set of conditions (the transcriptome). Proteomics: is the total set of proteins expressed from the genome of cell via transcriptome. It is the quantitative study of the proteome. Metabolomics: is the study of all the small molecules, including metabolic intermediates (amino acids, nucleotides ,sugars,…) that exist within a cell. The metabolome provides a senstive indicator of the physiological status of a cell and has potential uses in monitoring disease and its management.
  58. 58. Source: European Bioinformatics Institute. http://www.ebi.ac.uk/microarray/biology_intro.html
  59. 59. APPLICATION OF MOLECULAR BIOLOGY  Research  Diagnosis  Transplantation  Paternity  Forensic analysis  Gene therapy  Drug Design  ……
  60. 60. Salwa Hassan Teama 2014 Thank you

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