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- 1. Machine Learning in the Environmental Discipline: Statistical Paradigm Shifts, Combining Data Miningwith Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and Educating the Next Generation of Environmental Researchers Falk Huettmann -EWHALE lab- 419 Irving 1 Inst. of Arctic Biology Biology & Wildlife Dept Fairbanks, Alaska 99775 USA fhuettmann@alaska.edu
- 2. Applying and Teaching Machine Learning at Public Institutions What’s at stake ?-a better pre-screening of data (data mining)-a better inference (better model fits)-a better hypothesis (more relevant)-a faster and more accurate analysis-a better prediction (pro-active decisions) => progress in science & society => a new culture
- 3. This presentation-Environmental Sciences (Sustainability)-Paradigm Shift in the Sciences-Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-Teaching Machine Learning at Public Institutions
- 4. The earth and its atmosphere ...we only have one ...
- 5. The atmosphere
- 6. Rio Convention 1992 and its goals
- 7. The Earth at night… …people are everywhere these days, mostly at the coast, affecting Wildlife, Habitats and Ecological Services
- 8. An Earth Sampler: The Three Poles1. 3. 2.
- 9. Three poles: Ice, glaciers and snow => A cool (or a hot?) place to be...1. 2. 3.
- 10. No data …and “nothing is known” …?Climbing and Understanding Data Mountains with Data Mining: A free copy of GBIF data… www.gbif.org, seamap.env.duke.edu/ , mountainbiodiversity.org Megascience
- 11. Examples of people using and publishing onMachine Learning in the Biodiversity, Wildlifeand Sustainability Sciences…
- 12. Classify, pre-screen, explain and predict data A heap of data, e.g. online and merged, free of research designResponse ~ Predictor1 + Predictor2 + Predictor3 + Predictor4 +…. (e.g. clustering & multiple regression)
- 13. Multiple Regressions: Are they any good ?!Response ~ Predictor1 + Predictor2 + Predictor3 + Predictor4 +….The issues are for instance: -Many predictors, e.g. 30 -Correlations -Interactions (2-way, 3-way and higher) -Coefficients + Offset -(Multi-) hypothesis testing -Model Selection -Parsimony = > A single formula vs a software code as a result ?!
- 14. What statistical philosophies and schools exist ? -Frequency Statistics R. A. Fisher Occam (Parsimony) -Bayesian StatisticsBayes -Machine Learning L. Breiman
- 15. What statistical philosophies and schools exist ? e.g. Frequency Statistics -Normal distribution -Independence -Linear functions -Variance explained -Parsimony
- 16. What statistical philosophies and schools exist ? e.g. Bayesian Statistics -Priors -Fit a function -Variance explained -(alternative) confidence intervals -Linear functions (usually)
- 17. What statistical philosophies and schools exist ? e.g. Machine Learning -Inherently non-linear -No prior assumptions (non-parametric) -Fast -Computationally intense
- 18. What linear models and frequency statistics cannot achieve Linear Non-Linear (~unrealistic) (driven by data) ‘Mean’ ‘Mean’ ? SD SD ? Machine Learning, e.g. => potentially low r2 CART, TreeNet & RandomForest (there are many other algorithms !) Virtually not Pro-Active Pro-active Potential ~Pre-cautionary
- 19. What machine learning is Machine Learning algorithmA numerical pattern The mimick’ed pattern Virtually NOT parsimonious (no AIC, no R2 etc etc)
- 20. What is a non-linear algorithm …?Through the origin vs. Not through the originSingle formula vs. Many formulas
- 21. What is a non-linear algorithm …?Through the origin vs. Not through the origin
- 22. What is a non-linear algorithm …?Single formula vs. Many formulas
- 23. What is a non-linear algorithm …?Through the origin vs. Not through the originSingle formula vs. Many formulasA binary software algorithm that capturesthe mathematical relationship vs. A single formula with (a) coefficient
- 24. Linear regression as an artefact,aka statistical & institutional terror ?! Linear regression: a+ bx vs. Machine Learning?!
- 25. PredictionsPredictions as the prime goal, and linked with Adaptive Management(done in Random Forest) Best data used and available ?Pelagic King Penguin prediction using RF (french telemetry data from SCAR-MARBIN)
- 26. Outliers and variance …reality predicted Root Mean Square Error (RMSE)
- 27. Outliers and variance … Predicted Yes Yes No 80% 20%Reality 20% 80% NoConfusion Matrix (=> ROC curve)
- 28. Moving into Data Mining (non-parametric, rel. high data error) A heap of data,e.g. online and merged,free of research design Your classic Frequentist Statistician might get very scared and horrified with such data…
- 29. Moving into Data Mining Describe Patterns, Screening Outliers Data Quantification (~prediction) Informed A heap of data, Traditionale.g. online and merged Analysis Craig, E., and F. Huettmann. (2008). Using “blackbox” algorithms such as TreeNet and Random Forests for data-mining and for finding meaningful patterns, relationships and outliers in complex ecological data: an overview, an example using golden eagle satellite data and an outlook for a promising future. Chapter IV in Intelligent Data Analysis: Developing New Methodologies through Pattern Discovery and Recovery (Hsiao-fan Wang, Ed.). IGI Global, Hershey, PA, USA.
- 30. Data Mining Describe Patterns, Screening Outliers Data Quantification (~prediction) Informed A heap of data, (Traditional)e.g. online and merged Analysis Craig, E., and F. Huettmann. (2008). Using “blackbox” algorithms such as TreeNet and Random Forests for data-mining and for finding meaningful patterns, relationships and outliers in complex ecological data: an overview, an example using golden eagle satellite data and an outlook for a promising future. Chapter IV in Intelligent Data Analysis: Developing New Methodologies through Pattern Discovery and Recovery (Hsiao-fan Wang, Ed.). IGI Global, Hershey, PA, USA. Magness, D.R., F. Huettmann, and J.M. Morton. (2008). Using Random Forests to provide predicted species distribution maps as a metric for ecological inventory & monitoring programs. Pages 209- 229 in T.G. Smolinski, M.G. Milanova & A-E. Hassanien (eds.). Applications of Computational Intelligence in Biology: Current Trends and Open Problems. Studies in Computational Intelligence, Vol. 122, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
- 31. Data ⇒ SOFTWARE Mining This becomes a standard, e.g. BEST PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE Describe Patterns, Screening Outliers Data Quantification (~prediction) Informed A heap of data, (Traditional)e.g. online and merged Analysis Craig, E., and F. Huettmann. (2008). Using “blackbox” algorithms such as TreeNet and Random Forests for data-mining and for finding meaningful patterns, relationships and outliers in complex ecological data: an overview, an example using golden eagle satellite data and an outlook for a promising future. Chapter IV in Intelligent Data Analysis: Developing New Methodologies through Pattern Discovery and Recovery (Hsiao-fan Wang, Ed.). IGI Global, Hershey, PA, USA. Magness, D.R., F. Huettmann, and J.M. Morton. (2008). Using Random Forests to provide predicted species distribution maps as a metric for ecological inventory & monitoring programs. Pages 209- 229 in T.G. Smolinski, M.G. Milanova & A-E. Hassanien (eds.). Applications of Computational Intelligence in Biology: Current Trends and Open Problems. Studies in Computational Intelligence, Vol. 122, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
- 32. (Adaptive/Science-based) Wildlife Management: How it works…-Identify a problem-Do the science-Provide a management suggestion-Implement science-based management-Assess and fine-tune =>Pro-active (before trouble occurs) => Predictive in Space and Time
- 33. Paradigm Shifts-Data Mining as a means to inform an analysis-Predictions as a goal in itself-Linear regressions and algorithms as a poor performer for modern problems of relevance to mankind-Metrics like r2, p-values and AIC as being suboptimal-Statistics based on (very advanced) software-Decision-support systems, Pro-Active Management and Operations Research
- 34. RandomForest as a scientific discipline ?!-a big and new research field per se (e.g. machine learning, ensemble models)-comes naturally with computing power and the internet-changes science (and fieldwork, e.g. design-based)-changes education (e.g. universities & stats depts)-changes pro-active/adaptive management, multi-species-changes society-affects land- and seascapes
- 35. Adding Spatial Complexity: What is a GIS(Geographic Information System) ? “Computerized Mapping” Consists of Hardware & Software (Monitor, PC and Database) ArcGIS by ESRI as a major software suite =>Can be linked with Machine Learning, e.g. for predictions, classifications and data mining
- 36. What is a GIS(Geographic Information System) ?
- 37. RandomForest & GIS: Mapping Supervised & Unsupervised ClassificationSupervised Classification: -Multiple Regression (classification or continuous) -Multiple Response e.g. YAIMPUTE RandomForestUnsupervised Classification: 1. Proximity Matrix via Bagging/Voting (RF) 2. Similarity Matrix 3. e.g. Regular Clustering (mclust, PAM) 3. Visualize Result
- 38. 11 Cliome Clusters (RF)Climate Cluster Data, Canada & Alaska Credit: M. Lindgren et al.
- 39. Teaching Machine Learning What’s the issue ?-the current teaching concept re. math & stats-wider introduction of machine learning-parsimony vs. holistic analysis and approach-better predictions
- 40. Teaching math, statistics and machine learning…Usually, machine learning starts wheremaximum-likelihood theory ends…=>maximum-likelihood starts at college… But it does not have to be that way!
- 41. Teaching math, statistics and machine learning…Student’s age Topic learned16 Basic Math5 Frequency Statistics (Maximum Likelihood)23 - 30 Machine Learning
- 42. Teaching math, statistics and machine learning…the better wayStudent’s age Topic learned 15 Basic Math 16 Frequency Statistics 18 (Maximum Likelihood) 19 Machine Learning Why & How done ? via Greybox Blackbox
- 43. Teaching math, statistics and machine learning…Parsimony (complexity vs. variance explained) Model name AIC etc Model 1 1000 Model 2 900 Model 3 600 Model 4 500 Model 5 1200 Breaking down a complex Model 6 1100 real-world problem into a single linear term…and for a mechanistic understanding…??
- 44. Teaching math, statistics and machine learning…Predictions (knowing things ahead of time) For spatial predictions For temporal predictions For a pro-active management
- 45. To…Salford Systems,Dan Steinberg and his team,our students, L. Strecker,S. Linke, and many manyproject and research collaboratorsworld-wide over the years!! Questions ?

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