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Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
Real life experiences of supervising PhD students
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Real life experiences of supervising PhD students

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Keynote address from Professor Ghassan Aouad, Pro-Vice Chancellor (Research and Innovation), on real life experiences of supervising PhD students

Keynote address from Professor Ghassan Aouad, Pro-Vice Chancellor (Research and Innovation), on real life experiences of supervising PhD students

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    • 1. “How to succeed in doing a PhD: personal experiences” A PhD is a journey of discovery & fun Professor Ghassan Aouad Pro Vice Chancellor for Research & Innovation University of Salford g.aouad@salford.ac.uk
    • 2. Structure of the presentation • General part covering generic issues • Specific part covering technical issues related to PhDs successful completion • An opportunity for Q/A
    • 3. General Part • Why PhDs are important for Salford? • Support from Graduate Studies Office • How do we support our students? • Continuous Improvement
    • 4. Why PhDs are important to • The PhD community is vibrant and bring prestige to the institution • Bring opportunities to the University through their networks • Strengthen our international reputation as we attract students from across the globe • Contribute to the development of our workforce when we retain them • PhDs produce publications which can be submitted to future research
    • 5. Why PhDs are important to Salford? • PhDs contribute to teaching (GTA, other PG Teachers etc) • Additional funding through fees • One of the metrics of the Government’s Research Assessment is PhD recruitment and completion • Additional funding from Government is related to the number of PhD students (home students) • PhD completion is a metric in most international league tables • Attract additional funding from Research Councils It is our duty to support this very important community
    • 6. How do we support our students?
    • 7. Support from Graduate Studies Office • SPoRT programme: Salford Postgraduate Research Training – Progression Points and PhD evaluation – Academic Writing Skills – Surviving the Viva • SPARC conference: Salford Postgraduate Annual research Conference • Conference attendance top-up funding • Director of Graduate Studies ‘drop-in sessions’ • General support to supervisors and students (DGS, Linda Kelly, Victoria Sheppard, Cristina Mendes- da-Costa, Jaye McIsaac)
    • 8. PhD Completion • Strict Completion Timescales – Induction Programme to students and supervisors – Learning Agreement – Training Programme – Interim Assessment – Internal Evaluation – Introducing Mock Viva – Introducing Incentive Schemes – Only in very exceptional cases extensions will be granted – A robust monitoring system will be introduced • Improvement in the following areas – Entry Standards (English & Academic) – Supervision – PGR identity – PGR quality – PGR accommodation
    • 9. Technical Part • Strong and Weak PhDs • Do and Don’t (evidence based) • Methodological Issues • Personal experiences of some PhD Holders
    • 10. “To be a top performer you have to be passionately committed to what you’re doing and insanely confident about your ability to pull it off” (John Eliot)
    • 11. Your confidence in me!!! • Completed PhD in 1991 • External Examiner to more than 40 PhDs and 4 Mphils (worldwide) • Currently supervising 3 PhDs • Internal Examiner to 9 PhDs • Successfully supervised 18 Post Docs, 20 PhDs, 2 MPhils & 1 Mres over the last 15 years
    • 12. The Ph.D Experience Mihir Bellare Department of Computer Science & Engineering University of California at San Diego -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- This document records some reflections and information for my current or prospective students pursuing or wanting to pursue a Ph.D in computer science at UCSD. It tries to tell you something about the research ``way of life'' as I see it, your relationship with your advisor, and the expectations and goals of the program. The views here are entirely personal. They do not reflect those of the university, the department, or other faculty http://cseweb.ucsd.edu/~mihir/phd.html
    • 13. History of PhD (Wikipedia)
    • 14. The Key Ingredients of a Ph.D : Passion, Humility and Development P. W Chang http://www.tbher.org/index.php/bher/issue/ view/2
    • 15. http://www.cof.orst.edu/cof/fe/watershd/mtgpresent/FE%20How%20to%20succeed%20as%20a%20PhD %20student%20(final%20version)_files/frame.htm How to succeed as a PhD student Prof. Jeff McDonnell, Richardson Chair College of Forestry, OSU (Oregon State University)
    • 16. Prof. Jeff McDonnell, Richardson Chair College of Forestry, OSU
    • 17. Why are you doing a PhD?
    • 18. Why are you doing a PhD? • Is it for the title?
    • 19. Why are you doing a PhD? • Is it for the title? • Do you like research/ academia?
    • 20. Why are you doing a PhD? • Is it for the title? • Do you like research/ academia? • Better future prospect
    • 21. Why are you doing a PhD? • Is it for the title? • Do you like research/ academia? • Better future prospect • To support your teaching
    • 22. Why are you doing a PhD? • Is it for the title? • Do you like research/ academia? • Better future prospect • To support your teaching • To get some promotion
    • 23. Why are you doing a PhD? • Is it for the title? • Do you like research/ academia? • Better future prospect • To support your teaching • To get some promotion • Out of curiosity
    • 24. Why are you doing a PhD? • Is it for the title? • Do you like research/ academia? • Better future prospect • To support your teaching • To get some promotion • Out of curiosity • To please your family
    • 25. Why are you doing a PhD? • Is it for the title? • What is your • Do you like research/ strategy? academia? (Need to have an • Better future prospect overall picture) • To support your teaching • To get some promotion • Out of curiosity • To please your family
    • 26. Good PhDs Reflections (Amanda and Ghassan) • Robust Methodology • Clear aim, objectives, hypothesis, research Questions • Good data collection and analysis methods • Comprehensive literature review, Critical Analysis • Well presented, Interesting findings • Strong Validation, Good reflections • Good use of appendices • Confidence, Other researchers will use as a reference • Work already published
    • 27. Good PhDs •Original findings •Appropriate structure of chapters (flow) •Writing style (exciting) •Evidence based •Well scoped (focus) •Intellectuality and creativity are evident •Strong theoretical underpinnings •Researching a phenomena •Refereed journal papers as references •Contribution to knowledge clearly described
    • 28. Weak PhDs • Weak methodology • Ambiguity in defining the aim, objectives, research questions • Weak data collection and analysis methods • Superficial literature review • Superficial analysis • Badly presented (spelling) • Findings are not clearly reported • No validation • No reflections • Bad use of appendices • Bad Performance at viva
    • 29. Weak PhDs •Arrogance and ignorance •Other researchers will not use as a reference •No publications before viva •Predicted findings •No structure (flow) •No excitement in the writing style •Opinion based (unsupported statements) •No scope, all over the place •No intellectuality or creativity •Weak theoretical underpinnings •Reporting on a piece of software •Conference papers and reports •Contribution to knowledge is not sufficiently addressed
    • 30. Research Process and Milestones
    • 31. Start Research Process and Milestones
    • 32. Start Research Process and Milestones
    • 33. Start LITERATURE REVIEW Research (Information from Existing knowledge) “THE GAP” and “THE RATIONALE OF RESEARCH” Process What is your contribution to knowledge? and Milestones
    • 34. Start LITERATURE REVIEW Research (Information from Existing knowledge) “THE GAP” and “THE RATIONALE OF RESEARCH” Process What is your contribution to knowledge? and Milestones
    • 35. Start LITERATURE Identification REVIEW Research of the PROBLEM (Information from Existing knowledge) “THE GAP” and “THE RATIONALE OF RESEARCH” Process What is your contribution to knowledge? and Milestones
    • 36. Start LITERATURE Identification REVIEW Research of the PROBLEM (Information from Existing knowledge) “THE GAP” and “THE RATIONALE OF RESEARCH” Process What is your contribution to knowledge? Definition of the AIM and Milestones
    • 37. Start LITERATURE Identification REVIEW Research of the PROBLEM (Information from Existing knowledge) “THE GAP” and “THE RATIONALE OF RESEARCH” Process What is your contribution to knowledge? Definition of the AIM and Milestones Establish Objectives and Hypothesis
    • 38. Start LITERATURE Identification REVIEW Research of the PROBLEM (Information from Existing knowledge) “THE GAP” and “THE RATIONALE OF RESEARCH” Process What is your contribution to knowledge? Definition of the AIM and Milestones Establish Objectives and Hypothesis Develop Research Plan
    • 39. Start LITERATURE Identification REVIEW Research of the PROBLEM (Information from Existing knowledge) “THE GAP” and “THE RATIONALE OF RESEARCH” Process What is your contribution to knowledge? Definition of the AIM and Milestones Establish Objectives and Hypothesis Develop Research Plan
    • 40. Start LITERATURE Identification REVIEW Research of the PROBLEM (Information from Existing knowledge) “THE GAP” and “THE RATIONALE OF RESEARCH” Process What is your contribution to knowledge? Definition of the AIM and Milestones Establish Objectives and Hypothesis Identification of the research population Develop Research Plan
    • 41. Start LITERATURE Identification REVIEW Research of the PROBLEM (Information from Existing knowledge) “THE GAP” and “THE RATIONALE OF RESEARCH” Process What is your contribution to knowledge? Definition of the AIM and Milestones Establish Objectives and Hypothesis Identification of the research population Develop Identification of data Research Plan to be collected
    • 42. Start LITERATURE Identification REVIEW Research of the PROBLEM (Information from Existing knowledge) “THE GAP” and “THE RATIONALE OF RESEARCH” Process What is your contribution to knowledge? Definition of the AIM and Milestones Establish Objectives and Hypothesis Identification of the research population Develop Identification of data Research Plan to be collected
    • 43. Start LITERATURE Identification REVIEW Research of the PROBLEM (Information from Existing knowledge) “THE GAP” and “THE RATIONALE OF RESEARCH” Process What is your contribution to knowledge? Definition of the AIM and Milestones Establish Objectives and Hypothesis Identification of the research population Develop Quantitative Identification of data Research Plan to be collected
    • 44. Start LITERATURE Identification REVIEW Research of the PROBLEM (Information from Existing knowledge) “THE GAP” and “THE RATIONALE OF RESEARCH” Process What is your contribution to knowledge? Definition of the AIM and Milestones Establish Objectives and Hypothesis Identification of the research population Develop Quantitative Identification of data Research Plan to be collected qualitative
    • 45. Start LITERATURE Identification REVIEW Research of the PROBLEM (Information from Existing knowledge) “THE GAP” and “THE RATIONALE OF RESEARCH” Process What is your contribution to knowledge? Definition of the AIM and Milestones Establish Objectives and Hypothesis Identification of the research population Develop Quantitative Identification of data Research Plan to be collected qualitative Identification of means of data collection
    • 46. Start LITERATURE Identification REVIEW Research of the PROBLEM (Information from Existing knowledge) “THE GAP” and “THE RATIONALE OF RESEARCH” Process What is your contribution to knowledge? Definition of the AIM and Milestones Establish Objectives and Hypothesis Identification of the research population Develop Quantitative Identification of data Research Plan to be collected qualitative Identification of means of data collection
    • 47. Start LITERATURE Identification REVIEW Research of the PROBLEM (Information from Existing knowledge) “THE GAP” and “THE RATIONALE OF RESEARCH” Process What is your contribution to knowledge? Definition of the AIM and Milestones Establish Objectives and Hypothesis Identification of the research population Develop Quantitative Identification of data Research Plan to be collected qualitative Identification of means Questionnaires, of data collection interviews, survey
    • 48. Start LITERATURE Identification REVIEW Research of the PROBLEM (Information from Existing knowledge) “THE GAP” and “THE RATIONALE OF RESEARCH” Process What is your contribution to knowledge? Definition of the AIM and Milestones Establish Objectives and Hypothesis Identification of the research population Develop Quantitative Identification of data Research Plan to be collected qualitative Identification of means Questionnaires, of data collection interviews, survey Identification of means of data analyses
    • 49. Start LITERATURE Identification REVIEW Research of the PROBLEM (Information from Existing knowledge) “THE GAP” and “THE RATIONALE OF RESEARCH” Process What is your contribution to knowledge? Definition of the AIM and Milestones Establish Objectives and Hypothesis Identification of the research population Develop Quantitative Identification of data Research Plan to be collected qualitative Identification of means Questionnaires, of data collection interviews, survey Identification of means of data analyses
    • 50. Start LITERATURE Identification REVIEW Research of the PROBLEM (Information from Existing knowledge) “THE GAP” and “THE RATIONALE OF RESEARCH” Process What is your contribution to knowledge? Definition of the AIM and Milestones Establish Objectives and Hypothesis Identification of the research population Develop Quantitative Identification of data Research Plan to be collected qualitative Identification of means Questionnaires, of data collection interviews, survey Identification of means Content analysis Thematic analysis of data analyses NViVo or SPSS
    • 51. Start LITERATURE Identification REVIEW Research of the PROBLEM (Information from Existing knowledge) “THE GAP” and “THE RATIONALE OF RESEARCH” Process What is your contribution to knowledge? Definition of the AIM and Milestones Establish Objectives and Hypothesis Identification of the research population Develop Quantitative Identification of data Research Plan to be collected qualitative Identification of means Questionnaires, of data collection interviews, survey Identification of means Content analysis Thematic analysis of data analyses NViVo or SPSS
    • 52. Start LITERATURE Identification REVIEW Research of the PROBLEM (Information from Existing knowledge) “THE GAP” and “THE RATIONALE OF RESEARCH” Process What is your contribution to knowledge? Definition of the AIM and Milestones Establish Objectives and Hypothesis Identification of the research population Develop Quantitative Identification of data Research Plan to be collected qualitative Identification of means Questionnaires, of data collection interviews, survey Identification of means Content analysis Thematic analysis of data analyses NViVo or SPSS Development of model/ frame work / and Evaluation
    • 53. Start LITERATURE Identification REVIEW Research of the PROBLEM (Information from Existing knowledge) “THE GAP” and “THE RATIONALE OF RESEARCH” Process What is your contribution to knowledge? Definition of the AIM and Milestones Establish Objectives and Hypothesis Identification of the research population Develop Quantitative Identification of data Research Plan to be collected qualitative Identification of means Questionnaires, of data collection interviews, survey Identification of means Content analysis Thematic analysis of data analyses NViVo or SPSS Development of model/ frame work / and Evaluation
    • 54. Start LITERATURE Identification REVIEW Research of the PROBLEM (Information from Existing knowledge) “THE GAP” and “THE RATIONALE OF RESEARCH” Process What is your contribution to knowledge? Definition of the AIM and Milestones Establish Objectives and Hypothesis Identification of the research population Develop Quantitative Identification of data Research Plan to be collected qualitative Identification of means Questionnaires, of data collection interviews, survey Identification of means Content analysis Thematic analysis of data analyses NViVo or SPSS Development of model/ Contribution to frame work / and Evaluation existing knowledge
    • 55. Start LITERATURE Identification REVIEW Research of the PROBLEM (Information from Existing knowledge) “THE GAP” and “THE RATIONALE OF RESEARCH” Process What is your contribution to knowledge? Definition of the AIM and Milestones Establish Objectives and Hypothesis Identification of the research population Develop Quantitative Identification of data Research Plan to be collected qualitative Identification of means Questionnaires, of data collection interviews, survey Identification of means Content analysis Thematic analysis of data analyses NViVo or SPSS Development of model/ Contribution to frame work / and Evaluation existing knowledge
    • 56. Start LITERATURE Identification REVIEW Research of the PROBLEM (Information from Existing knowledge) “THE GAP” and “THE RATIONALE OF RESEARCH” Process What is your contribution to knowledge? Definition of the AIM and Milestones Establish Objectives and Hypothesis Identification of the research population Develop Quantitative Identification of data Research Plan to be collected qualitative Identification of means Questionnaires, of data collection interviews, survey Identification of means Content analysis Thematic analysis of data analyses NViVo or SPSS Development of model/ Contribution to frame work / and Evaluation existing knowledge Write up Conclusion
    • 57. Start LITERATURE Identification REVIEW Research of the PROBLEM (Information from Existing knowledge) “THE GAP” and “THE RATIONALE OF RESEARCH” Process What is your contribution to knowledge? Definition of the AIM and Milestones Establish Objectives and Hypothesis Identification of the research population Develop Quantitative Identification of data Research Plan to be collected qualitative Identification of means Questionnaires, of data collection interviews, survey Identification of means Content analysis Thematic analysis of data analyses NViVo or SPSS Development of model/ Contribution to frame work / and Evaluation existing knowledge Write up Conclusion
    • 58. Start LITERATURE Identification REVIEW Research of the PROBLEM (Information from Existing knowledge) “THE GAP” and “THE RATIONALE OF RESEARCH” Process What is your contribution to knowledge? Definition of the AIM and Milestones Establish Objectives and Hypothesis Identification of the research population Develop Quantitative Identification of data Research Plan to be collected qualitative Identification of means Questionnaires, of data collection interviews, survey Identification of means Content analysis Thematic analysis of data analyses NViVo or SPSS Development of model/ Contribution to frame work / and Evaluation existing knowledge Write up Contribution to Conclusion existing knowledge
    • 59. Useful References
    • 60. Research Approach • An email with two questions was sent to around 50 staff (mainly PhD holders) • Response rate of 56% • Content Analysis – Three things we should do as part of the PhD process – Three things we shouldn’t do as part of the PhD process
    • 61. Never give Get up Get published organised Keep Focus Reading Mentoring Networking Good Methodology Directions Relationship with supervisor Dealing with problems Rigour Ownership Encouragement Defending Your PhD Think out of the box Key Findings
    • 62. Good Methodology: Basic Definitions • Paradigm: “An integrated cluster of substantive concepts, variables and problems attached with corresponding methodological approaches and tools…” • Epistemology: one of the major branches of philosophy, most often contrasted with ontology. Epistemology is the study of how we know what we know. The branch of philosophy that deals with the varieties, grounds, and validity of knowledge. (Thomas Kuhn, Wikipedia, Oxford English Dictionary)
    • 63. Good Methodology: Basic Definitions • Ontology: derives from the Greek ‘ontos’ (‘being’ or ‘what exists’) and ‘logos’ (‘rational account’ or ‘knowledge’). From the philosophical perspective, ‘ontology’ is synonymous with ‘metaphysics’ as classically conceived. It is an account of being in the abstract’. The science or study of being; that part of metaphysics which relates to the nature or essence of being or existence • Methodology: the science of methods. The branch of knowledge that deals with method and its application in a particular field. Also, the study of empirical research or the techniques employed in it. A body of methods used in a particular branch of study or activity (Thomas Kuhn, Wikipedia, Oxford English Dictionary)
    • 64. Good Methodology We all bring (often implicit?!) assumptions and path dependencies to our research! • What knowledge is – ontology • How we know it – epistemology • What values go into it – axiology • How we write about it – rhetoric • The process of studying it – methodology (Sexton 2002)
    • 65. Dimensions of research philosophy: Bringing it all together! (Sexton, 2002)
    • 66. Dimensions of research philosophy: Bringing it all together! (Sexton, 2002) Ontology Epistemology Axi olo (Aes the gy eth tics , jus ics, tice )
    • 67. Dimensions of research philosophy: Bringing it all together! (Sexton, 2002) Realism Idealism A commonly An unknowable experienced external reality perceived in reality with predetermined different ways by nature and structure individuals Ontology Epistemology Axi olo (Aes the gy eth tics , jus ics, tice )
    • 68. Dimensions of research philosophy: Bringing it all together! (Sexton, 2002) Realism Idealism A commonly An unknowable experienced external reality perceived in reality with predetermined different ways by Positivism nature and structure individuals A search for general laws and cause-effect relationships by Ontology rational means Epistemology Interpretivism A search for Axi explanations olo of human action by (Aes the gy understanding the way eth tics , jus ics, in which the world is tice understood by ) individuals
    • 69. Dimensions of research philosophy: Bringing it all together! (Sexton, 2002) Realism Idealism A commonly An unknowable experienced external reality perceived in reality with predetermined different ways by Positivism nature and structure individuals A search for general laws and cause-effect relationships by Ontology rational means Epistemology Value neutral Research is value Interpretivism free A search for and objective Axi explanations olo of human action by (Aes the gy understanding the way eth tics , jus ics, in which the world is tice understood by ) individuals
    • 70. Dimensions of research philosophy: Bringing it all together! (Sexton, 2002) Realism Idealism A commonly An unknowable experienced external reality perceived in reality with predetermined different ways by Positivism nature and structure individuals A search for general laws and cause-effect relationships by Ontology rational means Epistemology Value neutral Research is value Interpretivism free A search for and objective Axi explanations olo of human action by (Aes the gy understanding the way eth tics , jus ics, Value-biased in which the world is tice Research is value- understood by ) laden and subjective individuals
    • 71. Locating some common methods Realism Idealism A commonly An unknowable experienced external reality perceived in reality with predetermined different ways by nature and structure individuals Positivism A search for general Ontology laws and cause-effect Epistemology relationships by Objectivist rational means approaches Experiment Interpretivism Case study A search for explanations Action research of human action by Ethnography understanding the way Subjectivist approaches in which the world is understood by individuals
    • 72. Case Study: Knowledge sharing within a Kuwaiti Higher Education Context Generalisation of approach Reliability & Validity and not results Outcome: Award PhD subject to minor corrections
    • 73. Postpositivism The postpositivism approach can be positioned in the middle of the two extremes '' positivism and interpretivism'' as that reflects the use of mixed methods approach or triangulation which is referred to as the pragmatic approach. The criticism to the two main extremes in the epistemology of knowledge and mainly to positivism had led to the development of the postpositivism/pragmatic approach
    • 74. Reliability Reliability is the extent to which an experiment, test, or any measuring procedure yields the same result on repeated trials. Without the agreement of independent observers able to replicate research procedures, or the ability to use research tools and procedures that yield consistent measurements, researchers would be unable to satisfactorily draw conclusions, formulate theories, or make claims about the generazibility of their research http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/research/relval/pop2a.cfm
    • 75. Validity Validity refers to the degree to which a study accurately reflects or assesses the specific concept that the researcher is attempting to measure. While reliability is concerned with the accuracy of the actual measuring instrument or procedure, validity is concerned with the study's success at measuring what the researchers set out to measure.
    • 76. Validity Researchers should be concerned with both external and internal validity. External validity refers to the extent to which the results of a study are generalizable or transferable. (Most discussions of external validity focus solely on generalizability). Many qualitative research studies are not designed to be generalized.
    • 77. Validity Internal validity refers to (1) the rigor with which the study was conducted (e.g., the study's design, the care taken to conduct measurements, and decisions concerning what was and wasn't measured) and (2) the extent to which the designers of a study have taken into account alternative explanations for any causal relationships they explore (Huitt, 1998). In studies that do not explore causal relationships, only the first of these definitions should be considered when assessing internal validity.
    • 78. http://www.documentingexcellence.com/stat_tool/reliabilityvalidity.htm
    • 79. Be Critical The baby and the bathwater: research methods in construction management Authors: Wing C.K.; Raftery J.; Walker A. Source: Construction Management and Economics, Volume 16, Number 1, 1 January 1998, pp. 99-104(6) Abstract: This note is written in response to Seymour, D., Crook, D. and Rooke, J. (1997) Construction Management and Economics, 15 (1), 117-19. We argue against their narrow focus on the interpretative approach. Also, Seymour et al. are incorrect in implying that the 'rationalist approach' is necessarily quantitative. Our contention is that the choice of research approach in construction management depends on the nature of the problem. However, whatever choice of approach is adopted, it is important that the problem and associated key concepts are defined clearly and that the methods used, underlying assumptions and limitations are transparent and defensible. It is difficult to argue in favour of any single approach based purely on epistemological grounds as what constitutes knowledge is still an unsolved philosophical issue. Since construction management is a practical subject, we suggest that the choice of approach should be a pragmatic one: the approach that is likely to generate practical solutions should be adopted. Seymour et al.'s suggestion serves only to limit our choice of research tools. Furthermore, a lot of the research issues in construction management are practical problems which involve generalization of experience and formulation of hypothesis that can generate empirically testable implications. For problems of this nature, testability of hypothesis and reproducibility of results are important, and the naturalist approach (which is labelled 'rationalist paradigm' in Seymour et al.) of discovering causal relationship is more likely to produce general practical solutions. However, this does not deny the value of the interpretative approach, as it may be more suitable for certain types of problem. Moreover, in practice, an understanding of human behaviour 'from within' often provides useful insights for formulation of empirically testable hypotheses, despite the philosophical incompatibility of the interpretative and naturalist approaches. Keywords: EPISTEMOLOGY; INTERPRETATIVE; APPROACH; RESEARCH; METHODS
    • 80. A successful PhD - some hints • Never submit a PhD without the approval of your supervisor • Never exceed the number of words specified by the University (Ideal PhD: 200 pages). Read the University regulations. • The introductory and conclusions chapters are the most important- take great care to manage expectations and understand the limitations • The Research Methodology chapter should be clearly written and justified: – Qualitative or quantitative – Single case study or multiple case studies – Data collection – Statistical analysis – Research Process Map • Research findings should be rigorous and statistically proven if possible • The literature review should be comprehensive (Critique and not reporting) • Proof reading is important: – Minor typographical errors - Acknowledgements – Clear abstract - Referencing
    • 81. More hints –the Viva • Remember that the PhD viva is a formal examination, but in most cases it is operated like a discussion • Make sure that you arrange a mock viva before the real thing • Read about your examiners’ work • Be confident, not arrogant and show passion towards your research • Listen to the question you have been asked • Agree with the examiners if you can’t support your argument -don’t waffle • Bring a list of corrections to the viva • Mark up your copy of the thesis in order to find your way easily during the viva • Don’t read the PhD the night before the viva, try to relax • Typical questions: – Tell me about the story of your PhD, what is your main contribution? – Why did you choose the topic or this research method? – Give me the names of two experts in this area (well known researchers) – How did you validate your work? – Would you do this research the same way again?
    • 82. Getting published Why refereed Journals? • Not commercial: no fees • Academic Career • Status • Establish a name • Reputation • More weight • Support your PhD viva • More rigour • Knowledge • Researchers refer to dissemination • RAE • Lead to collaboration
    • 83. How to choose a Journal? • Start with a conference paper • Study carefully a sample of journal papers, this will give you some insights into the expectations and standards for a paper • Decide on a journal – Quality: Journal ranking – Speed of publication – Relevance of subject – Ask staff colleagues for help – Visit the web and library, plenty of information – Join mailing lists – Ask the editor of the journal • Draft an outline of your paper and discuss with supervisor • Produce the first draft • Pass paper to your supervisor for comments • Improve paper • Submit paper
    • 84. Drafting your paper • Abstract: Concise, to the point, research methodology, main contribution • Introduction: subject matter, introducing the paper • Literature review: comprehensive & critical, refereed papers • Research methodology: very clear, rigorous • Main findings: statistics, etc • Testing and validation: • Conclusions and further work • References: Harvard, etc • Follow guidelines strictly • Respond to corrections (include a covering letter that identify the corrections) • Never give up • If rejected, improve and send it somewhere else
    • 85. Some key questions • Readability - Does it communicate the right message? Is it clear? Is there a logical progression without unnecessary duplication? • Originality - Why was it written? What’s new? • Credibility - Are the conclusions valid? Is the methodology robust? Can it be replicated? Is it honest – don’t hide any limitations of the research? You’ll be found out. • Applicability - How do findings apply to the world of practice? Does it pinpoint the way forward for future research? • Internationality - Does it take an international, global perspective? (D Amaratunga)
    • 86. Research Ethics • Your PhD is publicly available • The sensitivity of the research topic • You must consult with the research ethics panel
    • 87. Personal Experiences from
    • 88. Sense of Achievement 06/83 09/87 06/91 02/92 02/99 05/03 08/06 07/08 BSc MSc PhD RF Chair HoS Dean PVC RID Time This is my life (TMP 14)
    • 89. Some Stability The 2nd 6 months A lot of confusion The first 6 The 2nd year months Good Productivity Looking Back The final year + few extra months Impatience Anxiety Confidence My Own Experience
    • 90. “DO” • Define a POA (plan of action) from day one! • Find a topic that you are really interested in • Work with your fellow PhD students • Work closely with your supervisor to get full support • Undertake a thorough and critical review of the literature • Present papers at conferences and publish in high quality refereed journals so as to improve your writing skills and obtain early critical comments from external reviewers and peers • Take over – PhD ownership is important • Write and keep on writing, it cements your thoughts • Reward yourself when significant milestones are achieved • Be confident (not arrogant)
    • 91. “DO NOT” • Prolong your PhD • Take long breaks ( it is difficult to start again) • Depend 100% on your supervisor • Be forced down a specific theme / methodology route just to fit in with the supervisor's interests • Think the supervisor knows everything • Have poor time management • Lose focus or direction • Let any third party or your supervisor control your PhD • Plagiarise • Underestimate the writing up period • Ignore the importance of meeting your supervisor on a regular basis • Take criticism negatively, but as a challenge!
    • 92. Dr Bingunath Ingirige’s PhD Experience “A PhD is 80% thinking and 20% doing” (May 2000) YOU ARE SHOWING AN IMPROVEMENT FROM LAST TIME. BUT THERE IS A LOT MORE TO DO!!!!
    • 93. Dr Bingunath Ingirige’s PhD Experience “A PhD is 80% thinking and 20% doing” (May 2000) YOU ARE SHOWING AN IMPROVEMENT FROM LAST TIME. BUT THERE IS A LOT MORE TO DO!!!!
    • 94. What challenges? • being self motivated, positive attitude • setting your own deadlines • being ruthless with yourself • continuous discussions with peers and maintain their interest in your work • get the supervisor interested in your work • access to companies
    • 95. Sometimes I felt …. Doing really well I am going nowhere and my level of interest, enthusiasm, and motivation
    • 96. PhD requires a significant • Get the PhD thinking going!!! Linking and Narrowing Down – The funnel What values do you bring with you ?? • Why ? • Why not ? focus • How ? • What ? • So What ?
    • 97. Achievement of major Research Problem & research Individual / company questions access to collect data Research hypothesis Analysis / hypotheses Substantial completion of field research Substantial Level of resolution Write up Contribution to Overall Methodology knowledge
    • 98. Overheard……. “Sometimes I feel, why I started it in the first place” Can’t do it any more. Please give me the doctorate!!!
    • 99. But, look at the bright
    • 100. Concluding remarks • A good problem identification underpinned by a sound methodology will take you through • Read books such as “how to get a PhD”, quite earlier on in your process – gain insights • No ‘silver bullet’ – but commitment and endurance • Several alternative paths available
    • 101. Dr Richard Haigh’ s PhD experience Snow White and the Seven
    • 102. Dr Richard Haigh’ s PhD experience Snow White and the Seven At first you’re Bashful and Dopey.
    • 103. Dr Richard Haigh’ s PhD experience Snow White and the Seven At first you’re Bashful and Dopey. Two years later you’re sick (Sneezy), tired (Sleepy), and irritable (Grumpy).
    • 104. Dr Richard Haigh’ s PhD experience Snow White and the Seven At first you’re Bashful and Dopey. Two years later you’re sick (Sneezy), tired (Sleepy), and irritable (Grumpy). Finally, everyone calls you Doc, and then you’re Happy.
    • 105. Motivation Time
    • 106. “I’m going to make a real contribution to science” Motivation Time
    • 107. “I’m going to make a real contribution to science” Motivation “Why did I ever start this?” Time
    • 108. “I’m going to make a real contribution to science” Motivation “Just give me the Doctorate” “Why did I ever start this?” Time
    • 109. Your supervisor • Your supervisor may be your “best” friend - your success is their success ! • Unlike marriage, they expect (and want) you to leave, to see you stand on your own feet - more like children? • The dream supervisor… – A good knowledge of the topic in year one – Interested in your subject – Excellent knowledge of research methodology – Provides feedback timely, fast and consistently – Promotes their academic and publishing contacts – Agrees to meet frequently – Second supervisor offers an alternative perspective but is not fundamentally opposed to the first
    • 110. Friends Network Publish Recognition s es cc su Reflection Vision to s Sharing Trust ep St Application Confidence Curiosity Enlightenment (Dr Vian Ahmed’s PhD Experience) Reading Knowledge
    • 111. Be part of a community if you can
    • 112. Outcomes Methodology Underpinning Theory
    • 113. Outcomes Methodology Underpinning Theory
    • 114. PhD Outcomes Methodology Underpinning Theory
    • 115. PhD PhD Outcomes Methodology Underpinning Theory
    • 116. Heart Mind “Research with Passion is the True Ingredient to Success” •Passion for reading around the subject •Passion for learning •Passion for applying concepts •Passion for analysing •Passion for publishing •Passion for writing •Passion for being critical “To be a top performer you have to be passionately committed to what you’re doing and insanely confident about your ability to pull it off”
    • 117. Do not think that you are going to Final Thoughts Do not think that you are going to conquer the resolve all world problems Focus Prolong your PhD = Prolong your misery If you are a perfectionist = It will take longer to finish Doing a PhD is art and science Doing a PhD needs sheer determination, but it is easier than doing a bachelor degree (personal view) Doing a PhD is a pleasure, you will be trained to become a researcher Likelihood to pass your PhD is = Prepare for a big celebration very high
    • 118. Spot the PhD
    • 119. !!!!!Enjoy it!!!!! Spot the PhD
    • 120. Thank you for listening • Q/A • Presentation will be made available if needed • Good luck with your PhDs • Always remember that a PhD is an opportunity for you to be trained as a researcher Text • Always remember, that you are not alone, thousands of PhDs are in the same position g.aouad@salford.ac.uk © Copyright rests with authors. Please use and cite appropriately.

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