Romanian business culture guide - Learn about Romania
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Romanian business culture guide - Learn about Romania

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http://businessculture.org - Find out about business culture in Romania. This guide is part of the Passport to Trade 2.0 project which examined European Business culture in 31 countries looking at ...

http://businessculture.org - Find out about business culture in Romania. This guide is part of the Passport to Trade 2.0 project which examined European Business culture in 31 countries looking at business communication, business etiquette, business meeting etiquette, internship and student placements, cost of living, work-life-balance and social media guide.

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    Romanian business culture guide - Learn about Romania Romanian business culture guide - Learn about Romania Document Transcript

    •            |  1     businessculture.org Business Culture in Romania   http://businessculture.org/easternContent Template europe/romania/ Last updated: 02.10.2013 businessculture.org   This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the view only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Content  Romania  
    •            |  2     TABLE  OF  CONTENTS   Business  Culture  in  Romania   .....................................................................................................  4   Romanian business culture .................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.   Xenophobia: being a foreigner in Romania .........................................................................................5   International business in Romania........................................................................................................5   General educations ................................................................................................................................6   Educational standards ...........................................................................................................................6   Other issues such as transport infrastructure ........................................................................................7   Cultural taboos ......................................................................................................................................8   Business  Communication  ..........................................................................................................  9   Language matters ..................................................................................................................................9   Business relationship ...........................................................................................................................10   Making contact....................................................................................................................................10   Personal titles.......................................................................................................................................11   Business  Etiquette  ..................................................................................................................  13   Corporate social responsibility ............................................................................................................13   Punctuality ..........................................................................................................................................13   Gift giving ............................................................................................................................................14   Business dress code ..............................................................................................................................14   Bribery and corruption........................................................................................................................14   Business  Meeting  Etiquette  ....................................................................................................  16   Importance of business meetings.........................................................................................................16   Business meeting planning ..................................................................................................................16   Negotiation process .............................................................................................................................17   Meeting protocol .................................................................................................................................17   How to run a business meeting ...........................................................................................................18   Follow up letter after meeting with client............................................................................................18   businessculture.org   Content  Romania  
    •            |  3     Business meals .....................................................................................................................................19   Business meetings tips..........................................................................................................................19   Internship  and  placement  .......................................................................................................  21   Work experience .................................................................................................................................21   Internship and placement advice ........................................................................................................21   Social security and European health insurance card ..........................................................................21   Safety ...................................................................................................................................................21   Do I need a visa? .................................................................................................................................22   Internship and placement salary .........................................................................................................22   Internship and placement accommodation ........................................................................................22   Cost  of  Living  ...........................................................................................................................  23   Money and banking ............................................................................................................................23   Travelling costs....................................................................................................................................23   Work-­‐life  Balance   ....................................................................................................................  25   National holidays.................................................................................................................................25   Working hours .....................................................................................................................................25   Work culture .......................................................................................................................................26   Health insurance .................................................................................................................................26   Social  Media  Guide  .................................................................................................................  27   Private individuals ...............................................................................................................................27   Search and Social Media Marketing for International Business .........................................................28   businessculture.org   Content  Romania  
    •            |  4     Business  Culture  in  Romania   The following is a very short introduction to Germany. External links at the end of this page provide you with more in depth information concerning different topics. The following video gives you an overview of the general facts: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fd0RsVewKE8 Romania is the largest of the countries of south-eastern Europe with a surface area of 238,391 km2. It is bordered to the north by the Ukraine, by Hungary to the north-west, by Bulgaria and Serbia to the south and south-west, where the natural borders are defined mainly by the River Danube, by the Republic of Moldova to the east along the River Prut and by the shores of the Black Sea to the north-west. Romania became a sovereign state in 1859, when Moldavia and Wallachia were united under the rule of Prince Alexander Ioan Cuza, and independence was achieved in 1878. In 1918, Transylvania, Bukovina and Bessarabia joined the Kingdom of Romania and the interwar period between 1918 and 1939 saw the largest territorial expansion in the history of Romania. Following the abdication of King Mihai in December 1947, Romania became a Republic; until 1965 when it fell under control of the Dictator Nicolae Ceausescu and socialist party. The collapse of the communist regime and execution of Ceausescu in 1989 paved the way for Romania to adopt a new constitution and transition to a market economy. businessculture.org   Content  Romania  
    •            |  5     The current population of Romania is 20.121.641 inhabitants (July 2013 results of the data collection 2011) with 1,883,400 inhabitants living in Bucharest, the capital city. Romania has a number of cities with large populations, namely: Cluj-Napoca , Timisoara and Constanta. Romania’s main ethnic groups are Romanian (88.6%), Hungarian (6.5%), Roma (3.2%) and the remaining 1.4% of the population is made up of Ukrainians, Germans, Turks, Russians and Lipovani Tartars. Romania is a secular state but still a predominantly Christian country with Romanian Orthodox representing 86.8% of the population followed by Roman Catholics at 4.5%, Reformed at 3.7%, Pentecostals at 1.5%, Greek Catholic at 0.9%, Baptists at 0.6% and Islamic Minorities at 0.3%. The official language of Romania is Romanian and its official currency is the Romanian Leu (RON). The current exchange rate is approximately 4.45 Leu to the Euro. Romania is in the Eastern European Time Zone and adheres to EET (UTC +2) during the winter and EEST (UTC +3) during the summer. Romania has become a member of various international organizations: the United Nations in 1955, the EBRD and OECD in 1991, the OSCE and OIF in 2003, NATO in 2004 and the European Union since January 1st, 2007. Romania’s main trading partners are members of the European Union, as well as China and Russia, with most exports going to Germany, Italy, France, Turkey, Hungary and the UK. Xenophobia:  being  a  foreigner  in  Romania   Romanian hospitality is very well known and they have a kind and friendly attitude towards visitors. Most people who live in the urban areas know at least one foreign language (English, German or French), which helps to easily overcome any language barriers. Romanians are reliable business partners who respect their signed contracts, deliver to the agreed terms and pay their debts. International  business  in  Romania   This section examines the general business environment of Romania focusing on the attitudes and values of the Romanian people, followed by details of the education system, training and placement opportunities in Romania. businessculture.org     Content  Romania  
    •            |  6     This section is intended to equip you with the basic ‘ground rules’ for doing business in Romania to ensure that you are sufficiently able to deal with most of the business situations that you may encounter. General  educations   The Romanian education system follows the typical stages of preschool, primary and secondary education leading up to the Baccalaureate, after which students may choose to proceed to a higher education institution. Primary enrolment is at age of 6 and it is compulsory for first 10 years. After 8 years – the primary school, they can decide to continue in a high school for next 4 years or to continue on the same school next 2 years. The admission in high schools is based on the results of previous years and options and it is made on a national level. High schools could be theoretical (history, mathematics, physics, chemistry, foreign languages, biology etc.) or technical (informatics, telecommunication, mechanics etc.). The high school graduation is done by passing a baccalaureate exam. Small part of the scholars are choosing to follow the trade schools and to joint the labour force. In Romania, the higher education system is structured according to three levels of university: stage 1 (license) which corresponds to a bachelor’s degree, stage 2 (degree/specialization) equivalent to a master’s degree and stage 3 (PhD or Doctorate). The admission in higher education requests a baccalaureate diploma and differs from one university to another. It is based on the baccalaureate results or includes an additional knowledge test. Generally Romanians attends in a large rate to higher education and majority gets master or doctoral degrees. Educational  standards   In Romania, there is no governing body or central organisation that administers student employment or placement opportunities for foreign students. Each university has different ways to ensure job offers reach their students, including: • allowing interested companies to advertise their job offers through faculty websites and bulletin boards; • allowing company representatives to attend workshops, seminars, debates inside the university; businessculture.org     Content  Romania  
    •            |  7     • organising student job fairs for companies to interact with the student population; • allowing companies to recruit students for training sessions in order to develop their practical abilities. Students internship is compulsory and it is usually organised by the universities through partnerships with companies, public bodies etc. Sometimes students associations contribute or organise the placement. This work is mostly unpaid. Other  issues  such  as  transport  infrastructure Travelling by Train The national rail operator is Romanian Railways, which operates the network with other private transportation companies covering 22,247 km of track and connecting all the major cities. Travelling by Car The road network in Romania is made up of motorways, express ways, national roads, country roads, and local roads, which totalled 82,386km in 2010. Since Romania’s accession to the EU, plans and funding have been put in place to double the Romanian road network by 2015 and major construction projects are already under way. Travelling by Taxi In major cities, there are at least one taxi company. Taxis can be hailed on the street, found at taxi ranks at the local station or ordered by telephone. The hire charges for a taxi depend on the city and the taxi company, but they must be displayed in a highly visible place in the cab and on the inside of the passenger’s door. The average cost of a fare is the passenger fee, generally equivalent to the cost of travelling one kilometre, and then a rate per kilometre of between 1.4 to 2 Lei. In Bucharest, a taxi fare from the airport to the city centre would cost between 300 to 500 Lei, depending on the route and level of traffic. For safety reasons, it is best to avoid unsolicited offers from private individuals who are not with a regulated taxi company. It is also important to ask the driver for a price before getting into the taxi and be aware that the rates will increase during public holidays and at night. Travelling by Plane businessculture.org     Content  Romania  
    •              |  8   The largest airports in Romania are located in Bucharest and Cluj and have connections to airports all over the world. Cultural  taboos   In Romania, there are no real taboos. However, there are some subjects that could cause offence and should be avoided, including talking about the Communist regime or jokes about the Roma peoples. At business meetings, it is important to behave in a polite and appropriate manner, paying attention to good etiquette. Things such as chewing gum, smoking without your partner’s consent, or drinking directly from a bottle could offend your counterpart and jeopardize the business relationship. businessculture.org     Content  Romania  
    •            |  9     Business  Communication   Negotiation is perhaps the most important part of doing business in Romania, so it is very important to know how to negotiate and how to behave in order to seal the deal. Romanian business executives value a serious approach and you should be well prepared with all the relevant information and documentation to substantiate your interest in doing business. You should also pay attention to body language and maintain a professional attitude that is not overly rigid or relaxed. Here are some tips you should keep in mind: Romanians have an appreciation for a healthy mind and body, such that if you look tired, your partner may think that you will not be able to fulfil your commitments. Businesses have different rules regarding service providers and generally accepted codes of conduct; try to get as much information about the business as possible. There is nothing worse than your partner not understanding your ideas. Some deals fail even though the ideas behind them are great, simply because the message could not get through. Avoid technical terms and use clear, simple phrases. Set clear objectives in advance with a solid understanding of what is required to achieve those objectives. Being well prepared allows you to project confidence and show that you know what you’re doing. As first impressions are crucial to success, you should pay attention to facial expressions, comments and attitudes. Language  matters   The official language of Romania is Romanian, with over 91% of the population speaking Romanian as their first language. Romanian is a Latin language, so it presents many similarities with French, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese. The Romanian language is also spoken in variation by thousands of people in other countries like the Ukraine, Bulgaria, Hungary, Croatia, Slovenia, Slovakia, Poland, Austria, Canada, Israel, Italy, Germany, Russia, Spain, and the United States. businessculture.org     Content  Romania  
    •            |  10     Minority languages in Romania include Hungarian, spoken by 6.5% of the population, Romani, spoken by 1.1% of population and a variety of other languages comprise the remaining 1.7% of minority languages spoken by Germans, Turks, Russians-Lipovans, Ukrainians, and Tatars. The Romanian people are familiar with English, French, Italian, Spanish and German languages. You can easily find a person on the street speaking one of these languages who is willing to help you. Business  relationship   In business, success depends not only on the ability to distinguish occasions and opportunities, but also to leave a good impression and basis on which to strengthen long-term cooperation. Business rules are based on polite and appropriate behaviour. In Romania, communism had a profound effect, prolonging poverty and encouraging corruption. With the collapse of the communist regime, the economy has shown marked improvement and Romanian businessmen have realised that they can conclude long-term contracts if partners treat each other with respect and politeness. It should be remembered that the way you talk and present yourself is as vital to the success of a meeting as the content of your proposals. Another important aspect in the smooth running of business meetings refers to the ability to stay calm and polite throughout tense discussions; working together to find resolve differences and find a mutually beneficial compromise. Making  contact   In Romania, when business partners meet for the first time the custom is for them to shake hands as they greet each other with a simple ‘hello and how are you’ form of greeting. The first meeting is formal, so it is advisable to avoid jokes and maintain a professional appearance. At future meetings, after the relationship is cemented, the formality tends to soften and conversations are more cordial. It is important to know your partner very well and observe their attitude before you try to lighten the conversation. Refusing to shake hands will easily offend your Romanian partner, so it is important to let your partner know if you are under any restrictions that prevent you from shaking their hand. businessculture.org     Content  Romania  
    •            |  11     Keep in mind that first meetings are very important. Romanians are very welcoming and therefore any small, misplaced or seemingly insignificant gesture could offend. Also, your attitude must inspire confidence, in order for your partner to believe that you are the one they should make a deal with. At the first meeting, you must address your partner and their assistants with “Mr.” or “Miss”. Where conversing on the telephone, it is important to always be polite, no matter whom you are speaking with. Always answer a call if you’re available and if you are unable to provide the information that is requested, you should promise to return the call when the information is available. If you promise to follow-up, it is also extremely important that you do so within the expected timeframe. Personal  titles   Presentation is very important in Romania and if you do not respect certain rules it may lead to embarrassing situations. At the first meeting it very important to address your Romanian partner with Mr. or Mrs. followed by their last name or title, such as ‘Mr. Doctor’, ‘Mrs. Professor’, ‘Mr. President’, ‘Madam Director’, etc. -It is customary for the younger person to take the initiative when greeting and for men to greet women first. Students will normally address teaching staff by their professional titles, such as ‘Professor’, rather than ‘Mr. Popescu’. In Romanian, the polite form of address uses the second person plural ‘dumneavoastra’ and the more familiar ‘tu’ form is usually only used between friends. You should wait until you are invited to address your partner by the more friendly ‘tu’ form of address, although it is expected that a man should wait for the lady to make this suggestion first. Kissing a woman’s hand is a very polite way of greeting used generally by older men. • Mr. = Domnule • Mrs. = Doamna • Ms. = Domnisoara businessculture.org     Content  Romania  
    •            |  12     In Romania, the use of titles is considered a sign of respect and even if the relationship becomes more informal, you should continue using titles during formal meetings. businessculture.org     Content  Romania  
    •            |  13     Business  Etiquette     Romanians consider themselves as trustful business partners and they are very serious when speaking about business. They are professionals; many of them are holding MBA degrees in prestigious universities abroad. They are aware of the international business practice and they are studying the particularities of the potential partner before first meeting. Romanian business men pay respect to the foreign partners and expect to be treated in the same way. Corporate  social  responsibility   According to the Environmental Performance Index (EPI), developed by a team of experts based at Yale and Columbia universities, Romania ranked as a weak performer in 88th place with a score of 48.34 in 2012. In recent years, Romanian authorities have turned their attention to environmental issues by introducing new environmental regulations to control pollution from factories, strategies for adopting environmentally-responsible behaviours and environmental certification schemes. Romania is beginning to invest heavily in renewable energy programmes and establish new organisations and associations to oversee the rapid growth in this area, such as the Romanian Wind Energy Association (RWEA). The Romanian Ministry of Environment is enforcing measures and monitors the environment protection. The applied role is “polluter pays” that means penalties paid by the companies that pollutes. Companies interested in implementing non polluting technologies and environmentally-friendly production processes are supported and encouraged by the Government. National programs, part of them co-financed by European Union were developed to improve the networks of water, roads infrastructure, electricity, gas. Waste management measures were settled for a better waste water treatment, waste collection and recycling. Being part of several conventions regardless the environment protection Romanian authorities focused on the citizens’ education and legislation to contribute to a climate of environmental conservation. Punctuality In Romania, punctuality is considered a strength when doing business and it is important to arrive at the appointed time, or even a little earlier, for a meeting. businessculture.org     Content  Romania  
    •            |  14     If you are going to be late for any reason, it is important to call ahead and apologise for the delay. Due to the heavy traffic and lack of parking spaces, it is advisable to allow plenty of extra travel time. Gift  giving   In Romania, when invited to a business meeting by a Romanian partner, arriving with a small gift is considered polite. The gift does not have to be very expensive (up to 100 Lei). Should the guest be a foreigner, the recommended gift is a traditional object from the visitor’s country. These gifts are considered a sign of international cooperation and are usually opened immediately. Business  dress  code   The dress code is dictated by the formality of the business meeting. For a formal meeting, where business is to be discussed between people that have not met before, it is important to present a highly professional image. A conservative style would be most appropriate, in the form of a tailored business suit with elegant tie or accessories. For women, skirt length should be at or below the knee and jewellery should be elegant and discreet. In a more casual setting, such as a business lunch, outfits can be more relaxed and tend towards the business casual style. Casual business attire may include jacket and jeans for men, and a suit skirt and blouse or knee-length dress for women. Smart casual would be the most casual form of attire that you would need on a business visit and would mostly be appropriate when sightseeing or dining out in a casual situation. For ceremonial or highly prestigious social events, there will be a very specific dress code that must be followed and you should pay attention to the invitation or ask your host, to ensure that you are dressed appropriately. In general, it is recommended to avoid wearing flashy colours or outlandish outfits, earrings, hair dyed in striking colours or extreme styles, or excessive use of perfume. Bribery  and  corruption   During January and February of 2011, the fraud investigation department coordinator (FIDS) at Ernst & Young commissioned a survey to reflect Romanians point of view on corruption and bribery. businessculture.org     Content  Romania  
    •            |  15     The survey found that 88% of respondents believed that bribery and corruption were widespread practices, and 56% said the recession had created conditions that led to increasing levels of corruption. Given that 31% of respondents believed that bribery was a common practice used to win contracts, it is clear that unethical behaviour is still tolerated, if not encouraged. 48% of Romanian participants also believed that providing personal gifts of money or entertainment could be justified, as long as they contributed to business development. Romanian companies are aware of the concept of fraud by their employees, and bribery and corruption are recognised as significant problems. businessculture.org     Content  Romania  
    •            |  16     Business  Meeting  Etiquette     Romanian business partners pay particular attention to the details of organising a business meeting and may base their interest in a negotiation on the professionalism shown in the arrangements. The venue of the meeting should be appropriate to the number of expected meeting attendees, allowing enough space to move freely around the room without crowding. The meeting organiser should provide necessary documentation, paper, pens and refreshments to ensure that attendees do not want for anything that would disrupt the smooth running of the meeting. It is also important to ensure that suitable presentation equipment is available or that you bring enough equipment and supporting documentation with you. Importance  of  business  meetings   In Romania, business meetings are taken very seriously and you should adopt a very professional attitude and approach to give the right impression to your Romanian counterparts. Your ideas must be clear and precise with evidence to substantiate your arguments and the means to achieve your objectives. This will enable you to demonstrate that you are well conversant and well organised, which will reflect well on your proposals. Business  meeting  planning   For organising business meetings you should consider the number and composition of attendees, the meeting time and place and the table arrangements. Both sides should coordinate the time and place for the meeting, the subject of discussion and the language of the discussion. If a translator is required, this should be arranged well in advance of the meeting, with both parties agreement. Formal business meetings are usually scheduled for 9.30am or 10am and last approximately 90 minutes. Where meetings are scheduled in the afternoon, they should not be set for immediately after lunch or extend beyond 5pm to 5.30pm. According to official protocols, meetings with foreign partners should take place in specially prepared rooms with the delegation being met at the entrance and accompanied to the meeting. businessculture.org     Content  Romania  
    •            |  17     The table arrangement should take into account the status of members. Usually, the delegations are seated face to face, with the leaders placed in the centre. Transcripts are another important point to be taken into account in the meeting. Negotiation  process   The key to success in a foreign country is to learn as much about the country and sincerely want to integrate with a new and different culture. The characteristics and psychology of Romanian negotiators do not differ radically from business partners in other countries. In Romania, the negotiation process can be easy or very harsh. It depends on the subject, negotiators’ skills, importance of the result and limits of the negotiation. Negotiations are usually made with managers who have decision-making power and the number of meeting participants will depend on the size of the company. Most company owners and managers are still male, so it will be rare to meet with a female manager in a negotiation process. Due to historical problems with fraud and fake investment deals that were common in the 1990’s, partners on both sides should be expected to perform their own due diligence to ensure the authenticity of the partnership arrangement. Sometimes a mandate letter is requested by the Romanian partner to certify that the persons involved in the negotiation process are genuinely representing the company. This can also be requested by the foreign partner as a matter of assurance. One of the most important aspects of the negotiations is price with a discount variation of between 5 to 15%, depending usually on the quantity of products. The conclusion of the negotiation process will be subject to a signed contract, agreement or memorandum, which records all the terms and conditions and must be validated with the company seal. Meeting  protocol   When greeting people in Romania, there are a number of typical greetings that vary according to the time of day, situation and person you are addressing. In the morning with a casual greeting would be ‘Buna dimineata’ (Good morning) or ‘Salut’ (Hello) followed by ‘Ce mai faci?’ (How do you do?). The person who enters a room should be the first to make a greeting. businessculture.org     Content  Romania  
    •            |  18     The most common greeting is ‘Buna ziua’ (Good day), which can be used at any time of the day and is more formal. A greeting may be accompanied by a handshake and men will often offer a greeting first and wait for a lady to extend their hand. Informal greetings between friends would include ‘Buna’ (Hi), ‘Pa’ (Bye), etc. It is usual to shake hands at the beginning and end of a meeting, especially when guests or partners are attending. Keep in mind that your Romanian counterpart can be easily offended if you refuse to shake hands. So, if there are any issues that prevent you from shaking hands, you should politely explain them to your partner to avoid any awkward situations. In business meetings, partners exchange business cards as a matter of protocol and to ensure that they are able to maintain contact with one another. Close friends greet each other by hugging (men) and kissing on both cheeks (women). How  to  run  a  business  meeting   When participating in a meeting, it is important to gather as much information as possible about your counterpart’s business. Partners have to be convinced about the realism of the proposed objectives and meetings must have a firm objective. To create a professional image, all materials must be structured coherently, correctly sized and spelled and printed on quality paper. If you can establish common ground with your business associates and break the ice by discussing familiar topics, it will help to establish a relationship faster. By paying attention to body language, you should be able to understand your business associates better and more easily overcome any miscommunications. As part of the negotiation process, you will be expected to ask questions and present real case examples that illustrate your understanding of the ways in which a partnership will benefit both partners. Follow  up  letter  after  meeting  with  client   After a business meeting, the host is usually responsible for preparing the minutes of the meeting, which should summarise the main points of discussion, present the overall conclusions and provide a detailed list of action items and dates by which they should be businessculture.org     Content  Romania  
    •            |  19     completed. The minutes will normally be circulated within a few days of the meeting, giving the meeting participants the opportunity to comment and allow for any modifications, before a formal agreement is written up. After a formal contract has been approved and signed, further communication may be required to implement goals, resolve operational issues and report on partnership milestones and deliverables. This will then form the basis of any dispute resolution negotiations or the grounds for the further development of an ongoing business partnership. Business  meals   Business meals may contribute to both cementing your relationship with your business partner and sealing the deal. Therefore, business meals should be carefully organised and you should behave according to the rules of formal dining etiquette. You should greet your associates on arrival and wait for the host to sit before taking your seat. It is important to avoid ordering the most expensive items on the menu and follow the lead of your host when deciding what to drink. It is best to either avoid alcohol or limit yourself to one glass. ‘Pofta buna’, meaning ‘good appetite’, is usually said when the food arrives and you should take care to be polite and avoid any controversial subjects at the dinner table. At the end of a meal, you should not leave before saying goodbye and shaking hands with everyone. Business  meetings  tips   When you are travelling or working in Romania you should be aware that Romanians are very welcoming and will gladly assist you, but expect you to behave with propriety and respect at all times. • You should ask for help, if you need information and ‘Va rog’ is the Romanian for ‘Please’. • When entering a public space, it is polite to give priority to women, the elderly or higher ranked persons. Usually, men will open and hold a door for women or the elderly. • Always be on time for appointments, stick to the agenda and respect the amount of time that has been allocated to the meeting. • It is appreciated if you ask your counterpart about themselves and their family. • If you are invited to the home of one of your colleagues, it is recommended to bring flowers for the lady of the house and a bottle of wine for the host. businessculture.org     Content  Romania  
    •            |  20     • Gifts of souvenirs from your home country can be a useful ice breaker and provide an opportunity for cultural exchange. • You may compliment your partner, but take care not to exaggerate or choose an inappropriate moment. If asked for your opinion about Romania, you should give your sincere appreciation and limit any criticisms you may have. • When somebody offers you food or drink, you should at least taste it and not refuse straight away. • It is normal to stand up when someone older, female or more senior enters the room, in order to greet them properly. • In presenting a professional appearance, you should still take the time to smile and show an appreciative nature. businessculture.org     Content  Romania  
    •            |  21     • Internship  and  placement     Work  experience   In Romania, there is no governing body or central organisation that administers student employment or placement opportunities for foreign students. Each university has different ways to ensure job offers reach their students, including: • allowing interested companies to advertise their job offers through faculty websites and bulletin boards; • allowing company representatives to attend workshops, seminars, debates inside the university; • organising student job fairs for companies to interact with the student population; • allowing companies to recruit students for training sessions in order to develop their practical abilities. Students internship is compulsory and it is usually organised by the universities through partnerships with companies, public bodies etc. Sometimes students associations contribute or organise the placement. This work is mostly unpaid. Internship  and  placement  advice   Students who have a residence permit are entitled to work part-time for up to 4 hours per day, provided their employer is able to obtain a student work permit. Social  security  and  European  health  insurance  card Students with a work permit are subject of social security and health insurance according to the Romanian law. From their wages is deducted the cost of this social services and they can ask about the facilities they can benefit. Safety Pickpocketing is a significant problem in crowded areas, especially on public transport, similar with other European countries and care should be taken with personal possessions and valuable items businessculture.org     Content  Romania  
    •            |  22     The telephone number used to contact the emergency services is 112. Do  I  need  a  visa?   Citizens and permanent residents of member states of the European Union are entitled to enter and stay in Romania for a period of up to 90 days within 6 months, without having to obtain a Romanian entry visa. Detailed information is provided on the website of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs: http://www.mae.ro/node/1470. For stays longer than 90 days, it may be necessary to obtain a residence permit or long-stay student visa, and further information is available from the website of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Internship  and  placement  salary   The salary for part time jobs is at the slowest level of the position. The minimal salary is about 180 euro (2013) and the medium is 470 euro (2012) In case of part-time jobs it is paid on hourly base. Internship  and  placement  accommodation   Each university has student dormitories, which can accommodate up to 5 students in each room and rates are set by the University Senate. Private student hostels also exist, which offer accommodation in fully-equipped rooms with 2 or 3 beds and shared kitchen, laundry and common areas. Private hostels may also offer broadband internet, professional security service, room cleaning, parking and laundry services. businessculture.org     Content  Romania  
    •            |  23     Cost  of  Living     The cost of living in Romania for students from western European countries is lower then in their home places. The allowance for Erasmus students’ mobility is 275 Euro. It covers the cost of a place in dormitories of about 50 Euro and meals of about 150 Euro. If they are looking for a private room the cost doubles. Money  and  banking   Romania’s official currency is the Leu (RON), which is subdivided into 100 Bani. Since July 2005, the following banknotes and coins have been in circulation: • Coins: 1 ban, 5 bani, 10 bani, 50 bani • Notes: 1 leu, 5 lei, 10 lei, 50 lei, 100 lei, 200 lei, 500 lei All banks and exchange offices are authorised to conduct foreign exchange operations, as all transactions in Romania are conducted in the national currency. It is important to note that shops do not accept checks and payments are normally made in cash or by credit or debit card. Travelling  costs   Bus, Trolleybus and Tram Tickets Travelling by public transport is very popular and the cost of one trip by bus, tram or trolleybus is 1.30 Lei. Tickets can be purchased is multiple journey formats, as well as a rechargeable Active Card that can be bought for 3.70 Lei and is debited for each trip. Tickets and cards are available at special kiosks near the most important stations or designated offices. Metro Tickets Metro tickets are sold as return tickets (4 Lei), a book of ten tickets (15 Lei), a one-day ticket (6 Lei) or as travel permits, which are usually issued for periods of 30 days. businessculture.org     Content  Romania  
    •              |  24   Student discounts are available for some travel permits. Joint RATB & Metro Tickets In Bucharest, it is possible to purchase travel cards which can be used on the bus, trolley and metro networks. With this type of card, you can have unlimited trips for the duration that the card is valid: either 60 minutes (5 Lei), 24 hours (16 Lei) or 10 one-hour periods (30 Lei). businessculture.org     Content  Romania  
    •            |  25     Work-­‐life  Balance     According to Eurostat data, Romanian employees work an average of 41 hours per week, which is slightly greater than the European average of 40.4 hours. Almost 29% of the employed population work in agriculture in Romania, which is the highest proportion in the EU and significantly greater than the European average of 5%. At the opposite end of the scale, Romania has the lowest percentage of employees working in service sector market, 43% compared to a European average of 69.8%. National  holidays   In Romania, the public holidays are: • the 1st and 2nd January; • May 1st; • December 1st; • the First and Second day of Easter – not fix date; • the First and Second day of Rusalii – not fix date; • 15th August – St. Mary’s Day • 30th November – St. Andrew’s Day • the First and second day of Christmas – 25th and 26th December; • 2 days for each of the two annual religious festivals for people of other religions than Christians; Each year employees are also entitled to annual leave of between 15 to 30 working days, according to their seniority at work and position. Most annual leave is taken during the month of August, with the remainder decided according to personal negotiation and employer needs. Working  hours   Normal office hours for company employees in both public and private organisations are from Monday to Friday, 9am to 5pm. Shops are typically open every day from 9am to 10pm.For full-time employees, the normal working week is 8 hours per day and 40 hours per week. For businessculture.org     Content  Romania  
    •            |  26     young people aged up to 18 years, working hours are limited to 6 hours per day and 30 hours per week. Some companies may adopt an unequal distribution of working hours, subject to the normal working week. The maximum legal working time is 48 hours per week, including overtime, except under specific terms and conditions that may be set down in a collective bargaining agreement. Pregnant women and anyone under the age of 18 cannot work a night shift between the hours of 10pm and 6am. When daily hours exceed 6 hours, employees are entitled to unpaid lunch and other breaks. People under the age of 18 have lunch breaks of at least 30 minutes, if daily working time exceeds 4 ½ hours. Work  culture   Romanians are taking their jobs seriously and generally work more then the normal working program. The work in Romania is subject of specific legislation very similar with other European countries. They are open to foreigners and treat them as professionals if they are coming from countries with best practices and expertise in the area. They respect the foreigners for their skills not for their origins or titles. Health  insurance   In Romania, all employers and employees are responsible for contributors to the state social insurance system, which are deducted from employee wages on a monthly basis. Social insurance is governed by the fiscal code and is used to fund public health care services, unemployment benefits, pensions, risk and accidents at work and occupational health benefits, etc. businessculture.org     Content  Romania  
    •            |  27     Social  Media  Guide     Private  individuals   Mobile telephony in Romania has been the most common method of communication over the last decade. There are now a number of major companies operating in the Romanian telecoms market, primarily: Orange, Vodafone, Cosmote, Digi (RDS / RCS), and Romtelecom. So, it is not surprising that 82% of Romanian households use mobile services and 77% of Romanians aged 16 years or over have a personal mobile phone that is not paid for by a company or institution. According to the statistics (Internet World Stats) in 2010, the proportion of households with Internet access was 35.5%, with and it is grows up to 41.1% in 2012. The largest segment of internet users is 16-74 years, domestic, urban and more then half are using broad band. Approximately half of Romanian internet users have access to social media networks, threequarters of whom use these communication channels to express their dissatisfaction with products and services from various companies. The latest research and market surveys carried out in Romania in the spring of 2011 by Daedalus Millward Brown company indicate that in urban areas, internet usage already exceeds traditional media usage. In fact, the time most users spend on the internet almost doubles the time spent watching television. The same study revealed that although the main activity of Internet users is searching for information and news online, a significant proportion of their time at around 21% is focused on social networks. Although, younger users spend far more time on social networks. In June 2011, there were approximately 63,000 Romanian blogs, with around 200,000 posts and over 3 million readers monthly, and over 51,000 Twitter accounts with 1.2 million monthly posts (TreeWorks, 2011). The most popular site in Romania was Trilulilu.ro (Netbridge Services, 2011), a video-sharing social community with over three million domestic unique users in May 2011. Local social networks, Netlog and Neogen occupy a significant market share. However, Facebook and Hi5 are national leaders in social media, with Facebook growing fast and Hi5 on a declining trend. Facebook has a 43.3% penetration in 2013. businessculture.org     Content  Romania  
    •            |  28     Search  and  Social  Media  Marketing  for  International  Business   Learn how to use social media for business from one of Salford Business School’s latest business management courses. The course was jointly researched by the Passport to Trade 2.0 project team and prepared in collaboration with some of the leading digital marketing agencies in the UK. This Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) can help businesses and individuals to make the best use of search and social media platforms. The course is called Search and Social Media Marketing for International Business and is applicable to students looking for placements abroad as well as businesses thinking about new trade links; it comprises the following twelve topics: How to develop a personal brand online (1/12) • • Whether you are a student beginning a job search or a business person planning a new business venture, personal branding can make a difference. Learn about personal branding and why it is important for you. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=l9LYw0mgtn4&feature=player _embedded How to use Twitter (2/12) • • Learn the basics of using Twitter to develop an individual or business profile. Remember to use hash tag #SSMMUoS to share your learning journey on this course so far! http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=9CVY3pp91Dc&feature=playe r_embedded businessculture.org     Content  Romania  
    •            |  29     How to use Search Engine Optimisation (SEO) (3/12) Learn the principles of SEO to ensure that your website and any social media profiles are found by individuals searching for your name, products and services. These basic principles of SEO include keyword research, on-page optimisation and off-page optimisation. • • http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=zw27cRcwtM0&feature=player _embedded How to use social media for international business development (4/12) Social media networks break down the traditional country barriers, but do you know which networks are relevant for the country you are interested in trading with? Find out in this video how to identify the relevant networks and what social media strategies you might be able to use on these networks. • • http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=Bx-B56AHS4c&feature= player_embedded How to use Facebook (5/12) • • Facebook is currently the largest social media network in the world and it can benefit you as a business as well as an individual. Learn how to develop a Facebook business page and see how other businesses use it and what strategies work for them. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=UmRGn-vdcO8&feature= player_embedded businessculture.org     Content  Romania  
    •            |  30     How to use YouTube (6/12) • • YouTube was identified as the second largest social network amongst younger internet users as part of the Passport to Trade 2.0 project. Learn how to optimise your video content in order to reach wider audiences for your profile. http://www.youtube.com/watch? feature=player_embedded&v=G2 0OVpmTBss How to use LinkedIn (7/12) • • LinkedIn is one of the three main professional social networks – the others being Xing and Viadeo which are also popular in several European countries. Learn how to make the most of LinkedIn for your profile. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=N6e_EAUQqic&feature=playe r_embedded How to use Google+ (8/12) • • • Google+ is the second largest social network as of January 2013. It is one of the fastest growing social networks and one that has the biggest impact when it comes to search engine results integration for anyone who uses Google as their main search engine. Learn how to make the most of Google+ for you and your digital profiles. http://www.youtube.com/watch? feature=player_embedded&v=8ti 3SPHkEWw businessculture.org     Content  Romania  
    •            |  31     How to use copywriting online (9/12) • • Copywriting is a process of translating technical specifications and product descriptions into engaging and understandable customer focused text. Learn about the basic techniques in structuring your online content here. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=5f1hx_f2ONI&feature=player_ embedded How to stay legal on social media (10/12) • • Everything and anything you do and say online can be potentially viewed by anyone who has internet access. Always respect the law and familiarise yourself with new options offered to you through a creative commons licence which is popular online. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=eQxDpiHsdk&feature=player_embedde d How to use monitoring and reporting (11/12) • • Whether you are an individual or a business spending time on social media – there has to be a return on your engagement online. How do you justify your engagement on social media to your boss? Listen to the industry experts in this area and see what you might be able to measure in respect of your on-line engagements. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=LbEq7jsG0jg&feature=player_ embedded businessculture.org     Content  Romania  
    •            |  32     How to blog (12/12) • • http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=OqVjR7oI8Rs&feature=player _embedded businessculture.org     • Blogging is a process of writing text and sharing content with others. It can help your customers or friends to keep in-touch regardless of social media platforms. Think about the voice you might want to adopt and who your audience might be. Share your thoughts with us by writing a blog post about this MOOC. Tweet us the link to your post on the #SSMMUoS Twitter hash tag. Content  Romania  
    •              |  33   Passport  to  Trade  2.0  Project  Partnership   Five Universities: Lead partner: Salford Business School, University of Salford, United Kingdom Elena Vasilieva Aleksej Heinze Alex Fenton URENIO research unit at Aristole University of Thessaloniki, Greece Christina Kakderi Nitsa Papadopouloui TSE Entre Research Centre Turku School of Economics, University of Turku, Finland Satu Aaltonen Elisa Akola Institute for Information System Research University of Koblenz-Landau, Germany Verena Hausmann Susan P. Williams Petra Schubert Valahia University of Targoviste, Romania Adriana Grigorescu Leonardo Badea Three Small & Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Spin, Italy Carmine Antonio Donato Dorella De Tommaso Technology Development & Innovation – TDI LTD Bulgaria Milanka Slavova Ivan Stoychev TIS Praha, Czech Republic Anna Klosova Richard Adekeye businessculture.org     Content  Romania