Luxembourg business culture guide - Learn about Luxembourg
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http://businessculture.org - Find out about business culture in Luxembourg. This guide is part of the Passport to Trade 2.0 project which examined European Business culture in 31 countries looking at ...

http://businessculture.org - Find out about business culture in Luxembourg. This guide is part of the Passport to Trade 2.0 project which examined European Business culture in 31 countries looking at business communication, business etiquette, business meeting etiquette, internship and student placements, cost of living, work-life-balance and social media guide.

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Luxembourg business culture guide - Learn about Luxembourg Document Transcript

  • 1.            |  1     businessculture.org Business Culture in Luxembourg   http://businessculture.org/westernContent Template europe/business-culture-in-luxembourg/ Last updated: 8.10.2013 businessculture.org   This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Content  Luxembourg   publication reflects the view only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
  • 2.            |  2     TABLE  OF  CONTENTS   Business  Culture  in  Luxembourg  ...............................................................................................  4   Xenophobia: being a foreigner in Luxembourg ...................................................................................5   General education .................................................................................................................................5   Other issues such as transport infrastructure ........................................................................................5   Cultural taboos ......................................................................................................................................6   Business  Communication  ..........................................................................................................  7   Face-to-face communication .................................................................................................................7   Language matters ..................................................................................................................................7   Business relationship .............................................................................................................................8   Making contact......................................................................................................................................8   Personal titles.........................................................................................................................................8   Business  Meeting  Etiquette  ....................................................................................................  10   Importance of business meetings.........................................................................................................10   Business meeting planning ..................................................................................................................10   Negotiation process .............................................................................................................................10   Meeting protocol .................................................................................................................................10   How to run a business meeting ...........................................................................................................11   Follow up letter after meeting with a client .........................................................................................11   Business meals .....................................................................................................................................11   Business meeting tips ...........................................................................................................................12   Internship  and  placement  .......................................................................................................  13   Work experience .................................................................................................................................13   Social security and European Health insurance card .........................................................................13   Safety ...................................................................................................................................................13   Do I need a visa? .................................................................................................................................14   Internship and placement salary .........................................................................................................14   Internship and placement accommodation ........................................................................................14   businessculture.org   Content  Luxembourg  
  • 3.            |  3     Cost  of  Living  ...........................................................................................................................  15   Money and banking ............................................................................................................................15   Work-­‐life  Balance   ....................................................................................................................  16   National holidays.................................................................................................................................16   Working hours .....................................................................................................................................17   Health insurance .................................................................................................................................17   Social  Media  Guide  .................................................................................................................  18   Search and Social Media Marketing for International Business .........................................................18     businessculture.org   Content  Luxembourg  
  • 4.            |  4     Business  Culture  in  Luxembourg   The following is a very short introduction to Luxembourg. External links at the end of this page provide you with more in depth information concerning different topics. The following video gives you an overview of the general facts: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q8VJxfQPHLg#t=14 Luxembourg is located in Northern Europe and is bordered by Belgium, France, and Germany. Luxembourg forms part of the main urbanization and development axis of Europe known as the ‘Blue Banana’, which stretches from the West of England to Milan. The northern part of the country forming part of the Ardennes is known as the ‘Oesling’ and is dominated by hills and low mountains. The southern part of the country called the ‘Gutland’ is more densely populated. It is also more diverse and can be divided into five geographic regions: the Luxembourg plateau, Little Switzerland, the Moselle valley, the Valley of the Seven Castles and the Red Lands. The southwest is part of the Luxembourg-Lorraine mining basin, once one of the most productive iron and steel manufacturing regions worldwide. Luxembourg is the smallest country in the European Union with a population of about 510,000 in an area of 2,586 square kilometres. The national language is Luxembourgish, which is a blend of Dutch, old German, and Frankish elements that is spoken by the majority of the native population. French and German are also official languages. Luxembourg has a moderate continental climate, characterized by mild winters and cool summers. The high peaks of the Ardennes in the north provide shelter from the rigorous north winds. Rainfall is plentiful with precipitation throughout the country averaging about 75 cm annually. As Luxembourg is in Central Europe it uses Central European Time and adheres to CET (UTC+1) during the winter and CEST (UTC+2) during the summer. businessculture.org     Content  Luxembourg  
  • 5.              |  5   Economy Luxembourg’s high-income market economy features moderate growth, low inflation, and a high innovation level. According to the nominal value of GDP, Luxembourg ranks in 94th place globally; however GDP per capita is around $80,000, which ranks the country in 2nd place in the entire world. Luxembourg plays host to many European Union institutions like the Commission of the European Community, the Court of Justice of the European Communities, the European Statistical Office (EUROSTAT), the Publications Office and the General Secretariat of the European Parliament. Free movement of goods is allowed between Luxembourg and member states. The political government of Luxembourg consist of a representative democracy with a constitutional monarch, whereby the Prime Minister of Luxembourg is the head of government and legislative power is vested in the Chamber of Deputies who are elected to 5-year terms. Xenophobia:  being  a  foreigner  in  Luxembourg   In general, people are very friendly and very hospitable in Luxembourg. True to their motto: “we want to stay as we are”, the Luxembourgish insist on distinguishing themselves as an individual nation, while nevertheless being close to others within the European sphere. General  education   Primary education lasts for six years and at the age of 12, children will proceed to either a general or technical secondary school to complete a further seven years of study. A “Diplôme de Fin d’Etudes secondaires” is awarded at the end of this period. Higher education in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg comprises of the following: the first/second academic year at all faculties; short-term (2 years) education in Economic Sciences orientated towards preservice training; four-year technological education; three-year pedagogical/social education; third cycle studies offered at the Centre University. Classes are taught in French and German. Foreign language teaching has a predominant position in education in Luxembourg. More than three quarters of the pupils, (75.5%) learn two or more foreign languages and the remaining ones learn one foreign language. The University of Luxembourg offers degree programmes at undergraduate, post-graduate and doctoral level within three faculties: the “Faculté des Sciences, de la Technologie et de la Communication”, the “Faculté de Droit, d’Economie et de Finance” and the “Faculté des Lettres, des Sciences Humaines, des Arts et des Sciences de l’Education”. Other  issues  such  as  transport  infrastructure   Luxembourg’s airport, Findel Airport, is located 4 miles east of the city on the road to Grevenmacher. Luxair is the national airline, and flies to 21 European destinations. Luxembourg operates an extensive rail network, serving all European destinations. It is one of the most convenient, and cost effective methods of transportation in reaching the capital. Although, it has suffered from some difficulties, due to competition with road transport. Taxis are widely available, but are an expensive option. A 10% tip is usual for taxi drivers. Travel time from the airport to the city centre is approximately 15 minutes. businessculture.org     Content  Luxembourg  
  • 6.            |  6     Cultural  taboos   In order to avoid insulting your Luxembourgish counterparts, and, disrespecting their beliefs and ideals note that: • • • • • The Luxembourgish are very proud of their independence and the fact that they are a separate country in their own right. Be aware of their unique culture and language; do not assume that everyone is an expatriate from another country. Do not criticize the Grand Duchy; Luxembourgers are proud of their heritage and history. Always be punctual for business and social meetings as lateness is considered very rude. Politeness and respect for hierarchy is very important in Luxembourg; never be disrespectful or rude, or you will lose all possible chances of succeeding in your business dealings. Understanding and respecting these issues will make a significant contribution to understanding Luxembourgish culture and building and maintaining strong business relationships. businessculture.org     Content  Luxembourg  
  • 7.            |  7     Business  Communication   Face-­‐to-­‐face  communication   There are a number of verbal and non-verbal communication issues you should consider, when doing business in Luxembourg: • • • • • • • • Luxembourgers are excellent linguists and many are sufficiently fluent to conduct meetings in English. This does not mean that they are familiar with the latest idioms or expressions, so be careful to speak slowly. Luxembourgers prefer subtlety to directness and being blunt is considered rude. Although their communication is more direct than many cultures, they use tact and diplomacy when speaking and expect the same in return. They will tell you what they think, even if it is not what you want to hear, but they will do so with the utmost of discretion and consideration. Luxembourgers prefer communication to be logical and based on reason. If you do not understand what has been said or want further clarification of a point, you may ask questions, as long as you do so politely. Luxembourgers do not ask personal questions and will refuse to answer if you intrude on their privacy. Personal life is always kept separate from business. If a friendship develops at work and is carried through into the personal arena, this camaraderie will not be brought into the office. Personal matters are rarely discussed with friends, no matter how close. Business cards are important in Luxembourg. Give business cards to the receptionist or secretary upon arrival at an office and to each person you meet subsequently. Print cards in English and preferably with either French or German on the reverse. Do not include academic degrees or titles, as the Luxembourgish find such boastfulness rude and a sign of poor breeding. Language  matters   Luxembourg is considered a trilingual country; Luxembourgish, French and German are official languages. Luxembourgish is the national dialect, which is mostly spoken at home and on social occasions. Official documents are usually not available in Luxembourgish. German as well as Luxembourgish can be used for administrative or judicial purposes. The official language of the civil service, law and parliament is French, although criminal and legal debates are conducted partly in Luxembourgish. French and German are taught in the schools. German is spoken mainly at the primary level and French at the secondary level. In most business environments, the main spoken and written language is French. Almost half of the population speaks at least two foreign languages and about 45% speak three or more languages. A concentration in French or German can be an asset to a career in business or international affairs; while good knowledge of foreign languages, combined with business training, could open up opportunities to a variety of small to medium sized enterprises that are based in Luxembourg and active throughout the European Union. businessculture.org     Content  Luxembourg  
  • 8.              |  8   Business  relationship   Business relationships in Luxembourg are relatively similar to other Western European countries. Initially, business deals are negotiated and agreed upon verbally. This is then followed up and formalised in writing with both parties signing the document as confirmation of the agreement. Although friendly and informal with close friends and family, the Luxembourgish are often reserved and formal when dealing with outsiders. They are a private people who do not put their possessions or emotions on display, particularly in the business environment. The Luxembourger prefers subtlety to directness. They do not ask personal questions and will refuse to answer should you intrude on their privacy. It is very important when developing your relationships with the Luxembourger,that you remember to keep personal life separate from business. Luxembourgers usually maintain a clear separation between their personal and business lives. Showing interest in the country and the people can be important in building business relationships. Luxembourgers are generally polite but reserved, so loudness, assertiveness, and over familiarity are all considered inappropriate at the beginning of a business relationship. Luxembourgers are careful, prudent and take time to develop a relationship before they trust people. They approach the task of getting to know you in a deliberate and measured manner, which cannot be rushed. If you appear impatient, they will not do business with you. Although third-party introductions are not necessary, they are recommended, as they demonstrate an expression of trust in business. They will, however, go on to develop personal relationships with the people with whom they conduct business, once trust has been established. Building a relationship requires the demonstration of a sincere interest in the country and the people. Thus, it is imperative to understand the history, culture and identity of Luxembourg. Making  contact   Luxembourgers, in general, are typically conservative as far as physical gestures are concerned. Unlike France, men never kiss men, and public displays of affection are not common, particularly in the business environment. Public gestures of affection tend to be reserved for close family and friends. Loud, aggressive, and arrogant behaviour is regarded as highly unacceptable and rude, by the Luxembourger. Common courtesy such as handshakes and politeness go a long way to creating a good impression on your counterpart. Luxembourgers prefer direct eye contact and in a business context, a person who avoids eye contact may raise suspicions. Therefore, you should maintain eye contact with a Luxembourger, when he or she is talking to you. Expressive use of the hands is minimal in most conversations. Personal  titles   Luxembourgers tend to like titles, especially in corporate hierarchy; so, surnames with honorific titles are used in most social situations. Academic titles and degrees are not considered important and are avoided as a rule, since mention of them is considered a sign of poor breeding. The most common language to address a Luxembourg counterpart in is businessculture.org     Content  Luxembourg  
  • 9.              |  9   French. In accordance with European business protocols, use last names and appropriate titles until specifically invited by your host or colleagues to use their first names. In Luxembourg, use of first names is generally reserved for close friends and family, or until a trusting relationship has been established. It is normal to address people as Monsieur, Madame or Mademoiselle without adding the surname. Madame is a basic title of courtesy used for all adult women, married or single, over 18 years of age (except for waitresses, which are addressed as Mademoiselle, as is ‘Monsieur’ for men). Be very formal in the way you address people. The “vous” form of address is mandatory in business circles. It is up to the superior to determine whether the “tu” familiar form, is appropriate. businessculture.org     Content  Luxembourg  
  • 10.              |  10   Business  Meeting  Etiquette     Importance  of  business  meetings   Luxembourg’s business culture has a well-defined and strictly observed hierarchy, with clear responsibilities and distinctions between roles and departments. Power is held by a small number of people at the top. In formal business meetings, it is customary for the highestranking person to enter the room first. However, in more informal business situations, this is less important. Contacts are helpful to business success in Luxembourg. For foreign visitors, courteous behaviour, respect, and consideration are essential in trying to open the doors to a successful business meeting. Business  meeting  planning   As with most European countries, meeting etiquette in Luxembourg relies on professionalism, good business sense and formality. Bearing that in mind, together with a good attitude will ensure results. When setting up a meeting with your Luxembourger counterparts, there are a number of considerations to ensure the optimum outcome from your negotiations. Punctuality for meetings is taken extremely seriously. If you are going be more than 5 minutes late, telephone and offer your apologies and an explanation. Arriving late may brand you as unreliable, since this may create doubts in your ability to meet a business deadline. When scheduling your meetings, remember that appointments are necessary and should be made 1 or 2 weeks in advance, if arranged by telephone and 1 month in advance, if arranged by letter. Negotiation  process   As previously mentioned, business is hierarchical in Luxembourg and bureaucracy and administrative procedures are generally considered far more important than efficiency or flexibility. Consequently, business and negotiations are conducted slowly. Luxembourg business protocols require constant formality and reserve in negotiations; so, decisions are reached very gradually, since Luxembourgers study both the long-term and the immediate effects. Be patient and do not appear ruffled by this adherence to protocol. Decisions are made at the top of the company and in private. Therefore, having high-level contacts in a business is more effective. Be aware that the people, with whom you will be dealing with initially, are probably only intermediaries. Despite the intensely hierarchical nature of this society, working successfully with all levels of the organisation is still crucial to your success. Do not appear overly friendly and refrain from discussing your family or other personal matters during negotiations, as Luxembourgers compartmentalise their business and personal lives. Meeting  protocol   Greeting etiquette in Luxembourg relies on professionalism, formality and politeness. A good attitude in these matters will ensure your counterparts have a favourable impression of you. businessculture.org     Content  Luxembourg  
  • 11.              |  11   Greetings are reserved and formal until a relationship has been established. Upon arrival at a counterpart’s office, it is common practice to give a business card to the secretary and to your counterpart before the meeting. The most common greeting is a brief handshake at the initiation of the senior person. This is different when a woman is involved, in which case the initiative is left up to her. Men never kiss other men, they always shake hands. Addressing a person by their surname with the title Monsieur or Madame is used in most social situations. Finally the formal pronoun for you, “vous” is preferred over the informal “tu” form, as a sign of respect. How  to  run  a  business  meeting   Business organisations in Luxembourg are well structured and highly organised. Consequently, rules and administrative practices are favoured over effectiveness or flexibility, and the administration of a meeting should be taken very seriously. In Luxembourg, meeting agendas tend to be very specific and strictly adhered to. Written communications concerning a meeting may be in English, but should also be provided in formal French, German or Luxembourgish that is grammatically correct, depending on the working language of your counterparts business. All presentation materials should be bilingual, if at all possible. If the common language of all parties is English, prepare your presentation in English. Given the available time and resources, you should also prepare supporting documentation in your counterparts working language of either French or German. Luxembourgers will be impressed with your attention to detail. Follow  up  letter  after  meeting  with  a  client   Once a meeting has concluded with Luxembourger counterparts, then normal post-meeting procedures should apply. Follow-up with a letter outlining what was agreed upon, what the next steps are and who is the responsible party. Expect a great deal of written communication in the weeks following a meeting, both to back up decisions and to maintain a record of discussions and outcomes. Always prepare and distribute minutes and supplemental documentation within 24 hours of the meeting. As Luxembourgish businesspeople are very formal, socialising after meetings will not occur until firm working relationships have been established. While a degree of formality will continue to exist within the business relationship, an effort to build a shared understanding of languages and culture will improve relationships significantly. Business  meals   Business entertainment is done mostly in restaurants. Sharing a meal is intended to help establish a personal acquaintance, gain trust, and as a time to enjoy good food, wine and discussion. Enthusiasm for traditional dishes will be appreciated. In Luxembourg, the people enjoy French tastes in German quantities, so portions are very large, the food is rich and cocktails are usually served before dinner. Special dishes are consumed on national and religious holidays, as well as on Sunday afternoons. After consuming these large meals, Luxembourgers are fond of taking walks in the country, along well-marked trails. A business lunch will start at 12:30 or 1:00 pm and may last until 3:00 pm, or later if required. Dinner businessculture.org     Content  Luxembourg  
  • 12.            |  12     invitations are usually for 8:30 pm and you will be expected to stay until 11:00 pm at the earliest. Business  meeting  tips   The following are some useful tips to remember when travelling to or working in Luxembourg: • • • • • Lower your voice a little and behave graciously and you will enjoy a warm response from the people of Luxembourg. Luxembourgers value their privacy and personal space immensely. Do not ask personal questions related to occupation, salary, age, family or children, even if you have a well-established friendship. Try to demonstrate some knowledge of the history, politics and culture of Luxembourg. Recognize Luxembourg’s uniqueness and its nationality. Do not lump Luxembourgers together with the French, Belgians or Germans. Expect the pace of life to be less hurried than most of Europe Candour is appreciated in Luxembourg. businessculture.org     Content  Luxembourg  
  • 13.            |  13     Internship  and  placement     Work  experience   Placements and internships are advertised through various sources such as Jobsearch Luxembourg and the University of Luxembourg. Schemes such as the Leonardo da Vinci Programme can help by providing information on short placements and small-scale collaborative projects. If you are already in a job within a company that has a branch, office, headquarters etc. in Luxembourg, you can ask about possible temporary transfers. The Luxembourg School of Finance maintains contact with a wide range of companies for the purpose of promoting graduating students as potential permanent employees. As part of this effort, the LSF distributes a book with student CVs to companies interested in recruiting an LSF graduate. It is the student’s responsibility to find a permanent position after graduation, the LSF will not engage in a placement search on behalf of students. However, the LSF will assist students in their search by providing its contacts, by orienting the students to companies that correspond to their area of interest, by contacting individual companies where there is a specific interest on the part of the student, and by providing guidance and information. Social  security  and  European  Health  insurance  card   Health insurance is mandatory in Luxembourg, and basic cover is generally provided by the national social security system. Both employers and employees pay contributions, and most forms of public assistance (unemployment benefit, old age pensions, certain forms of sickness and maternity benefits) are paid net of withholdings for health insurance, the benefit authority effectively paying the employer contributions. Medical facilities are widely available in Luxembourg. In an emergency, dial 112 for an ambulance or in case of fire; dial 113 for the police. Hospitals in Luxembourg operate on a 24-hour rotation system. Patients may self-refer to any clinic Monday-Friday between 8am and 5pm. In Luxembourg City, three major hospitals offer comprehensive general medical and surgical treatment. Safety   Luxembourg is considered as one of the safest countries in the world according to reports. Threats in terms of crime are the petty sort, such as purse snatching and pickpocketing. Some foreigners report apartment scams. There are also incidents of domestic burglaries when no one is there, but unless you’re staying with friends, this shouldn’t trouble you. There is some drug dealing that goes on in Luxembourg, and it may occur in public parks at night. Though drug sales don’t often turn violent, there is a greater risk of crime in these areas during these activities. There is some organized crime in the country, centralized in Luxembourg City. Emergency telephone numbers: • The Medical Help/Ambulance/Fire/Vet/Doctors 112. businessculture.org     Content  Luxembourg  
  • 14.            |  14     • • Fire Brigade, City of Luxembourg: 44 22 Police: 113 Do  I  need  a  visa?   Citizens of Australia, Canada, Israel, Japan, New Zealand and the USA don’t need a visa to visit Luxembourg for a period of up to three months. There are no restrictions on EU nationals. Students that are from outside of the EU who plan to stay in Luxembourg for more than 3 months have to apply for a residence permit. The permit is temporary and intended to cover students during their studies at the university. Students from certain countries have to apply for a Schengen Visa to enter Europe. Internship  and  placement  salary   A salary is not always provided for placements. In certain Luxembourg internship positions, tax, social benefits and even a salary is included, especially in a large number of international and multinational organizations and agencies. Internship  and  placement  accommodation   The University of Luxembourg offers accommodation for both local students and Erasmus students. The Student Accommodation Service (SEVE) assigns rooms according to availability and taking into account individual students’ studies and campus location. businessculture.org     Content  Luxembourg  
  • 15.              |  15   Cost  of  Living     The cost of living in Luxembourg is slightly higher than the average in the European Union. This is mainly due to the excellent public infrastructure, the safe environment and the generally high standards of living. However, even as property prices remain high, Luxembourg is far from the most expensive place to live in Europe or the world. Indeed, in the 2012 Mercer Cost of Living Information Services Report, Luxembourg City is only rated as the 84th most expensive city in the world for expatriates to live, making it cheaper to live in Luxembourg than in most European cities. Property prices are high, but athe costs of public transport, food, drink or energy costs are relatively low compared to other European countries. The 2011 Eurostat study on consumer price levels puts Luxembourg in 6th place for European countries and in 4th place for member states of the European Union. According to this study, the prices for personal transportation (95%), tobacco and alcoholic beverages (87%) are slightly below average, while the prices for food and non-alcoholic beverages (115%), clothing (102%) and hotels and restaurants (108%) are slightly above average. Examples of prices in Luxembourg: a meal, in an inexpensive restaurant costs normally around €15, a regular cappuccino €3 and a small bottle of water €2.5. Money  and  banking   The official currency of the country is Euro. There is no trouble finding a bank to change money in Luxembourg City. ATMs are common, especially in the capital. businessculture.org     Content  Luxembourg  
  • 16.            |  16     Work-­‐life  Balance   The issues concerning the balance of family life, private life and work are gaining increased attention in political and business spheres in Europe. This has arisen from the huge demand for professional advice on business concepts and for personal coaching. A key issue for many workers in Luxembourg is flexible working time, in order to have a work-life balance. Negotiating a work/life balance can enable parents (men and women) to reconcile their work with their family life. In particular, this is important to enable women to participate in the labour market. It can also allow workers to take leave from the labour market, so that they can participate in education or training or take up an interest, hobby or leisure pursuit that they enjoy. It might mean that workers can reorganise their working lives around shorter days, weeks, months, or years. According to the Luxembourg Declaration on workplace health promotion, a good work-life balance is the product of the “combined efforts of employers, employees and society to improve the health and well-being of people at work”. In order to retain the best and the brightest of their employees, and serve the family culture of Luxembourg, employers are beginning to introduce work-life balance policies, such as annual and maternity leave, paternity leave, flexitime, career breaks, and examination and study leave. The massive advancement in technology has allowed for new methods of enhancing a worklife balance, such as the creation of virtual teams or working from home. Family is very important to the Luxembourgish people, therefore a balance between work and family is a priority for them. While many of these work-life balance policies are not legally binding, it is in the employer’s best interests to encourage and implement them; in order to retain quality employees and prevent high staff turnover, thus incurring unnecessary costs. National  holidays   Official Holidays • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1 January – New Year’s Day 15 February – Carnival (only celebrated in the city of Luxembourg) April – Easter Monday 1 May – May Day / Labour Day 13 May – Ascension Day 24 May – Whit Monday 23 June – National Day 15 August – Assumption Day 1 September – Luxembourg City Fete (only celebrated in the city of Luxembourg 1 November – All Saints Day 24 December – Christmas Eve 25 December – Christmas Day 26 December – St. Stephen’s Day businessculture.org     Content  Luxembourg  
  • 17.              |  17   Working  hours   A standard working week consists of 40 hours, which is the maximum permitted by national legislation. Employers are required to compensate employees for overtime or work completed outside of normal office hours at a premium rate. Employment on Sunday is prohibited, except in continuous-process industries (steel, glass and chemical industries) and for certain maintenance and security personnel. All workers receive a minimum of 5 weeks paid annual leave, in addition to public holidays. Health  insurance   Health insurance is mandatory in Luxembourg, and basic cover is generally provided by the national social security system. Both employers and employees pay contributions, and most forms of public assistance (unemployment benefit, old age pensions, certain forms of sickness and maternity benefits) are paid net of withholdings for health insurance, the benefit authority effectively paying the employer contributions. Medical facilities are widely available in Luxembourg. In an emergency, dial 112 for an ambulance or in case of fire; dial 113 for the police. Hospitals in Luxembourg operate on a 24-hour rotation system. Patients may self-refer to any clinic Monday-Friday between 8am and 5pm. In Luxembourg City, three major hospitals offer comprehensive general medical and surgical treatment. businessculture.org     Content  Luxembourg  
  • 18.            |  18     Social  Media  Guide     According to Internet World Stats, more than 420,000 residents of Luxembourg (about 85% of the population) had internet access in 2012. The use of social media in the country is relatively popular, with 56% of the population regularly using social media. Based on the statistics provided by Deloitte in 2011, 39% of the country’s population has a Facebook account while 12% of the population uses Zap.lu. In addition to these, there is a widespread rise in the number of blogs, with 2 new blogs being created every second. Another report (Randstad Workmonitor, 2011) looking at the use of social media from employees in Luxembourg shows that 63% of employees have a social media profile, although this is more for expressing themselves personally (63%) rather than professional use (13%). More specifically, only 7% of employees use social media to update their colleagues about things they are working on, their professional development, etc. Social media is also poorly connected to conducting business in Luxembourg. A poll made by the Luxembourg Business Compass asking about the role of social media for 66 top decision makers in some of the country’s biggest companies revealed that the impact of social media on businesses is currently limited, but is expected to rise in the future. Search  and  Social  Media  Marketing  for  International  Business   Learn how to use social media for business from one of Salford Business School’s latest business management courses. The course was jointly researched by the Passport to Trade 2.0 project team and prepared in collaboration with some of the leading digital marketing agencies in the UK. This Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) can help businesses and individuals to make the best use of search and social media platforms. The course is called Search and Social Media Marketing for International Business and is applicable to students looking for placements abroad as well as businesses thinking about new trade links; it comprises the following twelve topics: How to develop a personal brand online (1/12) • • Whether you are a student beginning a job search or a business person planning a new business venture, personal branding can make a difference. Learn about personal branding and why it is important for you. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=l9LYw0mgtn4 businessculture.org     Content  Luxembourg  
  • 19.            |  19     How to use Twitter (2/12) • • Learn the basics of using Twitter to develop an individual or business profile. Remember to use hash tag #SSMMUoS to share your learning journey on this course so far! http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=9CVY3pp91Dc&feature=playe r_embedded How to use Search Engine Optimisation (SEO) (3/12) • • Learn the principles of SEO to ensure that your website and any social media profiles are found by individuals searching for your name, products and services. These basic principles of SEO include keyword research, on-page optimisation and off-page optimisation. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=zw27cRcwtM0&feature=player _embedded How to use social media for international business development (4/12) • • Social media networks break down the traditional country barriers, but do you know which networks are relevant for the country you are interested in trading with? Find out in this video how to identify the relevant networks and what social media strategies you might be able to use on these networks. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=Bx-B56AHS4c&feature= player_embedded businessculture.org     Content  Luxembourg  
  • 20.            |  20     How to use Facebook (5/12) • • Facebook is currently the largest social media network in the world and it can benefit you as a business as well as an individual. Learn how to develop a Facebook business page and see how other businesses use it and what strategies work for them. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=UmRGn-vdcO8&feature= player_embedded How to use YouTube (6/12) • • YouTube was identified as the second largest social network amongst younger internet users as part of the Passport to Trade 2.0 project. Learn how to optimise your video content in order to reach wider audiences for your profile. http://www.youtube.com/watch? feature=player_embedded&v=G2 0OVpmTBss How to use LinkedIn (7/12) • • LinkedIn is one of the three main professional social networks – the others being Xing and Viadeo which are also popular in several European countries. Learn how to make the most of LinkedIn for your profile. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=N6e_EAUQqic&feature=playe r_embedded businessculture.org     Content  Luxembourg  
  • 21.            |  21     How to use Google+ (8/12) • • • Google+ is the second largest social network as of January 2013. It is one of the fastest growing social networks and one that has the biggest impact when it comes to search engine results integration for anyone who uses Google as their main search engine. Learn how to make the most of Google+ for you and your digital profiles. http://www.youtube.com/watch? feature=player_embedded&v=8ti 3SPHkEWw How to use copywriting online (9/12) • • Copywriting is a process of translating technical specifications and product descriptions into engaging and understandable customer focused text. Learn about the basic techniques in structuring your online content here. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=5f1hx_f2ONI&feature=player_ embedded How to stay legal on social media (10/12) • • Everything and anything you do and say online can be potentially viewed by anyone who has internet access. Always respect the law and familiarise yourself with new options offered to you through a creative commons licence which is popular online. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=eQxDpiHsdk&feature=player_embedde d businessculture.org     Content  Luxembourg  
  • 22.            |  22     How to use monitoring and reporting (11/12) • • Whether you are an individual or a business spending time on social media – there has to be a return on your engagement online. How do you justify your engagement on social media to your boss? Listen to the industry experts in this area and see what you might be able to measure in respect of your on-line engagements. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=LbEq7jsG0jg&feature=player_ embedded How to blog (12/12) • • http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=OqVjR7oI8Rs&feature=player _embedded • Blogging is a process of writing text and sharing content with others. It can help your customers or friends to keep in-touch regardless of social media platforms. Think about the voice you might want to adopt and who your audience might be. Share your thoughts with us by writing a blog post about this MOOC. Tweet us the link to your post on the #SSMMUoS Twitter hash tag.     businessculture.org       Content  Luxembourg  
  • 23.              |  23   Passport  to  Trade  2.0  Project  Partnership   Five Universities: Lead partner: Salford Business School, University of Salford, United Kingdom Elena Vasilieva Aleksej Heinze Alex Fenton URENIO research unit at Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece Christina Kakderi Nitsa Papadopoulou TSE Entre Research Centre Turku School of Economics, University of Turku, Finland Satu Aaltonen Elisa Akola Institute for Information System Research University of Koblenz-Landau, Germany Verena Hausmann Susan P. Williams Petra Schubert Valahia University of Targoviste, Romania Adriana Grigorescu Leonardo Badea Three Small & Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Spin, Italy Carmine Antonio Donato Dorella De Tommaso Technology Development & Innovation – TDI LTD Bulgaria Milanka Slavova Ivan Stoychev TIS Praha, Czech Republic Anna Klosova Richard Adekeye businessculture.org     Content  Luxembourg