Finnish business culture guide - Learn about Finland
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Finnish business culture guide - Learn about Finland

on

  • 1,006 views

http://businessculture.org - Find out about business culture in Finland. This guide is part of the Passport to Trade 2.0 project which examined European Business culture in 31 countries looking at ...

http://businessculture.org - Find out about business culture in Finland. This guide is part of the Passport to Trade 2.0 project which examined European Business culture in 31 countries looking at business communication, business etiquette, business meeting etiquette, internship and student placements, cost of living, work-life-balance and social media guide.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,006
Views on SlideShare
1,004
Embed Views
2

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
15
Comments
0

1 Embed 2

https://twitter.com 2

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Finnish business culture guide - Learn about Finland Finnish business culture guide - Learn about Finland Document Transcript

  •            |  1     businessculture.org Business Culture in Finland   http://businessculture.org/northerneurope/finland/ Last updated: 6.10.2013 businessculture.org   This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Content  Finland   publication reflects the view only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
  •            |  2     TABLE  OF  CONTENTS   Business  Culture  in  Finland  .......................................................................................................  4   Xenophobia: being a foreigner in Finland ........................................................................................... 5   International business in Finland ......................................................................................................... 5   General Education ............................................................................................................................... 5   Educational standards .......................................................................................................................... 6   Other Issues .......................................................................................................................................... 6   Cultural taboos ..................................................................................................................................... 7   Business  Communication  ..........................................................................................................  8   Face-to-face communication ................................................................................................................ 8   Language Matters................................................................................................................................. 9   Business Relationships ........................................................................................................................ 10   Making contact ................................................................................................................................... 10   Personal Titles .................................................................................................................................... 10   Business  Etiquette  ..................................................................................................................  12   Corporate Social Responsibility ......................................................................................................... 12   Punctuality .......................................................................................................................................... 13   Gift giving ........................................................................................................................................... 13   Business Dress Code ........................................................................................................................... 13   Bribery and corruption ....................................................................................................................... 14   Business  Meeting  Etiquette  ....................................................................................................  15   Importance of Business Meeting ........................................................................................................ 15   Business Meeting planning ................................................................................................................. 15   Negotiation process ............................................................................................................................ 15   Meeting protocol ................................................................................................................................ 16   How to Run a Business Meeting ........................................................................................................ 16   Follow up letter after meeting with client ........................................................................................... 17   Business meals .................................................................................................................................... 17   businessculture.org   Content  Finland  
  •            |  3     Business Meeting tips.......................................................................................................................... 18   Internship  and  placement  .......................................................................................................  19   Work experience................................................................................................................................. 19   Internship and Placement advice ....................................................................................................... 19   Social security and European health insurance ................................................................................. 20   Safety .................................................................................................................................................. 20   Do I need a visa? ................................................................................................................................ 20   Internship and placement salary ........................................................................................................ 21   Internship and placement accommodation ........................................................................................ 21   Cost  of  Living  ...........................................................................................................................  22   Money and Banking ........................................................................................................................... 22   Traveling costs .................................................................................................................................... 22   Work-­‐life  Balance   ....................................................................................................................  23   National holidays ................................................................................................................................ 23   Working hours .................................................................................................................................... 24   Health insurance ................................................................................................................................ 25   Social  Media  Guide  .................................................................................................................  26   Social Media Guide for Finland ......................................................................................................... 26   Search and Social Media Marketing for International Business ........................................................ 26   businessculture.org   Content  Finland  
  •            |  4     Business  Culture  in  Finland   Did you know about business culture in Finland? Watch this video animation to find out some interesting facts. (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CCpE5xGnFwA) Finland is a Nordic country whose neighbouring countries are Sweden, Russia and Norway, as well as Estonia on the other side of the Gulf of Finland. Forests cover three quarters of the country’s surface area. Other outstanding features of Finland’s scenery are some 190,000 lakes and approximately as many islands. There is a self-governing area known as the Åland Islands between Finland and Sweden, which is also part of Finland. Finland is a parliamentary republic and has been a member of the European Union since 1995. It was a founding member of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and adopted the Euro as its currency in 2002. There are two official languages in Finland: Finnish and Swedish. Finnish is spoken by the vast majority of Finns, 92 %. Swedish is spoken by 6 % of the population and Russian speaking people, numbering 40,000, constitute the largest foreign language minority in Finland, at 0.75 %. Finland is one of the largest countries in Europe with an area of c. 338,000 sq. kilometres and around 5.3 million inhabitants. Almost two thirds live in urban areas and one third in rural areas. Principal cities are Helsinki (population 561,000), Espoo (232,000), Tampere (204,000), Vantaa (187,000), Turku (180,000) and Oulu (129,000).The capital of Finland is Helsinki, situated on Finland’s southern coast. Approximately one million people live in the capital and surrounding area of Helsinki. Finland is a modern welfare state with highly developed services and infrastructure. As in other Nordic countries, the Finnish welfare system is extensive. Finnish municipalities take care of health, primary and secondary education, day care for children, care of the elderly, businessculture.org   Content  Finland  
  •              |  5   cultural services, libraries, fire and rescue services, environmental services, infrastructure, leisure services and industrial policy. These are mainly financed by tax income, levied by the municipalities and the State. Paper, pulp and wood, plus metal and engineering products have traditionally been the backbone of Finland’s economy. In the 1990s, these industries were overtaken in importance by electronics, with the Finnish mobile phone company Nokia taking the lead. Today, Finland’s competitiveness is mainly based on technological expertise which is utilized to create new business and promote corporate growth. There are unusually stark contrasts between the different seasons in Finland. The summer is relatively mild, yet warm and very light, while the winter is cold, dark and long. Spring and autumn also display uniquely beautiful features but these seasons are very brief. The average temperature in the summer time in the southern parts of Finland is around 18-21°C and occasionally Finns enjoy even warmer summer days. In winter, the average temperature remains below zero from December to February. Finland is in the Eastern European Time zone, that is GMT+3 and in the winter GMT+2. Xenophobia:  being  a  foreigner  in  Finland   Finland has long been a culturally homogenous country. Foreign customs and religions are unknown to many Finns. This may cause some confusion or unintended misunderstandings in multicultural dealings however, there is usually a genuine effort to be polite and respect the culture of a foreigner even though this may not seem to be the case on the surface. The number of foreigners in Finland is nevertheless growing. In 1980, there were 12,800 foreigners, with the largest numbers coming from Sweden, Germany, the United States and the Soviet Union. In 1990, there were 26,200 foreigners, with Swedes remaining the largest group and Russians on the increase. According to 2012 statistics, the number of foreigners in Finland has risen to 195,500, with Estonians being the largest group (about 20% of the total) followed by those with Russian, Swedish or Somali citizenship. International  business  in  Finland   When doing business in a foreign country you need to be prepared to experience things that are different from your own culture. Without proper preparation and planning you may experience ‘culture shock’ which may have a negative influence on the outcomes of business dealings. It is understandable that as an active business person you can only invest a limited amount of time on the exploration of cultural differences. Sometimes it is only a few hours after landing in a new country that you find yourself in a meeting room talking business. General  Education   There is a strong national emphasis on the importance of education and training in Finland. Economic competitiveness is seen to be based on education, knowledge, cooperation and competitiveness. A small country such as Finland needs to specialize and focus on of specific areas of excellence if it is to be competitive in the global marketplace. businessculture.org     Content  Finland  
  •            |  6     Also, on a personal level education has always played a significant role in enabling upward social mobility for anyone willing to seize the opportunity. All this calls for wide and comprehensive basic education and excellent higher education. Thus, the public administration system is investing a lot of money in free education throughout the whole education system. The idea of lifelong learning has also played a very important role in education policies during last decade. Education has been regarded an important factor in Finland’s economic success. The educational level of the Finns is high with literacy rates at 99 percent. Basic education in Finland consists of nine years of mandatory schooling for everyone between 7 and 16 years of age. One year of pre-school at the age of six is optional, but today 96 percent of six year olds attend pre-school. In some municipalities there is also the possibility of attending a voluntary 10th form. Upper secondary education consists of general upper secondary education and vocational upper secondary qualifications. General upper secondary education is general education that prepares students for the matriculation examination. The principal objective of vocational programmes is to gain vocational competence. In 2003, approximately 92 % of those who completed basic education continued directly on to general or vocational upper secondary school. Completion of upper secondary education is considered to be the minimum requirement for adequate performance and employability in a career. The Finnish higher education system consists of two parallel sectors: polytechnics and universities. Universities are characterized by scientific research and higher education based on it. Polytechnics (ammattikorkeakoulut) are more oriented towards working life and operate on the basis of higher practical expertise requirements set by employers. During the 1990’s, many new polytechnics were established. There are 21 universities and institutions of higher learning in Finland today. In the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) studies conducted by the OECD, Finland has traditionally been amongst the highest scoring countries. Educational  standards   When doing business in a foreign country, it is advantageous to have some knowledge about the language and computer competency of your counterparts. This may prove to be particularly useful in the preparation stage of negotiations. Knowledge of such issues may help to decide whether it is safe to rely on a host speaking your language or whether it is necessary to travel with an interpreter which may significantly increase the pace of business negotiations. Some knowledge about your business partner’s computer literacy may help you to adjust your expectations and also to adjust the level of technology you incorporate into your business activities. Not least, it may help you to save valuable time and money. Other  Issues     Workforce flexibility is increased by the use of so called non-standard forms of employment. These include fixed term and part-time contracts, as well as personnel leasing and nonstandard employment contracts are becoming more and more common in Finland. businessculture.org     Content  Finland  
  •              |  7   In Finland, there must always be a justifiable reason for assigning someone a fixed term contract or indeed multiple fixed term contracts in a row. In spite of this, today, a little over half of new employment contracts agreed are still for a fixed term. Every sixth (16 %) employee works in a part time job and this figure has been slowly but steadily increasing during the decade. Personnel leasing services are also increasingly common in Finland. These agencies charge companies for using their service and pay all related expenses. Employees provided by personnel leasing agencies are often students or unemployed people looking for work and there is no cost to them for this service. Finns are known to be modest but take pride in their history and culture, including technological and athletic achievements and also their part in World War II. You should remember that Finnish people value trust and honesty. In fact, if trust is betrayed, you will have a hard time regaining it. It is worth repeating that you should be punctual so as not to get a reputation for being unreliable. Cultural  taboos   Finnish society is quite tolerant and there are hardly any subjects that could be called taboos. However, it is best not to discuss religion or politics with a stranger as these are topics that many people have strong feelings about. There are also some eras in Finnish history that are best avoided. Finland – as a small country – has been forced to make some concessions in its foreign policy during its history, for which it might be criticized. Examples might be their alliance with the Germans at the end of World War II or the so called era of ‘Finlandisation’ during the cold war. There is also a love-hate relationship between the Finns and the Swedes and between the Finns and the Russians. So, it is advisable not to praise the Swedes or the Russians too much to your Finish counterparts. Finns cherish their reputation for living in an egalitarian country. Hence, any discriminatory or racist jokes should not be told. Finland has recently had a female president for two terms (12 years altogether) and there are also several other women who hold high office in Finland. Any displays of appreciation for Finnish progressiveness therefore are appreciated. You should not discuss topics of a too personal nature, such as salaries, health issues or love life, particularly at the beginning of a relationship. Finns are usually reserved to start with and you should respect their need for privacy. businessculture.org     Content  Finland  
  •              |  8   Business  Communication   In the current era of intensive globalisation, the marketplace is growing at a fast pace. This means expanding business borders and sometimes customising business practices. The subsections that follow give an overview of Finland’s business practice to give a comprehensive picture of doing business in Finland. Regardless of the situation and place, communicating without creating barriers can only be an advantage and bring benefits. Face-­‐to-­‐face  communication   When greeting, Finns shake hands briefly and firmly with a nod of the head. Only on the most formal occasions is a full bow or obeisance needed. No supporting gestures like touching on the shoulder are involved. It is important to make eye-contact and smile when shaking hands and is common practice to give your first and surname. Men, women and children are greeted equally. The hands are shaken again on departure. Embracing or kissing when greeting is rare and is usually reserved for family members and close friends. The Finns value their bodily integrity and are not very fond of being touched by strangers. There is also some regional variation in attitudes towards public gestures of intimacy. Most Finns feel that giving kisses when greeting is going a bit far. Men never kiss each other. Finns are reserved. They also rarely enter into conversation with strangers. As foreigners often note, Finns are curiously silent in the metro, the bus or the tram. However, a visitor clutching a map will have no trouble in getting advice on a street corner or in any other public place, since the hospitality of Finns easily overrides their customary reserve. Many Finns are quite modest and spare in their gestures, which can easily be misinterpreted as a lack of interest. Finns tend to be very low-key, which can often lead to the underestimation of the Finnish business partner. In order to imitate their behaviour, subdue yourself a bit, especially if you are animated by nature. The key to being accepted and respected in Finland is to blend in rather than be conspicuous. Do not raise your voice when you talk to Finns. Speaking in a loud voice is considered rude, as most Finns themselves are quiet. In conversation it is polite to wait for the other person to finish what they are saying before presenting your own viewpoint and this tends to slow down the rhythm of the conversation somewhat. Listening is very important to Finnish people. Finns do not require face-to-face contact and, in fact, are quite comfortable using e- mail. This can help to save a lot of time in everyday transactions. Finns are regarded as being excellent time managers who prefer to organize their workdays in order to accomplish as much as possible. businessculture.org     Content  Finland  
  •            |  9     Words are taken very seriously in Finnish culture. What someone says is accepted at face value and this is a culture where “a man’s word is his bond” and will be treated as seriously as a written contract, so verbal commitments are considered agreements. Finnish business people can appear somewhat formal at first, and are likely to show their more informal side only gradually. Once you get to know your Finnish counterpart however, you may have a friend for life. In meetings, Finns are likely to get down to business right away and are generally conservative and efficient in their approach. An invitation to take a sauna with Finns indicates the will to move to the next level of familiarity with you. In Finland, both men and women bathe in the sauna, but never together. Language  Matters   Finnish is generally considered to be a difficult language to learn for foreigners. This may originate from the fact that it modifies the forms of its nouns, adjectives, pronouns, numerals and verbs depending on their roles in the sentence. Finnish is a very egalitarian language, for it has only gender-neutral words. Because of this Finns may sometimes have difficulties with the genders of the nouns in other languages. Finnish and Swedish are the official languages in Finland and childrenou have to learn both of them at school. In most cases the “second native language” is Swedish (94%) and is spoken by 5.5 percent of the population. The Swedish-speaking people live mainly at the coast and in metropolitan areas. English however, is unofficially the second language of Finland with more people speaking English than Swedish as a second language. For the most part, Finns speak fluent English and this is especially true in the business world. In fact, in some Finnish companies English is spoken as the first language. Being skilled in a foreign language other than English is also becoming more common among Finns as many study languages such as German, Spanish, Russian and French. Here are some useful phrases, which may either help you to ‘break the ice’ in informal conversations. • • • • • • • • • • Hello: Hei, Moi, Terve, Hyvää päivää, Päivää Goodbye: Näkemiin Yes: Kyllä No: Ei Thank you: Kiitos What’s your name? – Mikä sinun nimesi on? My name is John. – Minun nimeni on John. Where are you from? – Mistä olet kotoisin? I’m from London. – Olen Lontoosta. I don’t speak Finnish. – En puhu suomea. Finns often use first names in business. However, you should always wait until your host / hostess suggests it. It is easy to get onto first-name terms with a Finn, especially if it is evident that the parties will continue to meet regularly. However, it is felt appropriate that the use of first names is specifically and mutually agreed upon. For a Finn, an explicit shift to a first-name basis is permanent. businessculture.org     Content  Finland  
  •              |  10   Business  Relationships   Finns are not regarded as being very talkative or chatty and telephone conversations with foreigners may feel uneasy for some. Even if Finns are quite good at speaking English, many of those who use the language less frequently are a bit shy to ‘open their mouth’ at first. This applies mostly to the older generations since the younger ones are used to international communication and thus are more confident with it. Silence in conversations is considered an accepted aspect of social interaction and pauses are common. The spoken word carries a lot of weight in Finland and verbal agreements are considered to be binding. This is something you should always remember and avoid making engagements lightly. A handshake after an agreement is like a seal and you shouldn’t break it. However, written agreements are always signed too to confirm what has been agreed and to serve as legal documents in the case of a disagreement. Business meetings are often set up by e-mail, even by SMS-messages. Be on time and wear business clothes. Meetings tend to be brief and to the point. Coffee, tea, soft drinks and biscuits are usually served. Making  contact   Handshaking is an appropriate form of greeting for men, women and children. Finns shake hands on arrival and departure at business or social meetings. Hands are rarely shaken when everyone knows each other well and meet frequently (e.g. colleagues or family). Handshakes should be firm and short. It is vital to make eye contact when shaking hands. Business cards are exchanged without any formal rituals. Present your business card so it is readable to the recipient. Remember also to treat someone else’s business card with respect as it symbolizes the way you will treat them. It is easy to start doing business with Finns, because they tend to be transactional and do not need long-standing personal relationships in order to conduct business. Yet, ultimately they do value long-term business relationships. Therefore, personal relationships need to be built in order to create enduring relationships. Finns appreciate frankness in communication. Relationship building often takes place outside the office: in a restaurant or at the sauna. Never turn down an invitation to use the sauna, as it is an entrenched part of Finnish culture and a sign of trust on the part of your host. Be daring and try the sauna even if you have never done it before. The basic idea in going to a sauna is just to enjoy yourself and relax. Sauna is very important to Finns; it’s a place to relax and to forget about work and talk about something else. Personal  Titles   Even if Finns are quite proud of any honorary, academic or professional titles they may have, they rarely mention these when introducing themselves. Nevertheless, they expect to be addressed by their title in professional contexts by those they assume are aware of it. The businessculture.org     Content  Finland  
  •              |  11   Finns are not offended if a foreigner does not use their title and adopts the English practice of Mr/Mrs/Miss/Sir/Madam, or any equivalent. When introducing themselves, Finns will give their first name followed by their surname. Women who use both their maiden name and their husband’s name will state them in this order. businessculture.org     Content  Finland  
  •              |  12   Business  Etiquette     Attitudes and values form the basis of any culture reflecting the ways people think and behave. Knowledge of these can therefore be of significant importance in communicating effectively with your counterparts. Ignorance of these issues can result in a cultural barrier that may inhibit the communication process, and have a negative effect on the success of your activities. Finns are considered modest, honest and reliable. They place great value on words and mean what they say. “Take a bull by its horns and a man by his word” is an old Finnish saying. A Finn’s ‘yes’ is a ‘yes’ and a ‘no’ is never a ‘perhaps’. Finnish frankness may seem a bit daunting but their way of communicating is upfront and uncomplicated, which is rather refreshing. In business meetings Finns take punctuality very seriously and expect you to do likewise; call to explain if you will be more than five minutes late. The main values of Finns are as follows: modesty, working at a measured pace, honesty, reliability, a respect for traditions and customs, strength, silence, democracy, independence, resourcefulness, bravery, diligence, sensitivity and cleanliness. Corporate  Social  Responsibility   Finns have a great love for their beautiful natural environment. The transition from an agricultural economy has been very fast and quite late compared to many other western societies. Therefore, many people who live in towns today come originally from the country side and still visit their old hometowns regularly where they have a holiday home. There are some 450,000 holiday homes dotted around Finland, typically beside lakes or the sea, or on islands. The Finns’ deep sense of connectedness to nature is also partly intertwined with their need for solitude. For many Finns the forest or sea is a place for peace and solace. The State has traditionally taken responsibility for addressing social and environmental issues. And Finland has shown leadership in this, with a particularly good record in recycling waste paper, cardboard and drinks containers. An efficient system encouraging the re-use of bottles through returnable deposits has been operating in Finland for decades, with recovery rates in recent years of 97-98 %. However, this kind of mentality towards social issues, where responsibility for social and environmental issues has rested on the State’s shoulders, has been replaced by a new mentality, where Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is all about understanding sustainability comprehensively. When it comes to Finnish companies, they have in many ways been relatively progressive when it comes to CSR and use it as a competitive advantage. Many have gone beyond the requirements of legislation and have increased their focus on stakeholder views. Currently, the areas that are being prioritized in the Finnish CSR dialogue are environmental and climate change, cultural adaptation, competitiveness, ethical consumption and employment practices. When compared to other European countries, Finland’s record on CSR businessculture.org     Content  Finland  
  •              |  13   issues is promising, with high scores in codes of conduct, sustainability reporting, adopting management standards, explicit value statements and so on. A major driving force for fostering CSR issues in Finland is legislation, as businesses derive the framework for their operations from the legal framework the government provides. The government’s legal framework for CSR activities encompasses things such as standards for environmental protection, social security, employment and accounting. International initiatives such as the ILO principles, OECD guidelines and the UN Global Compact are also supported and furthered by the government. However, the government stresses the voluntary nature of CSR activities. The main challenge for CSR in Finland is to ensure Finnish industries’ competitiveness in an environment where much of production is relocated to low-cost countries, and to ensure steady employment and job security for the young generation whilst managing demographic change as Finland becomes more ethnically diverse. Environmental issues also present some challenges as cutting green house gases is high on Finland’s priority list, but the cold climate and long travelling distances do not create the most favorable environment for doing this. Punctuality   Finns endeavor to make productive use of their time. They follow timetables and other plans faithfully and expect the same of others. Being late is considered very rude. This pertains both to business and social occasions. If you are running more than five minutes late for a meeting or a dinner, you should call ahead and apologize. Meetings are expected to start and end at the agreed. Finns are also well prepared for meetings so much of the work is done in advance. Although Finns are careful with the groundwork, they still often make decisions quickly. They are known for not asking many questions and so you should be prepared to give such an extensive presentation that there will be no need for complementary questions. This also makes time management easier. Gift  giving   When invited to a private home, it’s polite to bring a small gift with you. Some safe options for gifts are chocolates, wine and flowers but avoid giving white and yellow flowers as they are common at funerals and as potted plants. In business meetings it is uncommon to exchange gifts. However after successful negotiations it is acceptable to give small gifts, such as glass, books, local gifts or liquor. When giving gifts you should be careful to make sure that these are not too valuable so that they cannot be interpreted as bribes. Business  Dress  Code   Business attire is stylish and conservative in Finland. Men should wear business suits and women should choose skirt suits, trouser suits, or dresses. For dinner, dress formally if no other dress code is given. businessculture.org     Content  Finland  
  •              |  14   There are distinctive seasonal variations in the climate of Finland. The winters are cold (-30 degrees Celsius at times) and the summers relatively warm (up to +30 degrees Celsius). The temperatures also vary considerably between the north and south. For example a 20-30 degree variation in the temperature between southern and northern Finland at the same point in time is not unusual. In the northernmost parts of the country, the sun does not set at all for a couple of months in summer (midnight sun/white nights) and in winter it does not rise for a couple of months (polar night). Rainfall is present throughout the year with snow in winter, but the low humidity often has the effect of making it seem warmer than the temperature would indicate. It is advisable to take some waterproof clothing with you throughout the year. In order to keep your feet dry, you should take additional outdoor footwear with you. It is quite common for women to change their outdoor shoes to something more elegant once inside. Bribery  and  corruption   The Nordic countries are advanced, affluent societies – some would call them enlightened – with a system of education and welfare, and an underlying ethic of honest toil that together mitigate against corruption. In the global Corruption Perception Index released annually by Transparency International, Finland has been ranked either first (5 times) or second (4 times) since 1997. In smallish, well ordered countries, such as Finland, corruption among officials and politicians is less likely to flourish than in poor or transitional nations. Where gifts are exchanged as mentioned above, they should not be of too high of value in order to avoid them being interpreted as a bribe. Both giving and accepting a bribe is considered a criminal act under the Criminal Code. Money, jewelry, household and other equipment, special or low interest loans, trips etc. can be defined as bribes. Honorary titles and recommendations can also be considered as bribes. The sanctions range from fines to imprisonment for up to four years, depending on the seriousness of the crime. Only a few persons are convicted of bribery each year in Finland. businessculture.org     Content  Finland  
  •              |  15   Business  Meeting  Etiquette     Importance  of  Business  Meeting   You should always make a formal appointment if you wish to meet your Finnish counterparts. It is recommended to make the appointment at least a fortnight ahead. When setting up a meeting with the managers of the company, the best way is probably to arrange it with his / her secretary or PA. Punctuality and factual debate are appreciated by the Finns. The form and style of meetings varies between companies and is dependent on their corporate culture. Finns are mostly modest, low-key and factual – and expect others to be the same. Meetings tend to be brief and to the point. Everyone is expected to enter the meeting well prepared. Finns are very straightforward in their speech and actions and mean what they say. Sometimes Finnish frankness may seem a bit tactless! It is important to keep to the promises made at the meetings and follow up actions and tasks should be accomplished to deadline. This will maintain and increase your credibility in a culture where trust is an essential condition for any business relationship. Business  Meeting  planning   Business meetings are often set up by e-mail or SMS-message. For more formal meetings, a notice of meeting is usually delivered by mail two weeks in advance. In the invitation the time and place of the meeting as well as the agenda and participants should be stated. When setting up a meeting, you should also ensure that all the technical equipment and refreshments needed are available at the meeting place. Coffee, tea, soft drinks and biscuits are usually served. Summer time between mid-June and mid-August should be avoided due to the holidays. Also other holiday times need to be taken into account (for more detailed information see the Holidays section). In some organizations Friday afternoon may also be an unsuitable time for a meeting because people often wish to hurry home to their family right after 4 o’clock. Negotiation  process   As Finns are very punctual, they appreciate this quality in others. It is considered as a sign of respect and efficiency. Business negotiations in Finland are often held in offices and business meetings or negotiations in restaurants are very rare. Between or at the end of a meeting it is usual to go for lunch. Finns do not usually make small talk when negotiating, but tend to get straight to the point. The style of discussion is often factual and intelligent debate is respected. Finns also value a critical attitude and do not hesitate to express their dissenting opinions. This is considered less rude than honest. Criticism is regarded as to do with one’s work and not as a personal attack. It is possible to have fun together immediately afterwards. businessculture.org     Content  Finland  
  •              |  16   Finnish business culture is relatively egalitarian. Great efforts have been made to promote equality between men and women as well as between managers and their subordinates. You may find out in negotiation situations that even junior managers often have considerable independent decision-making authority. This informality facilitates the exchange of ideas and therefore provides plenty of opportunity for new innovations. Meeting  protocol   When greeting, the parties shake hands, nod their heads and make eye contact. Business cards are usually exchanged when meeting for the first time. There is no special etiquette as to how the business cards should be exchanged. A Finnish handshake is brief and firm, and involves no supporting gestures such as touching the shoulder or upper arm. When greeting a married couple, the wife should be greeted first, except on a formal occasion where the hosts should first be greeted by the spouse to whom the invitation was addressed. Children are also greeted by shaking hands. Embracing people when greeting them is rare in Finland. Hand-kissing is very rare, although some women find it charming. Friends and acquaintances may hug when meeting, and kisses on the cheek are not entirely unknown, although this habit is not often seen in rural areas. There is no special etiquette regarding the number of kisses on the cheek – however, most Finns feel that three kisses is going a bit far. Men never kiss each other in greeting. Altogether, Finnish people are quite reserved and thus any expression of feelings should be kept to the minimum not to cause any embarrassment. A smile is always appreciated, though. How  to  Run  a  Business  Meeting   The agendas for the meeting should be circulated in advance. At the beginning of meetings small talk is brief or sometimes non-existent. Being good humoured is acceptable but being humorous should be kept to a minimum. Modesty and sticking to facts are the watchwords. The chair of the meeting should take care that the meeting is kept to time and to the agenda. Finns are modest about their achievements, and you should be the same. Do not expect immediate feedback or a lot of questions. The silence indicates they are thinking about what you have said. Silence in conversations is considered an accepted aspect of social interaction. You should not talk when someone else is talking since interrupting is regarded as rude. You should be able to make your presentation so comprehensive that no questions are needed to clarify what you have said. Set clear goals, both in meetings and work strategy, and encourage your Finnish counterparts to work independently. The Finns display a great deal of initiative, discipline, stamina and accountability, and expect the same of their business associates. Body language is subtle and negotiating positions often vague and understated. Once the Finns have made a decision, however, they will seldom change it. Virtually all Finnish business people have a good knowledge of English and interpreters are rarely required. businessculture.org     Content  Finland  
  •              |  17   Follow  up  letter  after  meeting  with  client   The minutes of the meeting will be circulated afterwards. All important tasks and completion dates should be stated there and often the individuals responsible for those tasks will be set out in the minutes. The participants are expected to work independently and report their accomplishments to the persons in charge. It is important to keep to one’s commitments and to the timescales agreed upon. In cases when this is not possible, all parties involved should be informed about any problems or delays. Business  meals   In Finland, breakfast is not a place to conduct business so you will not encounter breakfast meetings. Usually, the most common mealtime to be shared with your business partners is lunch. In Finland, it is appropriate to discuss business during lunch unlike in some cultures where meal times are reserved for non-business related topics. Hardly any alcohol is consumed at lunch time and the busy pace of working life has shortened business lunches to 1-2 hours. Lunch time at restaurants is usually between 11 AM and 2 PM. As the standard of living has risen during recent decades, eating out has become more popular. However, Finns still eat most of their dinners at home with their families. At lunch time, canteen meals in educational institutions and offices are the most usual. Dinner is served between 6 PM and 8 PM as a rule. If invited to dinner it is important to be on time regardless of whether you are invited to restaurant or your business partner’s home. If you are meeting in a private home you should bring flowers, chocolate or a bottle of wine. The dining etiquette is very much the same in Finland as in most of other European countries. Table manners are Continental. The best rule for most situations is to use common sense, general dining manners and simply following the host’s / hostess’s lead. The same guidelines apply to dining at a restaurant or in someone’s home. When in a restaurant, service charges are included in your bill and it is not usual or necessary to leave a tip. However, it is not unheard of to leave a tip in the more expensive restaurants. Bills in restaurants are seldom split. If you make the invitation, you should also pay. A foreign businesswoman may invite a Finnish man to dinner and pay without any difficulty. Smoking in public buildings and workplaces is prohibited and in restaurants there are separate areas for smokers and non-smokers. The Finns appreciate fine cuisine, but consume it in moderation. Gastronomic delights and healthy habits go hand in hand. Finnish cuisine is a mixture of European, Scandinavian and Russian dishes. Ingredients from nature – berries, fish, mushrooms and game – are widely used and dishes are rarely unfamiliar to western visitors. The Finnish diet has become lighter and healthier in recent times and upmarket restaurants can today cater for a wide variety of dietary requirements. Coffee drinking is an essential part of Finnish culture. More coffee is drunk per person in Finland than anywhere else in the world. The coffee that most Finns drink is light-roasted and more bitter than coffee drunk in continental Europe. businessculture.org     Content  Finland  
  •            |  18     When it comes to alcohol, Finnish drinking habits mainly follow Scandinavian and European practices. Alcohol consumption varies by social group – also somewhat by generation or region. In some groups consumption is influenced more by a Mediterranean lifestyle, in some more by Slavic lifestyle. Business  Meeting  tips   It is recommended that you dress smartly for business meetings, particularly on the first occasions. After that, you can adjust your dress code to that of your Finnish counterparts. In the case of more official meetings, the invitation will indicate if the occasion demands a black tie. The dress code is usually stated on invitations for business dinners. Do not be surprised if the conversation is formal during the first minutes of a meeting with no small talk. Finns may seem a bit distant to start with, but usually the atmosphere will thaw out later on -once you get to know a Finn, a bond of friendship and trust is likely to emerge. Finns are quite cautious and wish to keep up appearances and protect their privacy. You should not show any strong emotions in public or behave in too gregarious a way. Never ask personal questions, such as those related to someone’s religion, job or political party.   businessculture.org     Content  Finland  
  •            |  19     Internship  and  placement     Work  experience   In Finnish universities, the inclusion of practical training into curricular studies in most subjects is voluntary. However, when studying medicine, practical training forms part of the education. In polytechnics, all degree studies include periods of practical training. If you are undertaking vocational training, a period of work based learning is compulsory. Of a total qualification of 120 credits, at least 20 credits must come from work based learning. In Finland, the under 25s who are unemployed and who have no vocational degree can familiarize themselves with the world of work through practical training. If you are studying or have recently graduated, you might want to consider doing an internship in another country. In most cases, you will eligible for doing an internship in Finland if you can communicate fluently in English, you have completed at least the first year of your studies and your placement has something to do with the field that you are studying. Often, companies would like interns to have previous work experience, but the lack of it isn’t always an obstacle. Usually, training placements in Finland are taken care of by EU programmes such as Erasmus (higher education) and Comenius (future school teachers), IAESTE (The International Association for the Exchange of Students for Technical Experience) and various student organizations. It is also possible to take care of the whole process independently. However, it is advised that a student makes contact with a student organization of his/her own field when looking at different placement options. Since all degree students who study in European universities that participate in the Erasmus programme are eligible for Erasmus traineeships to another country, it is no wonder that this is the most common way to study in Europe. An Erasmus traineeship can be hosted by research centres, universities, companies and other organizations. The good thing about Erasmus is that these traineeships will always be included as part of your studies. It is the student’s own responsibility to find a suitable placement and to apply for an Erasmus grant that will cover at least some of their expenses. Internship  and  Placement  advice   There are many practical issues related to international placements that need to be taken care of either by the trainee or the host company. It is important to set aside enough time for all the arrangements and the necessary formalities. Training organisations, educational institutes and home and host organisations will be able to help with the formalities.   businessculture.org     Content  Finland  
  •              |  20   Social  security  and  European  health  insurance   There are some insurances that you are advised to take out when staying in Finland. It is a good idea to find out before your arrival if you will need insurance. If you are coming from an EU/EEA country, you might not be obligated to get accident and health insurance but being insured is still highly recommended. For a foreign student, health, accident, travel and liability insurance are recommended. Non – EU/EEA Students If your studies last longer than three months and you need a residence permit, you will also need to be covered by health insurance. It makes no difference whether you are an exchange student or a degree student. However, if you are from Quebec, Canada, you do not need to worry about this. If you are a non-EU/EEA student staying in Finland for less than two years you are obligated to be covered by private health insurance that covers medical treatment costs of least 100 000 Euros. If you are staying in Finland for study purposes for longer than two years, you will only need insurance that covers medicines for up to 30 000 Euros since you will be entitled to receive local health care. EU/EEA or Switzerland Students If you come from an EU/EEA country or Switzerland, you are entitled to medical treatment in Finland. You only have to present your European Health Insurance Card (EHIC) and you will be entitled to receive medical treatment just as someone local would. Remember however, that your European Health Insurance Card will only cover urgent and/or necessary treatment. If you want to make sure you receive treatment on the same terms as locals, use public health care services. If you use private health care services, be prepared to pay the costs of your treatment yourself. Safety   Do not be afraid to contact the police and other authorities in Finland, since Finland is one of the least corrupt countries in the world. Do  I  need  a  visa?   If you need a visa, you will need to have found an internship and signed a contract with the company before you apply for a it. EU citizens and citizens of Switzerland, Norway, Liechtenstein and Iceland do not need a visa in Finland. Non – EU/EEA Citizens If you intend to stay in Finland for longer than 90 days, you will need to get a residence permit. To qualify for a residence permit the purpose of your visit must be for study, employment, family ties or humanitarian or other exceptional reasons. In most cases, your residence permit application has to be filed in your country of origin but in some cases, such as having family ties in Finland, filing the application is also possible businessculture.org     Content  Finland  
  •              |  21   with the Finnish police. You can submit your application at https://e-asiointi.migri.fi/ but you will still need to visit your local Finnish embassy or consulate to verify your application. When applying for a student residence permit you will need to be able to show that you have at least 6000e per year at your disposal. Please understand that this is not a fee but it is more of a help to you in showing that you are in a financial position to maintain yourself during your stay in Finland. EU/EEA or Switzerland Citizens If you are coming to Finland from another Nordic country, you have no problems. If coming from the EU or Switzerland and Liechtenstein, you will not need to get a residence permit as these countries have comparable status with EU countries, but you will need to register your stay within three months from your arrival to Finland. You can register your stay at the district police department. Internship  and  placement  salary   There is no general rule that internships in Finland are remunerated, although it is quite common that a modest salary, enough to cover the student’s living costs, is paid. If the traineeship is part of a placement programme, then the students are often paid a wage or living allowance that not only covers their expenses but also leaves a little left over for exploring the new culture. Internship  and  placement  accommodation   The good news is that often placement organizers help students to find accommodation. Alternatively, the host organization might be responsible for arranging housing for students. You can also look at flats on the open market, but student housing will almost always prove to be the least expensive option. It is important to make sure that when looking for housing you first contact your host university or organization in Finland or the local student housing foundation to find out what they have to offer and how they can help. If you are happy living in a single room in a shared student flat, you should get by with paying about 160-340e a month businessculture.org     Content  Finland  
  •            |  22     Cost  of  Living     A student should get by in Finland with a minimum budget of 700-900 Euros per month. However, this is only a ball park figure and will depend on the location and your spending habits. One should remember that living in the metropolitan Helsinki area is considerably more expensive than in smaller cities. Here are some examples of Finnish prices: • • • • • Typical rent (student dormitories & student residence halls) per month for students is 250-500e Enjoying coffee at a café costs around 3 e Enjoying a beer at a bar costs around 5-6 e Going to the movies is around 10 e Combo meal at McDonald’s 7-8 e Money  and  Banking   Finland belongs to the European Monetary Union and uses the Euro at its currency. It is advisable when coming to Finland that you have some cash to hand although almost all international credit cards are accepted in. If you are staying in Finland for more than just a holiday, it is a good idea to open a bank account. You will need to go to a bank with a valid passport and can then open an account on the spot. Finland is one of the forerunners in paying with plastic, so you shouldn’t be too worried about this. However, it is always recommended that you carry some cash and you will be able to withdraw Euros from ATM machines with foreign credit cards. The typical opening hours for Finnish banks are from 10 am to 4:30 pm on weekdays. They do not open at the weekend. Traveling  costs   In most cases, when taking a placement in Finland you will need to cover your travel expenses yourself. As a student however, you will be entitled to student discounts when travelling inside Finland by train and bus. The student discount by both VR (the state-owned railway company) and Matkahuolto (the bus company) is -50%. Finland’s transport infrastructure is extensive, and you will get around using public transportation quite easily. However, it is good to remember that geographically speaking Finland is quite a large country and sometimes it is more convenient to use domestic flights to get from one place to another rather than to travel by train for example from the southern parts of Finland to Lapland. businessculture.org     Content  Finland  
  •            |  23     Work-­‐life  Balance     Finland is known for having a high participation rate of both men and women in working life. Altogether, 78 percent of men and 73 percent of women work. While this is almost the same as the EU-15 average for men, it is substantially higher than the EU-15 average of 57 percent for women. Weekly working hours do not differ much from the EU average. However, working overtime is more common in Finland than in the EU whilst part-time working is less common. Finland’s options for family leave are numerous. Every child under school age is entitled to municipal day care, which is organized in day care centres, in family day care and in playgroups. The family’s income level influences day care fees. There are also various private day care services available. Gender equality is strongly emphasized in Finnish working life and is underpinned by legislation. There are about 1.4 million families in Finland. Approximately half of these are families with children and 13 percent of them are single parent families. During the last 30 years, the number of childless families has almost doubled and now makes up 44 percent of all families. The number of divorces has also increased during last 20 years. However, family life is highly valued in Finland, although the concept of family is becoming increasingly elastic. National holidays are often spent and celebrated within the family. Legislators and employers in Finland have come up with structures which make combining working-life with domestic life less complex. It is possible to stay at home and take care of your child until they are three years of age without fear of losing your job. Once your child has entered school, you can adjust your working hours to facilitate child care. National  holidays   For each month of full-time working Finns earn at least two days of annual leave. The most common time for summer holidays starts at the end of June when Finns celebrate the Midsummer holidays. You shouldn’t plan any business meetings to take place in the holiday period lasting from mid-June till mid-August. It is common for Finns to also take a week of holidays in the wintertime, either around Christmas or in early spring when children have their winter holidays. There are several official holidays in Finland. Some of them are Christian, some not. Annual official holidays in Finland are the following and all Sundays. businessculture.org     Content  Finland  
  •            |  24     Holidays Date New Year January 1 Epiphany January 6 Good Friday March / April Easter Sunday March / April Easter Monday March / April Labour Day / May Day May 1 Ascension Day May Pentecost May / June Midsummer Eve June Midsummer Day June All Saints’ Day November Independence Day December 6 Christmas Eve December 24 Christmas Day December 25 Boxing Day December 26 Working  hours   Finnish weekly working hours are the same as the European Union average. Yet, there is more overtime and less part time work (although this has been increasing recently) Working hours vary among highly educated employees. Around 10% work a short week (less than 34 hours), and about 50% work a normal working week (35-40 hours). However, about one third of this category works 41 to 49 hours per week; and one sixth works over 50 hours per week. From Monday to Friday office hours are usually between 8 am and 5 pm. Lunch is eaten between 11 am and 2 pm and lasts between 1 and 2 hours. At lunch, what might strike you is that the business talk seems to go on. Finns love to do business and during business hours there is no time for small talk. Dinner in restaurants usually starts around 7 or 8 pm. businessculture.org     Content  Finland  
  •              |  25   Health  insurance   Finnish health care seeks to ensure health and medical care services for all members of the public regardless of place of residence or economic situation. The services are based on public-sector services financed from tax revenues. Government owned Social Insurance Institution (Kela) supports the use of private services, too. There is also a certain amount of private medical care insurance. The national health insurance for EU/EEA citizens gives access to medical care at the Municipal Health Care Centres in Finland. For this you will need a European Health Insurance Card but does not mean that the health care would be free of charge. If you want all expenses covered in the case of accident or illness, it is advisable to take out a personal insurance policy. Non-EU/EEA citizens should check whether there is a social security agreement between Finland and their home country. In the event that there is one, they should also check what it covers. Even in the case that there is a social security agreement between the countries, it is advisable to have your own personal insurance, which covers all expenses including hospital treatment. In the case of illness you should make an appointment to visit your local health centre. Public healthcare is available to all residents in Finland, regardless of their financial situation and includes primary healthcare, provided by municipal health centres, and specialized hospital care. In an emergency, you should call 112 or visit your local hospital. In the case of a medical emergency, you will be admitted directly into a Finnish hospital. If the situation is not an emergency you should first contact a health care centre. In a dental emergency, go to the dental clinic in a health care centre and make an appointment. businessculture.org     Content  Finland  
  •              |  26   Social  Media  Guide     Social  Media  Guide  for  Finland   According to an SME survey, conducted by a Finnish consultancy company, in 2010 over 90 percent of Finnish companies were using social media for business purposes. The most commonly used social networks are LinkedIn, Facebook, different Wikis, video conferencing and discussion forums. The role of social media in SMEs depends on the field of business they are operating in. The usage is less strategic in so called traditional fields of business and in SMEs that are selling their products/services mainly to other businesses. However, for new start-up businesses for example, a social media strategy has become an essential part of the business planning process. Facebook, YouTube and Twitter are used mostly for private purposes among students. LinkedIn on the other hand, is more likely to be a professional tool. It is not as commonly used among students as by SMEs and there is a huge difference between student involvement on LinkedIn depending on the level and field of education. For Finnish SMEs, LinkedIn serves mostly b-2-b networking as well as the personal career development of professionals employed in SMEs. Facebook is used mostly in b-2-c relations. Companies are now building their images and strengthening their customer loyalty through Facebook. According to statistics, there are more than two million Facebook users in Finland that is over 40 percent of the whole population. Since smartphones enable the use of social media regardless of time and space, Facebook has become a very popular channel for keeping in touch with friends. YouTube is also widely used, more often to watch videos than to share your own however and young people in particular like to share the links of funny videos with their friends. Although social media platforms such LinkedIn and Twitter are increasing in popularity among Finns, Facebook is still the primary way for them to follow and to communicate with each other and also with companies. In March 2012, it was estimated that Finland had 0.4 million LinkedIn-users and 0.3 million Twitter-users. However the number of tweeters in Finland is increasing all the time and SMEs are also starting to utilize this particular platform. The benefits of using social media do not yet seem to be obvious to companies and SMEs appear to be most satisfied with the effects that using social media applications have had on their employee collaboration and the speed of the transfer of information. Schools and universities are increasingly offering online learning platforms where students can interact with other students and teachers as well as work on common assignments in addition to uploading their individual assignments and downloading learning materials. Moodle is the most common learning platform in Finnish schools and higher education institutions. The university sector often uses the social network service Yammer as a facilitator of student and faculty members’ interaction, but Yammer’s success until now has not been anything to write home about. Search  and  Social  Media  Marketing  for  International  Business   businessculture.org     Content  Finland  
  •            |  27     Learn how to use social media for business from one of Salford Business School’s latest business management courses. The course was jointly researched by the Passport to Trade 2.0 project team and prepared in collaboration with some of the leading digital marketing agencies in the UK. This Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) can help businesses and individuals to make the best use of search and social media platforms. The course is called Search and Social Media Marketing for International Business and is applicable to students looking for placements abroad as well as businesses thinking about new trade links; it comprises the following twelve topics: How to develop a personal brand online (1/12) • • Whether you are a student beginning a job search or a business person planning a new business venture, personal branding can make a difference. Learn about personal branding and why it is important for you. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=l9LYw0mgtn4&feature=player _embedded How to use Twitter (2/12) • • Learn the basics of using Twitter to develop an individual or business profile. Remember to use hash tag #SSMMUoS to share your learning journey on this course so far! http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=9CVY3pp91Dc&feature=playe r_embedded How to use Search Engine Optimisation (SEO) (3/12) businessculture.org     Content  Finland  
  •            |  28     • • Learn the principles of SEO to ensure that your website and any social media profiles are found by individuals searching for your name, products and services. These basic principles of SEO include keyword research, on-page optimisation and off-page optimisation. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=zw27cRcwtM0&feature=player _embedded How to use social media for international business development (4/12) • • Social media networks break down the traditional country barriers, but do you know which networks are relevant for the country you are interested in trading with? Find out in this video how to identify the relevant networks and what social media strategies you might be able to use on these networks. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=Bx-B56AHS4c&feature= player_embedded How to use Facebook (5/12) • • Facebook is currently the largest social media network in the world and it can benefit you as a business as well as an individual. Learn how to develop a Facebook business page and see how other businesses use it and what strategies work for them. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=UmRGn-vdcO8&feature= player_embedded businessculture.org     Content  Finland  
  •            |  29     How to use YouTube (6/12) • • YouTube was identified as the second largest social network amongst younger internet users as part of the Passport to Trade 2.0 project. Learn how to optimise your video content in order to reach wider audiences for your profile. http://www.youtube.com/watch? feature=player_embedded&v=G2 0OVpmTBss How to use LinkedIn (7/12) • • LinkedIn is one of the three main professional social networks – the others being Xing and Viadeo which are also popular in several European countries. Learn how to make the most of LinkedIn for your profile. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=N6e_EAUQqic&feature=playe r_embedded How to use Google+ (8/12) • • • Google+ is the second largest social network as of January 2013. It is one of the fastest growing social networks and one that has the biggest impact when it comes to search engine results integration for anyone who uses Google as their main search engine. Learn how to make the most of Google+ for you and your digital profiles. http://www.youtube.com/watch? feature=player_embedded&v=8ti 3SPHkEWw businessculture.org     Content  Finland  
  •            |  30     How to use copywriting online (9/12) • • Copywriting is a process of translating technical specifications and product descriptions into engaging and understandable customer focused text. Learn about the basic techniques in structuring your online content here. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=5f1hx_f2ONI&feature=player_ embedded How to stay legal on social media (10/12) • • Everything and anything you do and say online can be potentially viewed by anyone who has internet access. Always respect the law and familiarise yourself with new options offered to you through a creative commons licence which is popular online. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=eQxDpiHsdk&feature=player_embedde d How to use monitoring and reporting (11/12) • • Whether you are an individual or a business spending time on social media – there has to be a return on your engagement online. How do you justify your engagement on social media to your boss? Listen to the industry experts in this area and see what you might be able to measure in respect of your on-line engagements. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=LbEq7jsG0jg&feature=player_ embedded businessculture.org     Content  Finland  
  •            |  31     How to blog (12/12) • • http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=OqVjR7oI8Rs&feature=player _embedded businessculture.org     • Blogging is a process of writing text and sharing content with others. It can help your customers or friends to keep in-touch regardless of social media platforms. Think about the voice you might want to adopt and who your audience might be. Share your thoughts with us by writing a blog post about this MOOC. Tweet us the link to your post on the #SSMMUoS Twitter hash tag. Content  Finland  
  •              |  32   Passport  to  Trade  2.0  Project  Partnership   Five Universities: Lead partner: Salford Business School, University of Salford, United Kingdom Elena Vasilieva Aleksej Heinze Alex Fenton URENIO research unit at Aristole University of Thessaloniki, Greece Christina Kakderi Nitsa Papadopouloui TSE Entre Research Centre Turku School of Economics, University of Turku, Finland Satu Aaltonen Elisa Akola Institute for Information System Research University of Koblenz-Landau, Germany Verena Hausmann Susan P. Williams Petra Schubert Valahia University of Targoviste, Romania Adriana Grigorescu Leonardo Badea Three Small & Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Spin, Italy Carmine Antonio Donato Dorella De Tommaso Technology Development & Innovation – TDI LTD Bulgaria Milanka Slavova Ivan Stoychev TIS Praha, Czech Republic Anna Klosova Richard Adekeye businessculture.org     Content  Finland