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The Sound System Of English
 

The Sound System Of English

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    The Sound System Of English The Sound System Of English Presentation Transcript

    • The Sound System of English Education 453:10
    • Phonology
      • The study of the sounds of language
      • Everyone speaks with an accent
      • The phonological system of a language consists of its individual speech sounds, as well as its stress, rhythm, and intonation patterns
    • Phonemes
      • The smallest unit of sound that can affect meaning in a language
      • Though the English alphabet has 26 letters, English speakers produce more than 40 sounds
    • International Phonetic Alphabet
      • Most technical books for language teachers and dictionaries use phonetic symbols to represent English sounds and to describe difficulties (Our text: p. 56, 57)
      • The International Phonetic Alphabet can be used to transcribe any language (handout)
    • Pronunciation Difficulties
      • Interference from the first language
      • The sounds of the first language are imprinted very early in the child’s development; however, most children are born with the vocal equipment to produce the sounds of any language
    • Problems in English
      • Homographs (read and read)
      • Homophones (red and read)
      • Differs from language to language
      • http:// www.btinternet.com/~ted.power/phono.html
    • Individual Sounds
      • Especially difficult sounds are th in think and its unvoiced equivalent th in then
      • Consonant clusters – spl, sks, etc.
      • Some languages have no consonant clusters; other languages use consonant clusters differently
    • Stressed and Unstressed Syllables
      • The degree of force with which a syllable is uttered
      • In English words of more than one syllable, one of the syllables is uttered with stronger stress or emphasis than others (text p. 59)
      • Stress patterns are different in other languages
    • Rhythm
      • English has a characteristic rhythm or stress pattern
      • In connected English speech the stresses or beats are spaced evenly through sentences… John speaks French….
      • Unstressed syllables are compressed or de-emphasized whereas in many languages, equal stress is placed on all the syllables in words
    • Sentence Stress
      • In an English sentence, the words that carry the most information are stressed – content words – and the less important or grammatical function or form words are unstressed
      • ESL students may have trouble understanding speech even if they recognize words in isolation… What do you mean? Next month or necks month
      • http://www2.nkfust.edu.tw/~emchen/Pron/stress_exB.htm
    • Intonation
      • English has characteristic patterns of rise and fall in pitch, and three basic levels of tone: High, Mid, and Low
      • ESL students and ELLs need focused instruction on English intonation patterns…
    • Purposes of English Intonation
      • Communicate meaning
      • Communicate emotions or moods
      • Stress for emphasis
      • http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v =-toSnwSqqz0
    • Teaching Pronunciation
      • Younger children who are learning English seldom need a great deal of help with pronunciation
      • Learners older than 11 or 12 are more likely to have trouble with specific words, sounds, intonation patterns… require focused instruction
    • When to Teach Pronunciation
      • A student confuses or distorts specific sounds that may interfere with comprehension
      • Uses pronunciations that are stigmatized… tree for three
      • Distorts the pronunciation of words by stressing the wrong syllable
      • Uses inappropriate intonation
    • How to Teach Pronunciation
      • Read aloud often
      • Read the same statement several different ways
      • Books on tape
      • Language arts software
      • Choral reading
      • Minimal pairs
    • ….How to Teach Pronunciation
      • 7. Practice producing sounds
      • 8. Make up sentences
      • 9. Create posters or booklets for certain sounds
      • 10. Allow pronunciation practice
      • 11. Use pronunciation guides with older students
      • 12.Rehearse, read aloud, short passages
      • 13. Be creative…skits….
    • Basic Principle
      • Understanding of sounds precedes understanding of the written word.
    • Terminology
      • Phonological Awareness – the ability to break down speech into smaller segments
      • Phoneme – the smallest unit of sound
      • Phonics – a method of teaching reading that emphasizes the association of sounds with letters
    • Classroom Considerations
      • Phonological awareness training – teaching the sound structure of words
        • Auditory training
      • Phonics training – teaching the connection between sounds and letters
        • Training with print
    • Classroom Considerations
      • It is important to first develop oral language skills.
      • Phonological awareness skills should be taught orally without print.
      • Phonological awareness training helps children learn vocabulary and reading skills.
    • Classroom Considerations
      • Phonological awareness training improves reading, vocabulary, and syntactic skills
      • Phonological awareness training can be implemented in the classroom
      • ESL students benefit from PA training
    • Teaching Pronunciation Abroad
      • http://www.authorstream.com/presentation/Demetrio-39388-tup2007-Improve-English-Pronunciation-Five-Questions-Stress-gives-natural-rhythm-spoken-as-Education-ppt-powerpoint/