“Spanish film-makers hit back at ‘cultural war’ on funding”. state film funding, which grants cinema a larger overall budget, but shared out among far fewer, so-called ‘quality’ films – a situation that has left many of the smaller, more experimental films practically bereft of state money.Some game-changing titles from the last couple of years – such as Carlos Vermut’s Diamond Flash (2011) and Paco León’s Carmina o revienta (Carmina or Blow Up, 2012), both self-produced and self-distributed and exhibited on multiple alternative platforms – never made it to the LFF (London Film Festival) , let alone the UK film market. Still, the titles assembled by the festival’s Spanish-language cinema programmer Maria Delgado are an exemplary indication of the shifting state of affairs.http://www.bfi.org.uk/news-opinion/sight-sound-magazine/comment/festivals/london-2013-spanish-cinema-beyond-crisisFrance – levy charges on cinema sales, limiting funding, removed attractive investor schemesGermany – least affected, Hanna 2011. Unregulated DFFF and FFA, may mean a cut to funding.
In 2009, the Japanese horror film Grotesque was refused classification, making it illegal to sell or supply on a physical medium in the UK. The 2011 horror film The Human Centipede II was also denied classification, before being heavily cut for an 18.
• The Regent Street Cinema is
celebrated as the ‘Birthplace of
British Cinema’ as it was used by
pioneering filmmakers, the
Lumière brothers, to perform
their first ever moving picture
show in the UK on the 21
February, 1896 – 118 years ago
• Mass public consumption-
• The Lumiere brothers envisioned
movies as public showings. The
two approaches are like the
difference between listening to
an I-pod on your headphones
versus sitting in a theater and
listening to a concert
• original Nickelodeon opened
in Pittsburgh in 1905
• April 12, 1914 Mark Strand
Theatre, New York, The
Spoilers (Movie Palace)
• Edison's interest in movies was
to sell his Kinetoscope
machines, designed as
individual 'peep shows" in
which a person looked into a
box and saw a moving picture.
Funding-impact on the industry & audience.
• Working Title $30m (UK+US)
• Warp £1m
• Low/modest budget, modest return –
limited screenings in cinema, typically
Art house cinemas. Sales generated
• Is British filming stuck in a rut?
• Encourage new talent
• Film Festivals
• UK Film Council
• BFI & National Lottery
(Production, Distribution & Exhibition )
• Tax Relief – why?
• Massive budgets
massive profits in a
cycle of self-
• $100m +
• Risk – shared
• Cast & Crew
• Appeal to audience
• Certificate – BBFC
• Star appeal
• Projected profit
• Appeal to mass audience
Industry Overview – Historic Examples
• Small Independent Low Budget British Film:
Genre: Social Realist Drama - ‘This is England’
Budget £1.5m, takings £1.5m.
Institutions: Warp Films + Film 4 + various small UK media companies.
• Successful UK Studio: Working Title
Genre: string of blockbuster Rom-Coms:
‘Four Weddings & a Funeral’ budget $6m, takings $244m
Post-Universal take-over ‘Love Actually’ budget $30m, takings $244m.
Produced 100 films, but several non Rom-Com flops.
• Successful US Blockbuster Film(s): ‘Star Trek’
Genre: Science Fiction / Action
Studio: Paramount: massive marketing campaign – budget $140m, takings
• Successful US Blockbuster Film(s): ‘Avatar’
Genre: Science Fiction / Action / Romance
Studio: 20th Century Fox: massive hype, digital, 3D,
massive budget $300m, massive takings $2.7bn.
• NB: ‘Paranormal Activity’ as Indie case study...
• BBFC, 1912
• Cinematograph Act
1909, which required
cinemas to have licences
from local authorities.
• P, D, E (E)
• Concentration of media ownership in that the
global media market is increasingly dominated
by a small number of Western (mostly
• Is this positive or negative for the film
• Companies all owned at the same level
• Example: Warner Bros. Interactive, Warner
Bros. TV, Warner Bros. Animation
• Film, TV, Magazine, Video Game
Vertical Integration P, D, E (E)
• Warner Bros Entertainment calls itself a fully
integrated broad based entertainment
company which owns film studios and the
means to distribute the films as well as some
of the cinemas in which they are shown.
Warner Bros in itself is part of an even bigger
conglomerate called Time Warner which is a
huge media conglomerate institution which
uses horizontal Integration to consolidate its
power and profits.
• allow users to interact and collaborate with
each other in a social media dialogue as
• Social networking sites, blogs, wikis, video
sharing, forums etc etc
Gadgets to watch films on:
• Smart-phones (iPhone etc)
• MP4 players
• Portable Games Consoles (PSP
• Laptops (Airbooks etc)
Multimedia devices, films at home:
• Games Consoles (Xbox 360, PS3
• PC (via DVD, BluRay, il/legal
• Home Cinema (Plasma TV /
Projector + digital TV)
• Film actually being made and has been given
• 3D, Imax camera = costs
• Digital camera = costs
• A film distributor is a company or individual
responsible for the marketing of a film.
• The distributor may set the release date of a
film and the method by which a film is to be
exhibited or made available for viewing
• Distributors can take 50% of box office sales –
this does vary though.
Cross media convergence
• Conglomerate working together
horizontally/vertically or both.
• Media synergy is the way in which different
elements of a media conglomerate work together
to promote linked products across different
• Synergy works when different elements within a
media conglomerate promote (e.g. film
studio, record label, video game division) create
linked products (e.g. film, soundtrack, video
• Each distinct element promotes the others.
‘Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone’
In 2000 AOL and Time Warner merged. The
promotion of ‘Harry Potter and the
Philosopher’s Stone’ by AOL Time Warner is a
good example of synergy.
Adverts for the film were
shown on HBO and the
WB, both American TV
channels which are
subsidiaries of Time
The soundtrack was
released on Atlantic
Records, part of
Articles about the film
magazines owned by
AOL’s internet service
ticket promotions tied
to subscriptions for
• Synergy & cross media convergence
• Cinema 2D, 3D, Imax, Premiere
• Options to view
• Control/influence the industry?
• The exam board want to know what you understand about:
• Media Institutions: Hollywood Studios (20th Century Fox
etc.), British Studios (Working Title + Warp Films etc).
• Media Audiences: UK film viewers (either in cinemas, or via
PC / TV / Phone etc)
• Media Technology: Digital filmmaking (CGI, 3D, Imax, DV-
Cams), Online Films
(LoveFilm, iTunes, YouTube, piracy), Convergence (gadgets to
watch films on)
• Marketing Campaigns: How Studios advertise their films
(Synergy, TV + Internet trailers, Print ads –
newspapers, magazines, posters, Premieres, junkets, word of
mouth, USP, merchandising etc).
ALL OF THE ABOVE NEED SPECIFIC EXAMPLES.
• Discuss the issues raised by an institution’s
need to target specific audiences within a
media industry which you have studied.
• Discuss the ways in which media products are
produced and distributed to audiences, within
a media area, that you have studied.
• How important is technological convergence
for institutions and audiences within a media
area which you have studied?
• “Media production is dominated by global
institutions, which sell their services and
products, to national audiences.” To what
extent do you agree with this statement?
Marking Grid for Qu2.
Band / Grade Argument Examples Terminology
& reference to study
Limited range and
use of examples
Minimal use of
Low Level 2:
E > D
Some relevant points.
Some terms used.
Upper Level 3:
C > B
Good range of
Level 4 :
Frequent use of