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Bullying and psychiatry
Dr. AHNAF KARIM
PHASE B, RESIDENT
Department of Psychiatry, BSMMU
What is bullying?
Repeated and deliberate use of physical
or psychological means to hurt another
child, without adequate provocation and in
...
“Bullying is psychological violence”
Dr. Gary Namie,
Director of the Workplace Bullying Institute (WBI) in
Bellingham, WA
...
Washington state anti bullying
law (SHB 1444)
An intentional written, verbal or physical act, including
but not limited to...
• Bullying can be overt
(i.e., teasing, hitting,
or stealing); boys are
most often overt
bullies
• Bullying can be
covert ...
Bullying Happens in Four Ways
Verbal
Teasing, jokes, ignoring/isolation, gossip, threats
Physical
Blocking someone’s path,...
Victim Profile
• Generally tend to lack
friends and social
support
• Cautious, sensitive, quiet
and non-aggressive
• Lack ...
Effects of Bullying on
the Target
Physical Effects
• Stomach aches
• Weight loss/gain
• Headaches
• Drop in grades
• Drug ...
Possible signs of bullying
• Not wanting to go to school
• Cuts and bruises
• Asking for stolen possessions to be
replaced...
A typical bully is a person who:
• Has a desire to hurt
• Lacks compassion and empathy for others
• Lacks guilt for his or...
Impact on the Bully
• Learned behavior
• Limited social skills
• Poor relationships
• Higher chance of
juvenile delinquenc...
Why do children bully?
Individual model:
• Skill deficits or
differences
• Come from homes that
use physical punishment
to...
High Risk Environments
• Poverty
• Dysfunctional families
• Childhood abuse
• Failure to bond with adults or develop
posit...
Role of the Family
• Children increasingly live in dysfunctional families
• Abused children grow up impulsive, aggressive,...
Role of the Family
• Family history with problem behavior
• Family conflict
• Family members don't spend much time
togethe...
Role of the Media
• By the time children start school, they will
have seen over 8,000 murders on
television and over 100,0...
Role of the Media
• Increased aggressiveness and antisocial
behavior
• Teenage life is defined by the media
Role of the Community
• Alcohol and other drugs readily available
• Norms are unclear
• Neighborhood disorganization
• Ext...
Role of the School
• Lack of clear expectations, both academic
and behavioral
• Lack of commitment or sense of belonging
a...
Participants role
• Bullying – 8%
• Victimized- 12%
• Assistant- 7% (join bullying)
• Reinforcers- 20% (encourage bullying...
Family Bullying
Occurs when a person in a family uses their
power to control those with less power in ways that
are threat...
Why is defending uncommon?
• Fear of children who bully
• Negative perceptions of children who are
victimized
• Brief appe...
Workplace bullying
Surveys of bullying in the UK indicate that
between 12-50% of the workforce
experience bullying.
UK Nat...
Workplace bullying (contd.)
20% Education sector
12% Healthcare
10% Social services
06% Charity / non profit sector.
Advic...
Workplace bullying (contd.)
Study of Finnish workers examined the
link between sleep disorders and bullying
Prevalence 5%
...
CYBER BULLYING
An individual or group that uses
information and communication involving
electronic technologies to facilit...
CYBER BULLIES’ TECHNOLOGY
E-mail
Cell phones
Pager text messages
Instant messaging
Defamatory personal web sites
Cha...
DIFFERENCES
BULLYING
• DIRECT
• Occurs on
school property
• Poor relationships
with teachers
www.stopbullyingnow.hrsa.gov
...
CYBER BULLYING PREVALENCE
• 35% of kids have been threatened online.
Nearly 1 in 5 have had it happen more
than once.
• 21...
*Taken from an i-SAFE America survey of students nationwide
Statistics
As many as half of all children
are bullied at some time in their
school years, and at least 10%
are bullied on a regular ...
Childhood trauma and children's emerging
psychotic symptoms: A genetically sensitive
longitudinal cohort study.
Children w...
• At young ages, ADHD and depression, as well as
anxiety are prevalent concurrently with bullying among
the children invol...
Consequences of bullying in
schools
Peer victimization is a significant causal factor in
school children's lowered health ...
A nationally representative study of 15,686
students in grades six through U.S. schools
• Males> females
• Bullies are mor...
Cyber and traditional bullying:
differential association with
depression
• Cyber victims reported higher depression than
b...
• 100,000 students carry a gun to school.
• 28% of youths who carry weapons have
witnessed violence at home.
• Playground ...
• Early experience as a bully in school is a
significant predictor of juvenile
delinquency.
Bullies also evidence increase...
• 44% of suicides among 10- to 14-year-
olds may be bullying-related.
At least 14% were clearly linked by the
press to bul...
• Yale professor Young-Shin Kim has done
research on what's been termed
"bullycide" and has found that victims of
bullying...
Bullies are five times more likely to end up
with a serious criminal record by age 30.
National Association of School Psyc...
• 6,437 children from birth to 13 years. At the age
of 13, the children were interviewed about their
experiences of psycho...
In Bangladesh
• Bullying is a serious problem in
Bangladesh with more than 30% of
students admitting to bullying someone a...
In Bangladesh
• Teenage suicides – 22 (‘10)
 dozens of high-profile attacks on
teenage girls have highlighted
Bangladesh'...
Eve-teasing
The south Asian term
for sexual harassment
-- is an everyday
reality in Bangladesh
• Plain-clothed policemen have been on
patrol outside top girls' schools in Dhaka,
and female police officers have gone
un...
• Burka bullying banned by Bangladesh
court
Bangladesh's high court has banned
educational institutions from bullying
fema...
Bangladeshi school girls learn karate to
fight bullying
The Tangail district's measures follow the
deaths of three people ...
Best Practices in
Prevention and
Intervention
Behavioral Ecological
Model
Adapted from “The Behavioral Ecological
Model: I...
Faulty beliefs/ attitudes to
change
• I’m not good enough
• Being different is bad
• I am to blame
• I can’t accept the tr...
Behaviour
(Actions)
Feeling
(Emotions)
Thinking
School programs
• Review of 48 studies –
• 48% reduction in bullying
• 33% reduction in victimization
(craig et al..,2010)
Creating Caring,
Connected and Safe Homes
Conclusion
• What is required is a
commitment by everyone for
cultural change that no longer
accepts or tolerates violence...
• ‘PEAS’ PROGRAM
Psychological-Educational-And-Social
‘He who passively accepts evil is as much
involved in it as he who helps to
perpetrate it’
(Martin Luther King Jr.)
Cyber bullying victim Amanda Todd left her mum a 'goodbye' video
message before she hanged herself.
Together we can make a
difference
Bully
Bully
Bully
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Bully

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  • Key Features of Bullying Repetition over time Intention to cause harm An imbalance of power, with a more powerful person or group attacking a less powerful one.
  • Arson-setting fire………vandalism—destroying property indirect bullying--- not talkin, leaving some1 frm play
  • Vindictive….. PTSD
  • SST
  • For bullys….so we can c other fctors such as family..media..school..communities
  • Ppl Love to watch bullying
  • Types of family bullying..
  • Diffusion of responsibility  is a social phenomenon which tends to occur in groups of people above a certain critical size when responsibility is not explicitly assigned. a New York woman, was stabbed to death near her house. More than 30 of Genovese's neighbors heard her screaming for help, yet no one helped her, each thinking that somebody else definitely would.
  • A large sample study (longitudinal) of Finnish workers examined the link between sleep disorders and bullying…gradually they improved..
  • Also known as..
  • Longitudinal studies
  • Bullying can leave lasting scars and negative life altering wounds for adolescents and those surrounding them. Youth who are bullied experience real suffering that can interfere with their social and emotional development, as well as their school performance. Some victims of bullying have committed suicide rather than endure such harassment and punishment.
  • 2010
  • Local human right group
  • Metaanalysis shows school based programs– modest benefit School level components Raise awareness among students and teachers Broad-based participation Increased adult supervision Classroom level components Classroom rules Parent involvement Individual level components Talks with children involved in bullying/victimization Consistent rewards and consequences
  • Outside Counseling Referral 2. Family Support Center Referral 3. In-School Counseling 4. Anger Management group 5. Peer Mediation & Conflict Resolution
  • Transcript of "Bully"

    1. 1. Bullying and psychiatry Dr. AHNAF KARIM PHASE B, RESIDENT Department of Psychiatry, BSMMU
    2. 2. What is bullying?
    3. 3. Repeated and deliberate use of physical or psychological means to hurt another child, without adequate provocation and in the knowledge that the victim is unlikely to retaliate effectively (Goodman and Scott,2005)
    4. 4. “Bullying is psychological violence” Dr. Gary Namie, Director of the Workplace Bullying Institute (WBI) in Bellingham, WA and author of “The Bully at Work.”
    5. 5. Washington state anti bullying law (SHB 1444) An intentional written, verbal or physical act, including but not limited to one shown to be motivated by any characteristic such as race, color, religion, ancestry, national origin, gender, sexual orientation, mental or physical disability, or other distinguishing characteristics, when the intentional act: (a) Physically harms a student or damages his/her property; or (b) Substantially interferes with the student’s education; or (c) Is so severe, persistent or pervasive that it creates an intimidating or threatening educational environment; or (d) Substantially disrupts the orderly operation of a school
    6. 6. • Bullying can be overt (i.e., teasing, hitting, or stealing); boys are most often overt bullies • Bullying can be covert (i.e., spreading rumors); girls are most often covert bullies
    7. 7. Bullying Happens in Four Ways Verbal Teasing, jokes, ignoring/isolation, gossip, threats Physical Blocking someone’s path, physical restraint, pushing/kicking, hazing Sexual Teasing, touching, slapping, pictures, emails, sexual assault Property Hiding belongings, theft, arson, extortion, vandalism, destruction
    8. 8. Victim Profile • Generally tend to lack friends and social support • Cautious, sensitive, quiet and non-aggressive • Lack confidence in their abilities • If a boy –tend to be smaller and physically weaker • Considered by others as ‘different’
    9. 9. Effects of Bullying on the Target Physical Effects • Stomach aches • Weight loss/gain • Headaches • Drop in grades • Drug or alcohol use • Sexual activity • Physical aggression Emotional Effects • Low self-esteem • Insecurity • Fear • Depression • Withdrawn • Aggression • Anger • Suicidal • Homicidal
    10. 10. Possible signs of bullying • Not wanting to go to school • Cuts and bruises • Asking for stolen possessions to be replaced • ‘Losing’ lunch money • Being bad tempered • Being quiet and withdrawn • Refusing to talk about what happens at school • Loss of appetite, bedwetting • Aggression with brothers and sisters • Doing less well at school work • Insomnia, anxiety • Talking about not having friends
    11. 11. A typical bully is a person who: • Has a desire to hurt • Lacks compassion and empathy for others • Lacks guilt for his or her actions • Believes it is OK to treat others in a cruel fashion • Likes to dominate and be in charge • Avoids adults and plays/spends time out of adult sight • Is verbally convincing
    12. 12. Impact on the Bully • Learned behavior • Limited social skills • Poor relationships • Higher chance of juvenile delinquency • More likely to turn to criminal activity as adult • Suffer higher rates of depression • As adults, treat their own children in a dominating and emotionally abusive manner
    13. 13. Why do children bully? Individual model: • Skill deficits or differences • Come from homes that use physical punishment to discipline • Caregivers of bullies are typically uninvolved and lack warmth • Children who bully are often defiant toward authority figures • Peer group or behavior reinforcement model -- peer group reinforcement --- responses of the victimized children
    14. 14. High Risk Environments • Poverty • Dysfunctional families • Childhood abuse • Failure to bond with adults or develop positive relationships with adults • Exposure to media violence • School failure and school problems
    15. 15. Role of the Family • Children increasingly live in dysfunctional families • Abused children grow up impulsive, aggressive, antisocial, and lacking in empathy to the people and world around them • Over half of today’s teenagers have lived through their parents’ divorce and reside with a single parent or divide their time between two households • 60% teenagers live in households where both parents work outside the home (Stevenson & Schneider)
    16. 16. Role of the Family • Family history with problem behavior • Family conflict • Family members don't spend much time together • Lack of parental supervision
    17. 17. Role of the Media • By the time children start school, they will have seen over 8,000 murders on television and over 100,000 violent acts. By the time they graduate from high school, these numbers will double American Academy of Child and Adolescents Psychiatry, 1995
    18. 18. Role of the Media • Increased aggressiveness and antisocial behavior • Teenage life is defined by the media
    19. 19. Role of the Community • Alcohol and other drugs readily available • Norms are unclear • Neighborhood disorganization • Extreme economic deprivation • Lack of strong social institutions • Lack of monitoring youths' activities
    20. 20. Role of the School • Lack of clear expectations, both academic and behavioral • Lack of commitment or sense of belonging at school • Academic failure • Parents and community members not actively involved
    21. 21. Participants role • Bullying – 8% • Victimized- 12% • Assistant- 7% (join bullying) • Reinforcers- 20% (encourage bullying) • Onlookers- 24% (watch bullying) • Defenders-17% (try to stop bullying) • No clear role- 13% (salmivalli,1999)
    22. 22. Family Bullying Occurs when a person in a family uses their power to control those with less power in ways that are threatening and abusive • spouse/partner abuse • child abuse and neglect • sibling threats and aggression • abuse of older adults by caregivers
    23. 23. Why is defending uncommon? • Fear of children who bully • Negative perceptions of children who are victimized • Brief appearance of some bullying incidents • Diffusion of responsibility (salmivalli,1999)
    24. 24. Workplace bullying Surveys of bullying in the UK indicate that between 12-50% of the workforce experience bullying. UK National Workplace Bullying
    25. 25. Workplace bullying (contd.) 20% Education sector 12% Healthcare 10% Social services 06% Charity / non profit sector. Advice Line
    26. 26. Workplace bullying (contd.) Study of Finnish workers examined the link between sleep disorders and bullying Prevalence 5% Sleep problems were reported by 21% of women and 17% of men. http://www.workplacebullying.org/2011/03/12/lallukka/
    27. 27. CYBER BULLYING An individual or group that uses information and communication involving electronic technologies to facilitate deliberate and repeated harassment or threat to an individual or group ‘Electronic Bullying’ & ‘Online Social Cruelty’
    28. 28. CYBER BULLIES’ TECHNOLOGY E-mail Cell phones Pager text messages Instant messaging Defamatory personal web sites Chat rooms
    29. 29. DIFFERENCES BULLYING • DIRECT • Occurs on school property • Poor relationships with teachers www.stopbullyingnow.hrsa.gov CYBERBULLYING • ANONYMOUS • Occurs off school property • Good relationships with teachers {McKenna & Bargh, 2004; Ybarra & Mitchell, 2004}
    30. 30. CYBER BULLYING PREVALENCE • 35% of kids have been threatened online. Nearly 1 in 5 have had it happen more than once. • 21% of kids have received mean or threatening e-mail or other messages • 42% of kids have been bullied while online. 1 in 4 have had it happen more than once. Based on 2004 i-SAFE survey of 1,500 students http://www.isafe.org
    31. 31. *Taken from an i-SAFE America survey of students nationwide
    32. 32. Statistics
    33. 33. As many as half of all children are bullied at some time in their school years, and at least 10% are bullied on a regular basis. American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, May 2008
    34. 34. Childhood trauma and children's emerging psychotic symptoms: A genetically sensitive longitudinal cohort study. Children who experienced bullying by peers or adults were more likely to report psychotic symptoms at age 12 than children who did not experience such traumatic events. The higher risk for psychotic symptoms was observed whether these events occurred early in life or later in childhood Am J Psychiatry. 2011 Jan;168(1):7-8.
    35. 35. • At young ages, ADHD and depression, as well as anxiety are prevalent concurrently with bullying among the children involved. • In young adulthood, Male victims are at risk for anxiety and personality disorder Male bullies for personality disorders The risk is especially increased if the child is disturbed when involved in bullying at school age. Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2008 Apr-Jun;20(2):121- 32.
    36. 36. Consequences of bullying in schools Peer victimization is a significant causal factor in school children's lowered health and well-being and that the effects can be long-lasting. Further evidence from longitudinal studies indicates that the tendency to bully others at school significantly predicts subsequent antisocial and violent behaviour Can J Psychiatry. 2003 Oct;48(9):575.
    37. 37. A nationally representative study of 15,686 students in grades six through U.S. schools • Males> females • Bullies are more likely to smoke and drink alcohol, and to be poorer students • Bully-victims--students who are both bullies and recipients of bullying--tend to experience social isolation, to do poorly in school Journal of the American Medical Association (Vol. 285, No. 16)
    38. 38. Cyber and traditional bullying: differential association with depression • Cyber victims reported higher depression than bullies or bully-victims. • For physical, verbal, and relational bullies, the frequently-involved group of victims and bully victims reported a significantly higher level of depression than the corresponding occasionally involved group. J Adolesc Health. 2011 Apr;48(4):415-7. Epub 2010 Sep 22.
    39. 39. • 100,000 students carry a gun to school. • 28% of youths who carry weapons have witnessed violence at home. • Playground statistics - Every 7 minutes a child is bullied. THE BUREAU OF JUSTICE STATISTICS - School Crime and Safety’09
    40. 40. • Early experience as a bully in school is a significant predictor of juvenile delinquency. Bullies also evidence increased spousal abuse and child abuse in adult life. • Hazler, R.J. (1994). Bullying breeds violence: You can stop it. Learning, 22, 38-41
    41. 41. • 44% of suicides among 10- to 14-year- olds may be bullying-related. At least 14% were clearly linked by the press to bullying. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/10302550
    42. 42. • Yale professor Young-Shin Kim has done research on what's been termed "bullycide" and has found that victims of bullying are 5.6 times more at risk of attempting or thinking about suicide
    43. 43. Bullies are five times more likely to end up with a serious criminal record by age 30. National Association of School Psychologists
    44. 44. • 6,437 children from birth to 13 years. At the age of 13, the children were interviewed about their experiences of psychotic symptoms in the previous six months • Bullying can increase the risk of children suffering from psychotic symptoms by up to four times • Effects included hallucinations, paranoid delusions • Children who experienced sustained bullying over a number of years could be four times more at risk. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/education/education-news/bullying-can-lead-to- mental-illness-says-study-1677108.html
    45. 45. In Bangladesh • Bullying is a serious problem in Bangladesh with more than 30% of students admitting to bullying someone at least once over the past year. http://www.savethechildren.org.au/resources/position-papers/bullying
    46. 46. In Bangladesh • Teenage suicides – 22 (‘10)  dozens of high-profile attacks on teenage girls have highlighted Bangladesh's sexual bullying problem Ain O Salish Kendra (ASK)
    47. 47. Eve-teasing The south Asian term for sexual harassment -- is an everyday reality in Bangladesh
    48. 48. • Plain-clothed policemen have been on patrol outside top girls' schools in Dhaka, and female police officers have gone undercover inside school grounds across the country -- arresting more than 500 bullies so far this year. • Traditional attitudes and new technology like mobile phones have combined. AFP news- july’10
    49. 49. • Burka bullying banned by Bangladesh court Bangladesh's high court has banned educational institutions from bullying female employees into wearing headscarves or veils Telegraph---09 Apr 2010
    50. 50. Bangladeshi school girls learn karate to fight bullying The Tangail district's measures follow the deaths of three people across Bangladesh this week in bullying-related incidents, bringing the total number of deaths to 36 this year, according to police statistics. http://www.thehimalayantimes.com/fullNews.php? headline=Bangladeshi+school+girls+learn+karate+to+fight+bullying&NewsID=264145 ; 2010-11- 02
    51. 51. Best Practices in Prevention and Intervention Behavioral Ecological Model Adapted from “The Behavioral Ecological Model: Integrating public health and behavioral science.” by Hovell, Wahlgren, & Gehrman, 2002. In R.J. DiClemente, R. Crosby, & M. Kegler, (Eds.), New and emerging theories in health promotion practice & research (pp.347-385). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
    52. 52. Faulty beliefs/ attitudes to change • I’m not good enough • Being different is bad • I am to blame • I can’t accept the truth • I can do it my own way • Nothing works • No-one can help • I think it is a waste of time
    53. 53. Behaviour (Actions) Feeling (Emotions) Thinking
    54. 54. School programs • Review of 48 studies – • 48% reduction in bullying • 33% reduction in victimization (craig et al..,2010)
    55. 55. Creating Caring, Connected and Safe Homes
    56. 56. Conclusion • What is required is a commitment by everyone for cultural change that no longer accepts or tolerates violence in our schools, neighborhoods, and broader society
    57. 57. • ‘PEAS’ PROGRAM Psychological-Educational-And-Social
    58. 58. ‘He who passively accepts evil is as much involved in it as he who helps to perpetrate it’ (Martin Luther King Jr.)
    59. 59. Cyber bullying victim Amanda Todd left her mum a 'goodbye' video message before she hanged herself.
    60. 60. Together we can make a difference
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