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  • Key Features of Bullying Repetition over time Intention to cause harm An imbalance of power, with a more powerful person or group attacking a less powerful one.
  • Arson-setting fire………vandalism—destroying property indirect bullying--- not talkin, leaving some1 frm play
  • Vindictive….. PTSD
  • SST
  • For bullys….so we can c other fctors such as family..media..school..communities
  • Ppl Love to watch bullying
  • Types of family bullying..
  • Diffusion of responsibility  is a social phenomenon which tends to occur in groups of people above a certain critical size when responsibility is not explicitly assigned. a New York woman, was stabbed to death near her house. More than 30 of Genovese's neighbors heard her screaming for help, yet no one helped her, each thinking that somebody else definitely would.
  • A large sample study (longitudinal) of Finnish workers examined the link between sleep disorders and bullying…gradually they improved..
  • Also known as..
  • Longitudinal studies
  • Bullying can leave lasting scars and negative life altering wounds for adolescents and those surrounding them. Youth who are bullied experience real suffering that can interfere with their social and emotional development, as well as their school performance. Some victims of bullying have committed suicide rather than endure such harassment and punishment.
  • 2010
  • Local human right group
  • Metaanalysis shows school based programs– modest benefit School level components Raise awareness among students and teachers Broad-based participation Increased adult supervision Classroom level components Classroom rules Parent involvement Individual level components Talks with children involved in bullying/victimization Consistent rewards and consequences
  • Outside Counseling Referral 2. Family Support Center Referral 3. In-School Counseling 4. Anger Management group 5. Peer Mediation & Conflict Resolution

Bully Bully Presentation Transcript

  • Bullying and psychiatry Dr. AHNAF KARIM PHASE B, RESIDENT Department of Psychiatry, BSMMU
  • What is bullying?
  • Repeated and deliberate use of physical or psychological means to hurt another child, without adequate provocation and in the knowledge that the victim is unlikely to retaliate effectively (Goodman and Scott,2005)
  • “Bullying is psychological violence” Dr. Gary Namie, Director of the Workplace Bullying Institute (WBI) in Bellingham, WA and author of “The Bully at Work.”
  • Washington state anti bullying law (SHB 1444) An intentional written, verbal or physical act, including but not limited to one shown to be motivated by any characteristic such as race, color, religion, ancestry, national origin, gender, sexual orientation, mental or physical disability, or other distinguishing characteristics, when the intentional act: (a) Physically harms a student or damages his/her property; or (b) Substantially interferes with the student’s education; or (c) Is so severe, persistent or pervasive that it creates an intimidating or threatening educational environment; or (d) Substantially disrupts the orderly operation of a school
  • • Bullying can be overt (i.e., teasing, hitting, or stealing); boys are most often overt bullies • Bullying can be covert (i.e., spreading rumors); girls are most often covert bullies
  • Bullying Happens in Four Ways Verbal Teasing, jokes, ignoring/isolation, gossip, threats Physical Blocking someone’s path, physical restraint, pushing/kicking, hazing Sexual Teasing, touching, slapping, pictures, emails, sexual assault Property Hiding belongings, theft, arson, extortion, vandalism, destruction
  • Victim Profile • Generally tend to lack friends and social support • Cautious, sensitive, quiet and non-aggressive • Lack confidence in their abilities • If a boy –tend to be smaller and physically weaker • Considered by others as ‘different’
  • Effects of Bullying on the Target Physical Effects • Stomach aches • Weight loss/gain • Headaches • Drop in grades • Drug or alcohol use • Sexual activity • Physical aggression Emotional Effects • Low self-esteem • Insecurity • Fear • Depression • Withdrawn • Aggression • Anger • Suicidal • Homicidal
  • Possible signs of bullying • Not wanting to go to school • Cuts and bruises • Asking for stolen possessions to be replaced • ‘Losing’ lunch money • Being bad tempered • Being quiet and withdrawn • Refusing to talk about what happens at school • Loss of appetite, bedwetting • Aggression with brothers and sisters • Doing less well at school work • Insomnia, anxiety • Talking about not having friends
  • A typical bully is a person who: • Has a desire to hurt • Lacks compassion and empathy for others • Lacks guilt for his or her actions • Believes it is OK to treat others in a cruel fashion • Likes to dominate and be in charge • Avoids adults and plays/spends time out of adult sight • Is verbally convincing
  • Impact on the Bully • Learned behavior • Limited social skills • Poor relationships • Higher chance of juvenile delinquency • More likely to turn to criminal activity as adult • Suffer higher rates of depression • As adults, treat their own children in a dominating and emotionally abusive manner
  • Why do children bully? Individual model: • Skill deficits or differences • Come from homes that use physical punishment to discipline • Caregivers of bullies are typically uninvolved and lack warmth • Children who bully are often defiant toward authority figures • Peer group or behavior reinforcement model -- peer group reinforcement --- responses of the victimized children
  • High Risk Environments • Poverty • Dysfunctional families • Childhood abuse • Failure to bond with adults or develop positive relationships with adults • Exposure to media violence • School failure and school problems
  • Role of the Family • Children increasingly live in dysfunctional families • Abused children grow up impulsive, aggressive, antisocial, and lacking in empathy to the people and world around them • Over half of today’s teenagers have lived through their parents’ divorce and reside with a single parent or divide their time between two households • 60% teenagers live in households where both parents work outside the home (Stevenson & Schneider)
  • Role of the Family • Family history with problem behavior • Family conflict • Family members don't spend much time together • Lack of parental supervision
  • Role of the Media • By the time children start school, they will have seen over 8,000 murders on television and over 100,000 violent acts. By the time they graduate from high school, these numbers will double American Academy of Child and Adolescents Psychiatry, 1995
  • Role of the Media • Increased aggressiveness and antisocial behavior • Teenage life is defined by the media
  • Role of the Community • Alcohol and other drugs readily available • Norms are unclear • Neighborhood disorganization • Extreme economic deprivation • Lack of strong social institutions • Lack of monitoring youths' activities
  • Role of the School • Lack of clear expectations, both academic and behavioral • Lack of commitment or sense of belonging at school • Academic failure • Parents and community members not actively involved
  • Participants role • Bullying – 8% • Victimized- 12% • Assistant- 7% (join bullying) • Reinforcers- 20% (encourage bullying) • Onlookers- 24% (watch bullying) • Defenders-17% (try to stop bullying) • No clear role- 13% (salmivalli,1999)
  • Family Bullying Occurs when a person in a family uses their power to control those with less power in ways that are threatening and abusive • spouse/partner abuse • child abuse and neglect • sibling threats and aggression • abuse of older adults by caregivers
  • Why is defending uncommon? • Fear of children who bully • Negative perceptions of children who are victimized • Brief appearance of some bullying incidents • Diffusion of responsibility (salmivalli,1999)
  • Workplace bullying Surveys of bullying in the UK indicate that between 12-50% of the workforce experience bullying. UK National Workplace Bullying
  • Workplace bullying (contd.) 20% Education sector 12% Healthcare 10% Social services 06% Charity / non profit sector. Advice Line
  • Workplace bullying (contd.) Study of Finnish workers examined the link between sleep disorders and bullying Prevalence 5% Sleep problems were reported by 21% of women and 17% of men. http://www.workplacebullying.org/2011/03/12/lallukka/
  • CYBER BULLYING An individual or group that uses information and communication involving electronic technologies to facilitate deliberate and repeated harassment or threat to an individual or group ‘Electronic Bullying’ & ‘Online Social Cruelty’
  • CYBER BULLIES’ TECHNOLOGY E-mail Cell phones Pager text messages Instant messaging Defamatory personal web sites Chat rooms
  • DIFFERENCES BULLYING • DIRECT • Occurs on school property • Poor relationships with teachers www.stopbullyingnow.hrsa.gov CYBERBULLYING • ANONYMOUS • Occurs off school property • Good relationships with teachers {McKenna & Bargh, 2004; Ybarra & Mitchell, 2004}
  • CYBER BULLYING PREVALENCE • 35% of kids have been threatened online. Nearly 1 in 5 have had it happen more than once. • 21% of kids have received mean or threatening e-mail or other messages • 42% of kids have been bullied while online. 1 in 4 have had it happen more than once. Based on 2004 i-SAFE survey of 1,500 students http://www.isafe.org
  • *Taken from an i-SAFE America survey of students nationwide
  • Statistics
  • As many as half of all children are bullied at some time in their school years, and at least 10% are bullied on a regular basis. American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, May 2008
  • Childhood trauma and children's emerging psychotic symptoms: A genetically sensitive longitudinal cohort study. Children who experienced bullying by peers or adults were more likely to report psychotic symptoms at age 12 than children who did not experience such traumatic events. The higher risk for psychotic symptoms was observed whether these events occurred early in life or later in childhood Am J Psychiatry. 2011 Jan;168(1):7-8.
  • • At young ages, ADHD and depression, as well as anxiety are prevalent concurrently with bullying among the children involved. • In young adulthood, Male victims are at risk for anxiety and personality disorder Male bullies for personality disorders The risk is especially increased if the child is disturbed when involved in bullying at school age. Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2008 Apr-Jun;20(2):121- 32.
  • Consequences of bullying in schools Peer victimization is a significant causal factor in school children's lowered health and well-being and that the effects can be long-lasting. Further evidence from longitudinal studies indicates that the tendency to bully others at school significantly predicts subsequent antisocial and violent behaviour Can J Psychiatry. 2003 Oct;48(9):575.
  • A nationally representative study of 15,686 students in grades six through U.S. schools • Males> females • Bullies are more likely to smoke and drink alcohol, and to be poorer students • Bully-victims--students who are both bullies and recipients of bullying--tend to experience social isolation, to do poorly in school Journal of the American Medical Association (Vol. 285, No. 16)
  • Cyber and traditional bullying: differential association with depression • Cyber victims reported higher depression than bullies or bully-victims. • For physical, verbal, and relational bullies, the frequently-involved group of victims and bully victims reported a significantly higher level of depression than the corresponding occasionally involved group. J Adolesc Health. 2011 Apr;48(4):415-7. Epub 2010 Sep 22.
  • • 100,000 students carry a gun to school. • 28% of youths who carry weapons have witnessed violence at home. • Playground statistics - Every 7 minutes a child is bullied. THE BUREAU OF JUSTICE STATISTICS - School Crime and Safety’09
  • • Early experience as a bully in school is a significant predictor of juvenile delinquency. Bullies also evidence increased spousal abuse and child abuse in adult life. • Hazler, R.J. (1994). Bullying breeds violence: You can stop it. Learning, 22, 38-41
  • • 44% of suicides among 10- to 14-year- olds may be bullying-related. At least 14% were clearly linked by the press to bullying. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/10302550
  • • Yale professor Young-Shin Kim has done research on what's been termed "bullycide" and has found that victims of bullying are 5.6 times more at risk of attempting or thinking about suicide
  • Bullies are five times more likely to end up with a serious criminal record by age 30. National Association of School Psychologists
  • • 6,437 children from birth to 13 years. At the age of 13, the children were interviewed about their experiences of psychotic symptoms in the previous six months • Bullying can increase the risk of children suffering from psychotic symptoms by up to four times • Effects included hallucinations, paranoid delusions • Children who experienced sustained bullying over a number of years could be four times more at risk. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/education/education-news/bullying-can-lead-to- mental-illness-says-study-1677108.html
  • In Bangladesh • Bullying is a serious problem in Bangladesh with more than 30% of students admitting to bullying someone at least once over the past year. http://www.savethechildren.org.au/resources/position-papers/bullying
  • In Bangladesh • Teenage suicides – 22 (‘10)  dozens of high-profile attacks on teenage girls have highlighted Bangladesh's sexual bullying problem Ain O Salish Kendra (ASK)
  • Eve-teasing The south Asian term for sexual harassment -- is an everyday reality in Bangladesh
  • • Plain-clothed policemen have been on patrol outside top girls' schools in Dhaka, and female police officers have gone undercover inside school grounds across the country -- arresting more than 500 bullies so far this year. • Traditional attitudes and new technology like mobile phones have combined. AFP news- july’10
  • • Burka bullying banned by Bangladesh court Bangladesh's high court has banned educational institutions from bullying female employees into wearing headscarves or veils Telegraph---09 Apr 2010
  • Bangladeshi school girls learn karate to fight bullying The Tangail district's measures follow the deaths of three people across Bangladesh this week in bullying-related incidents, bringing the total number of deaths to 36 this year, according to police statistics. http://www.thehimalayantimes.com/fullNews.php? headline=Bangladeshi+school+girls+learn+karate+to+fight+bullying&NewsID=264145 ; 2010-11- 02
  • Best Practices in Prevention and Intervention Behavioral Ecological Model Adapted from “The Behavioral Ecological Model: Integrating public health and behavioral science.” by Hovell, Wahlgren, & Gehrman, 2002. In R.J. DiClemente, R. Crosby, & M. Kegler, (Eds.), New and emerging theories in health promotion practice & research (pp.347-385). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
  • Faulty beliefs/ attitudes to change • I’m not good enough • Being different is bad • I am to blame • I can’t accept the truth • I can do it my own way • Nothing works • No-one can help • I think it is a waste of time
  • Behaviour (Actions) Feeling (Emotions) Thinking
  • School programs • Review of 48 studies – • 48% reduction in bullying • 33% reduction in victimization (craig et al..,2010)
  • Creating Caring, Connected and Safe Homes
  • Conclusion • What is required is a commitment by everyone for cultural change that no longer accepts or tolerates violence in our schools, neighborhoods, and broader society
  • • ‘PEAS’ PROGRAM Psychological-Educational-And-Social
  • ‘He who passively accepts evil is as much involved in it as he who helps to perpetrate it’ (Martin Luther King Jr.)
  • Cyber bullying victim Amanda Todd left her mum a 'goodbye' video message before she hanged herself.
  • Together we can make a difference