The science of exegesis of the holy quran

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ApproachesTo The Interpretation Of The Holy Quran, Classical and Modern
by Dr. Saleem A Khanani

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The science of exegesis of the holy quran

  1. 1. ‫ميحرلا نمحرلا هللا‬ ‫بسم‬ ‫علم تفسٌر القرآن‬The science of exegesis of the Holy Quran Then and now!
  2. 2. TafseerThe Classical Period
  3. 3. ‫‪Definition of Tafseer‬‬ ‫تفسير‬ ‫وَل ٌَؤْتُونَكَ بِمثَل إَِل جئْنَاكَ بِالحق وأَحسن تَفسٌرا (33) الفرقان‬ ‫ْ َ ِّ َ ْ َ َ ْ ِ ً‬ ‫َ ٍ ا ِ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫{ وأَحسن تَفسٌرا } أي: بٌانًا وتفصٌال و"التفسٌر": تفعٌل، من الفَسر، وهو‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫َ ْ َ َ ْ ِ ً‬ ‫كشف ما قد غطً‬ ‫التفسٌر تفعٌل من الفسر وهوالبٌان والكشف‬ ‫وقال الزركشً: التفسٌر: علم ٌفهم به كتاب هللا المنزل على نبٌه دمحم ملسو هيلع هللا ىلص وبٌان‬ ‫معانٌه واستخراج أحكامه وحكمه، واستمداد ذلك من علم اللغة‬‫والنحووالتصرٌف وعلم البٌان وأصول الفقه والقراءات وٌحتاج لمعرفة أسباب‬ ‫النزول والناسخ والمنسوخ.‬ ‫وقال بعضهم: التفسٌر فً اَلصطالح علم نزول اآلٌات وشإونها وأقاصٌصها‬‫واألسباب النازلة فٌها، ثم ترتٌب مكٌها ومدنٌها ومحكمها ومتشابهها وناسخها‬ ‫ومنسوخها وخاصها وعامها ومطلقها ومقٌدها ومجملها ومفسرها وحاللها‬ ‫وحرامها ووعدها ووعٌدها وأمرها ونهٌها وعبرها وأمثالها.‬
  4. 4. Definition of TafseerTo explain, uncover, describe in detailIt is the science that deals with the understandingof the book of Allah revealed to His ProphetMohammad, peace be upon him. It involvesexplanation of its meaning and derivation ofcommands and wisdom and it requires theknowledge of the linguistics, rhetoric, principles ofjurisprudence, sciences of recitation and it needsthe knowledge of the reasons for revelation of theverses of the Holy Quran.
  5. 5. ‫‪Definition of Ta’weel‬‬ ‫التأويل‬ ‫هُو الَّذي أ َْنزَ ل علٌَْك الكتَاب منه ُ آٌََات محكمات هُن أُم الكتَاب‬ ‫ٌ ُ ْ َ َ ٌ َّ ُّ ْ ِ ِ‬ ‫َ َ َ ِْ َ ِْ‬ ‫َ ِ‬‫وأُخَر متَشابهات فَأَما الَّذٌن فً قُلُوبِهم زَ ٌغ فٌََت َِّبعُون ما تَشابَهَ منه ُ‬ ‫َ َ َ ِْ‬ ‫ِْ ْ ٌ‬ ‫َ ُ ُ َ ِ َ ٌ َّ ِ َ ِ‬ ‫ابتِغَاء الفتْنَة وابتِغَاء تَأْوٌ ِله وما ٌَعلَم تَأْوٌلَه ُ إَِّل اَّللُ والراسخون‬ ‫َّ َّ َ َّ ِ ُ َ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ْ َ ِْ ِ َ ْ َ ِ ِ َ َ ْ ُ‬ ‫فً الع ْلم ٌَقُولُون آَمنَّا به كُل من عند ربّنَا وما ٌَذَّكر إَّل أُولُو‬ ‫َّ ُ ِ َّ‬ ‫َ َ ِ ِ ٌّ ِ ْ ِ ْ ِ َ ِ َ َ‬ ‫ِ ِْ ِ‬ ‫اْل َ ْلبَاب (7)‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ولنُعَلّمهُ من تَؤْوٌل األحادٌث‬ ‫ِ ِ‬ ‫َِ َِ ِ‬ ‫وقَال ٌَا أَبَت هذَا تَؤْوٌل رإٌَاي‬ ‫ِ ُ ُ ْ َ‬ ‫ِ َ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫وما فَعَلتُهُ عن أَمري ذ َِلكَ تَؤْوٌل ما لَم تَسطع علٌَه صبرا (28)‬ ‫ِ ُ َ ْ ْ ِ ْ َ ِْ ًَْ‬ ‫َ َ ْ َ ْ ِْ‬
  6. 6. ‫‪Definition of Ta’weel‬‬ ‫التأويل‬ ‫والتؤوٌل اصله من األول وهوالرجوع‬ ‫واختلف فً التفسٌر والتؤوٌل. فقال أبوعبٌد وطائفة: هما بمعنى،‬‫وقد أنكر ذلك قوم حتى بالغ ابن حبٌب النٌسابوري فقال: قد نبغ فً‬ ‫زماننا مفسرون لوسئلوا عن الفرق بٌن التفسٌر والتؤوٌل ما‬ ‫اهتدوا إلٌه. وقال الراغب: التفسٌر أعم من التؤوٌل، وأكثر‬‫استعماله فً األلفاظ ومفرداتها، وأكثر استعمال التؤوٌل فً المعانً‬ ‫والجمل، وأكثر ما ٌستعمل فً الكتب اإللهٌة، والتفسٌر ٌستعمل‬‫فٌها وفً غٌرها. وقال غٌره: التفسٌر بٌان لفظ َل ٌحتمل إَل وجها ً‬ ‫واحداً، والتؤوٌل توجٌه لفظ متوجه إلى معان مختلفة إلى واحد‬ ‫منها بما ظهر من األدلة‬
  7. 7. Definition of Ta’weelTo return something to its original (meaning)Difference of opinion whether tafseer and ta’weel aresynonymous.-synonymous-tafseer refers to meaning of individual words, whileta’weel refers to the meaning of entire verses.Tafseer is generic. Ta’weel is specific to the Divine BooksTafseer deals with words with one specific meaning, whileTa’weel deals with words that have many meanings but itspecifies one meaning through evidence and arguments.
  8. 8. ‫‪An example‬‬‫مثاله قوله تعالى إن ربك لبالمرصاد تفسٌره: انه من الرصد،‬ ‫ٌقال رصدته: رقبته، والمرصاد مفعال منه. وتؤوٌله التحذٌر‬ ‫من التهاون بؤمر هللا والغفلة عن األهبة واَلستعداد للعرض‬ ‫علٌه.‬
  9. 9. Why do we need Tafseer?• Is the Holy Quran not self explanatory? ‫ولَقَد ٌَسرنَا القُرآَن للذ ّكْر فَهل من مداكر‬ ٍِ ُ ْ ِ ْ َ ِ ِ ِ َ ْ ْ ْ‫َ ْ ا‬A triangle:The speaker Allah SWT ‫كمال فضٌلة المصنف، فإنه لقوته العلمٌة ٌجمع المعانً الدقٌقة فً اللفظ‬ ‫الوجٌز‬ ‫كالم هللا‬ ‫عربى مبٌن‬The listeners or the readers with variable intellectuallevels
  10. 10. ExamplesThe Companions of the Holy Prophet peace beupon him were the first recipients of the HolyQuran. They knew Arabic very well. They werefamiliar with the circumstances of therevelation. Yet they would also approach theHoly Prophet, peace be upon him, forexplanation.
  11. 11. ‫‪Examples‬‬‫(ولم ٌلبسوا إٌمانهم بظلم فقالوا: وأٌنا لم ٌظلم نفسه، ففسره‬‫النبً ملسو هيلع هللا ىلص بالشرك، واستدل علٌه بقوله (إن الشرك لظلم عظٌم‬ ‫وكسإال عائشة عن الحساب الٌسٌر فقال: ذلك العرض.‬ ‫وكقصة عدي بن حاتم فً الخٌط األبٌض واألسود‬ ‫ّ‬
  12. 12. ‫‪Importance of Tafseer and its virtues‬‬‫قال تعالى ٌإتً الحكمة من ٌشاء ومن ٌإت الحكمة فقد أوتً‬ ‫خٌرا ً كثٌرا ً . وأخرج ابن أبً حاتم وغٌره من طرٌق ابن أبً‬ ‫طلحة عن ابن عباس فً قوله تعالى ٌإتً الحكمة قال:‬ ‫المعرفة بالقرآن، ناسخه ومنسوخه، ومحكمه ومتشابهه،‬ ‫ومقدمه ومإخره، وحالله وحرامه، وأمثاله.‬ ‫وقال تعالى وتلك األمثال نضربها للناس وما ٌعقلها إَل‬ ‫العالمون . واخرج ابن أبً حاتم عن عمروبن مرة قال: ما‬ ‫مررت بآٌة فً كتاب اله َل أعرفها إَل أحزنتنً،‬
  13. 13. Importance and virtues of Tafseer ‫وأخرج ابو ذر الهروي فً فضائل القرآن من طرٌق سعٌد بن‬ ‫جبٌر عن ابن عباس قال: الذي ٌقرأ القرآن وَل ٌحسن تفسٌره‬ ‫كاألعرابً ٌهذ الشعر هذا‬A person recites the Holy Quran but is not goodat its explanation is like an A’arabi who simplyquotes poetry without knowing its meaning.
  14. 14. Sources of Tafseer1. The Holy Quran2. Hadith and Sunna of the Holy Prophe peace be upon Him.3. Explanations given by the Companion, may Allah be pleased with them4. Explanations of the follower ‫التابعٌن‬5. Classical Arabic language6. Intellect.‫إَل فهما ً ٌإتاه الرجل فً القرآن‬
  15. 15. ‫‪Tafseer of the Holy Quran from the‬‬ ‫‪Holy Quran itself‬‬ ‫القرآن ٌفسر بعضه .‪Parts of Quran explain others‬‬ ‫بعضا‬ ‫اهدنَا الصراط المستَقٌم (6) صراط الاذٌِن أَنعَمت علٌَهم غٌر‬ ‫َ ْ ْ َ َ ْ ِ ْ َِْ‬ ‫ِ َ َ‬ ‫ِّ َ َ ْ ُ ْ ِ َ‬ ‫ِْ‬ ‫َْ ْ ُ ِ َ ِْْ َ َ‬ ‫المغضوب علٌَهم وَل الضالٌّن (7)‬ ‫ا ِ َ‬‫ومن ٌُطع اَّلل والرسُول فَؤُولَئِكَ مع الاذٌِن أَنعَم اَّللُ علٌَهم من‬ ‫َ ْ َ ا َ ِْْ ِ َ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ َ ْ ِ ِ اَ َ ا‬‫النابٌٌِِّن والصد ٌِّقٌن والشهدَاء والصالحٌن وحسُن أُولَئِكَ رفٌِقًا‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ َ ِ ّ ِ َ َ ُّ َ ِ َ ا ِ ِ َ َ َ َ‬ ‫(96) النساء‬
  16. 16. ‫‪Tafseer of the Holy Quran from the‬‬ ‫‪Holy Quran itself‬‬ ‫فَتَلَقاى آَدَم من ربِّه كلمات فَتَاب علٌَه إِناهُ هُو التاواب الرحٌم‬ ‫َ ا ُ ا ِ ُ‬ ‫َ َ ِْ‬ ‫ُ ِ ْ َ ِ َِ َ ٍ‬ ‫قَاَل ربانَا ظلَمنَا أَنفُسنَا وإِن لَم تَغفر لَنَا وتَرحمنَا لَنَكُونَن من‬ ‫ا ِ َ‬ ‫َ ْ َْ‬ ‫َ ْ ْ َ َ ْ ْ ِْْ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫ْ َ ِِ َ‬ ‫الخاسرٌن‬ ‫ٌَا أٌَُّها الاذٌِن آَمنُوا اتاقُوا اَّلل وكُونُوا مع الصادقٌِن‬ ‫ا ِ َ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫اَ َ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫لٌَس البِر أَن تُولُّوا وجوهكُم قِبَل المشْرق والمغرب ولَكن البِر من‬ ‫ُ ُ َ ْ َ ْ َ ِ ِ َ ْ َ ِْ ِ َ ِ ا ْ ا َ ْ‬ ‫ْ َ ْ ا ْ َ‬‫آَمن بِاَّلل والٌَوم اآلَخر والمالئِكة والكتَاب والنابٌٌِِّن وآَتَى المال علَى‬ ‫َْ َ َ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫َ َ اِ َ ْ ْ ِ ْ ِ ِ َ ْ َ َ َ ِ َ ِْ ِ َ‬‫حبِّه ذَوي القُربَى والٌَتَامى والمساكٌن وابن السبٌِل والسائِلٌن وفًِ‬ ‫َ ْ َ َ َْ َ ِ َ َ ْ َ ا ِ َ ا ِ َ َ‬ ‫ُ ِ ِ ْ ْ‬ ‫الرقَاب وأَقَام الصالةَ وآَتَى الزكَاةَ والموفُون بِعَهدهم إِذَا عاهد ُوا‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫َ ِْ ِْ‬ ‫َ ُْ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اَ َ‬ ‫ِّ ِ َ َ‬‫والصابِرٌن فًِ البَؤْساء والضراء وحٌن البَؤْس أُولَئِكَ الاذٌِن صدَقُوا‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫ْ َ ِ َ اا ِ َ ِ َ ْ ِ‬ ‫َ ا ِ َ‬ ‫وأُولَئِكَ هُم المتاقُون‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ُ ُْ‬ ‫َ‬
  17. 17. ‫‪Tafseer from the Hadith‬‬ ‫وقد قال الشافعً رضً هللا عنه: كل ما حكم به رسول هللا‬ ‫ملسو هيلع هللا ىلص فهومما فهمه من القرآن، قال تعالى إنا أنزلنا إلٌك الكتاب‬ ‫بالحق لتحكم بٌن الناس بما أراك هللا‬ ‫وقال ملسو هيلع هللا ىلص: أَل إنً أوتٌت القرآن ومثله معه: عنً السنة،‬‫لَقَد من اَّللُ علَى المإمنٌِن إِذ بَعَث فٌِهم رسُوَل من أَنفُسهم ٌَتْلُو‬ ‫ُْْ ِ َ ْ َ ِْ َ ً ِ ْ ْ ِ ِْ‬ ‫ْ َ ا ا َ‬ ‫علٌَهم آٌََاتِه وٌُزكٌهم وٌُعَلّمهم الكتَاب والحكمةَ وإِن كَانُوا من‬ ‫ِ ْ‬ ‫ِ َ َ ِّ ِ ْ َ ِ ُ ُ ُ ْ ِ َ َ ْ ِ ْ َ َ ْ‬ ‫َ ِْْ‬ ‫قَبل لَفً ضالل مبٌِن‬ ‫ََ ٍ ُ ٍ‬ ‫ْ ُ ِ‬ ‫وأَنزلنَا إِلٌَكَ الذ ّكر لتُبٌَِّن للنااس ما ن ُِّزل إِلٌَهم ولَعَلاهم ٌَتَفَكرون‬ ‫اُ َ‬ ‫َ ِْْ َ ُْ‬ ‫َِْ ِ َ ِ ِ َ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫َ َْْ‬
  18. 18. ‫‪Tafseer from Hadith‬‬ ‫عن معمر , عن علً ِ بن زٌد بن جدعان , عن أَبًِ‬ ‫َ ْ َِ ّ ْ ِ َ ِْ ْ ِ ُ ْ َ َ َ ْ‬ ‫َ ْ َ ٍَْ‬‫نَضرةَ , عن عمران بن حصٌن , أَن رجال أَتَاهُ فَسؤَلَهُ عن شًء‬‫َ ْ َ ْ ٍ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ا َ ُ‬ ‫َ ْ ِ ْ َ َ ْ ِ ُ َْ ٍ‬ ‫َْ‬ ‫فَحداثَهُ , فَقَال الرجل : " حدثُوا عن كتَاب اَّلل وَل تُحدثُوا عن‬ ‫َ ْ‬ ‫ِّ‬ ‫َ ْ ِ ِ اِ َ‬ ‫َ ِّ‬ ‫َ ا ُ ُ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫غٌره , فَقَال : إِناكَ امرإ أَحمق , أَتَجد ُ فًِ كتَاب اَّلل أَن صالةَ‬ ‫ِ ِ اِ ا َ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ْ ُ ٌ ْ َ ُ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َِْ ِ‬ ‫الظهر أَربَعًا َل ٌُجهر فٌِها , وعدادَ الصلَوات وعدادَ الزكَاة‬ ‫ا ِ‬ ‫ا َ ِ َ َ‬ ‫ْ َُ َ َ َ‬ ‫ُّ ْ ِ ْ‬ ‫ونَحوها , ثُم قَال : أَتَجد ُ هذَا مفَسرا فًِ كتَاب اَّلل , إِن اَّلل قَد‬ ‫ا اَ ْ‬ ‫ِ ِ اِ‬ ‫ِ َ ُ اً‬ ‫ا َ‬ ‫َ ْ َ َ‬ ‫" أَحكم ذ َِلكَ والسناةُ تُفَسر ذ َِلكَ‬ ‫ِّ ُ‬ ‫َ ُّ‬ ‫ْ ََ‬
  19. 19. Tafseer from HadithA person asked Imran ibn Haseen, RA, aboutsomething and said, “Give me the answer fromAllah’s book only and do not quote anything else.”Imran ibn Haseen, RA said, “You must be foolish. Doyou find in Allah’s book that there are four raka inthe Dhur prayers and that the recitation in it is donesilently? Do you find the number of prayers and theamount to be paid for Zakat and like this. Allah hasordered all of this and the Sunna is the explanationof this.
  20. 20. Tafseer from HadithSerious doubts have been created by theOrientalists, and subsequently by the “modern,reformist, enlightened” Muslims about theauthenticity and status of Hadith and Sunnah.Movements are on the rise about rejecting the roleof Hadith in the explanation of the Holy Quran.This is seen in the works of the Muatazillas, thosewho call themselves Submitter (submission.org)
  21. 21. Tafseer from HadithSome examples of those who deny the validityof Hadith in the explanation of the Holy Quran.“Whenever you want to pursue the truth andverify anything you hear about Islam, we urgeyou to please use the only valid and divinesource of Islam, Quran. Submission.org”Progressive Muslims
  22. 22. Tafseer from Hadith• Muhammad AsadFirstly, the Qur’an must not be viewed as a compilation of individualinjunctions and exhortations but as one integral whole: that is, asan exposition of an ethical doctrine in which every verse andsentence has an intimate bearing on other verses and sentences, allof them clarifying and amplifying one another. Consequently, itsreal meaning can be grasped only if we correlate every one of thestatements with what has been stated elsewhere in its pages, andtry to explain its ideas by means of frequent cross references,always subordinating the particular to the general and theincidental to the intrinsic. Whenever this rule is faithfully followed,we realise that the Qu’ran is – in the words of Muhammad Abduh –“its own best commentry”
  23. 23. Tafseer from HadithWhy the opposition?1. Questions about the authenticity of Hadith2. Questions about the interpretation of Hadith3. Issues that are beyond human intellect, e.g., physical reality of Heaven and Hell, Angels, Jinn, Shaiytan.4. Difficult to follow and implement5. ،‫وإن قال اإلمام أحمد: ثالثة لٌس لها أصل: التفسٌر، والمالحم‬ ‫والمغازي‬There are three things that are not well established,tafseer, the events about the end of the time, and thewars.
  24. 24. A clarification of Imam Ahmad’s “statement”• This statement may have been attributed to him by mistake since he has included a large number of ahadith related to tafseer in his Musnad.• If we consider this statement to be true, then we will have to say that no historical event from the Prophetic life is established.• Imam Ahmad considered a statement to be a hadith only if it reached him through a well established chain of transmission.
  25. 25. ‫‪Tafseer as reported by the Companions‬‬ ‫‪may Allah be pleased with them‬‬‫‪• Evidence from the practice of the Companions‬‬ ‫‪may Allah be pleased with them‬‬ ‫ٌجب أن ٌعلم أن النبً ملسو هيلع هللا ىلص بٌن ألصحابه معانً القرآن كما بٌن‬ ‫لهم ألفاظه، فقوله تعالى لتبٌن للناس ما نزل إلٌهم ٌتناول هذا‬ ‫وهذا. وقد قال أبوعبد الرحمن السلمً: حدثنا الذٌن كانوا‬ ‫ٌقرءون القرآن كعثمان بن عفان وعبد هللا بن مسعود‬ ‫وغٌرهما أنهم كانوا إذا تعلموا من النبً ملسو هيلع هللا ىلص عشر آٌات لم‬‫ٌتجاوزوها حتى ٌعلموا ما فٌها من العلم والعمل، قالوا: فتعلمنا‬ ‫القرآن والعلم والعمل جمٌعا ً‬
  26. 26. ‫‪The mufassir Companions Allah be‬‬ ‫‪pleased with them‬‬ ‫اشتهر بالتفسٌر من الصحابة عشرة: الخلفاء األربعة، وابن‬ ‫مسعود، وابن عباس، وأبً بن كعب، وزٌد بن ثابت،‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫وأبوموسى األشعري، وعبد هللا بن الزبٌر. أما الخلفاء فؤكثر‬ ‫من روى منهم علً ابن أبً طالب،‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫وقد روى معمر عن وهب بن عبد هللا عن أبً الطفٌل قال:‬ ‫شهدت علٌا ً ٌخطب وهوٌقول: سلونً فوهللا َل تسؤلون عن‬‫شًء إَل أخبرتكم، وسلونً عن كتاب هللا فوهللا ما من آٌة إَل‬ ‫وأنا أعلم أبلٌل نزلت أم بنهار؟ أم فً سهل أم فً جبل؟‬
  27. 27. ‫‪The mufassir Companions Allah be‬‬ ‫‪pleased with them‬‬ ‫وأما ابن مسعود فروى عنه أكثر مما روى عن علً، وقد‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫اخرج ابن جرر وغٌره عنه أنه قال: والذي َل إله غٌره ما‬‫نزلت آٌة من كتاب هللا إَل وأنا أعلم فٌمن نزلت وأٌن نزلت؟‬ ‫ولوأعلم مكان أحد أعلم بكتاب هللا منً تناله المطاٌا ألتٌته.‬
  28. 28. ‫‪Abdullah Ibn Abbas, may Allah be‬‬ ‫‪pleased with both of them‬‬ ‫فهوترجمان القرآن الذي دعا له النبً ملسو هيلع هللا ىلص اللهم فقهه فً الدٌن‬‫وعلمه التؤوٌل وقال له أٌضا ً اللهم آته الحكمة وفً رواٌة اللهم‬ ‫علمه الحكمة. وأخرج أبونعٌم فً الحلٌة عن ابن عمر قال:‬ ‫دعا رسول هللا ملسو هيلع هللا ىلص لعبد هللا بن عباس فقال: اللهم بارك فٌه‬ ‫وانشر منه.‬ ‫قال ابن عباس: قال لً رسول هللا ملسو هيلع هللا ىلص نعم ترجمان القرآن أنت.‬
  29. 29. Why the Companions, may Allah be pleased with them?They are the same people who transmitted the HolyQuran to us.They were chosen by Allah SWT to the Companionsof the Holy Prophet, peace be upon him.They learnt from Him, peace be upon Him.They knew the Arabic language better than us.They lived through the period of revelation.They were extremely careful in explaining the HolyQuran.
  30. 30. ‫‪An example of the carefulness‬‬ ‫أي أرض تقلنً؟! وأي سماء تظلنً؟! إذا قلت فً كتاب هللا ما لم‬ ‫أعلم، أي أرض تقلنً؟! ٌعنً: تحملنً، وأي سماء تظلنً؟! ٌعنً:‬ ‫أننً إذا قلت ذلك فقد تجرأت على هللا تعالى؛ فأكون قد أخطأت فال‬ ‫تحملنً اْلرض لعظم ما قلته، وَّل تظلنً السماء لكبر ما تقولته.‬‫,‪Reported as the statement of Abubakar Siddique‬‬‫رضى هللا عنه‬‫‪Which earth will carry me and while sky will cover‬‬‫‪me if say something about the book of Allah‬‬‫?‪without knowledge‬‬
  31. 31. What if there is a difference of opinion among the Companions RA?• Follow the opinion of the majority• Follow the senior Companions who are established as scholars• Follow the opinion of the ‫خلفاء راشدٌن‬An example:
  32. 32. ‫‪An example‬‬ ‫حدثنً أبو حصٌن عبد هللا بن أحمد بن ٌونس قال :‬ ‫حدثنا هشٌم قال : حدثنا حصٌن ، عن زٌد بن وهب قال :‬ ‫مررت بالربذة ، فلقٌت أبا ذر ، فقلت : ٌا أبا ذر ، ما أنزلك هذه‬ ‫البالد؟ قال : كنت بالشؤم ، فقرأت هذه اآلٌة : ( والذٌن ٌكنزون‬ ‫الذهب والفضة ) ، اآلٌة ، فقال معاوٌة : لٌست هذه اآلٌة فٌنا ،‬ ‫إنما هذه اآلٌة فً أهل الكتاب! قال : فقلت : إنها لفٌنا وفٌهم! قال‬ ‫: فارتفع فً ذلك بٌنً وبٌنه القول ، فكتب إلى عثمان ٌشكونً ،‬ ‫فكتب إلً عثمان أن أقبل إلً ! قال : فؤقبلت ، فلما‬ ‫قدمت المدٌنة ركبنً الناس كؤنهم لم ٌرونً قبل ٌومئذ ، فشكوت‬‫ذلك إلى عثمان ، فقال لً : تنح قرٌبا . قلت : وهللا لن أدع ما كنت‬ ‫أقول!‬
  33. 33. Tafseer by the followersThe followers were either the children or studentsof the Companions, may Allah be pleased withthem.If a follower reports from a Companion, may Allahbe pleased with him, then it will be treated as such.If a follower gives his own opinion, then it will betested against the other sources of tafseer.In the case of consensus among the followers, theopinion will be acceptable.
  34. 34. Tafseer through the Arabic languageClassical Arabic poetry is often used to determinethe meaning of a particular Quranic word as it wasunderstood by the Arabs of that time.Many of the earlier books of Tafseer quote Arabicpoetry.The Pre-Islamic poetry is still taught to familiarizethe students with the classical Arabic usage.It cannot be used to the exclusion of other sources.
  35. 35. ‫‪Tafseer through Arabic language‬‬ ‫روى البٌهقً فً الشعب عن مالك قال: َل أوتً برجل غٌر‬ ‫عالم بلغة العرب ٌفسر كتاب هللا إَل جعلته نكاَلً.‬ ‫وقد أخرج ابن جرٌر وغٌره من طرق ابن عباس قال: التفسٌر‬ ‫أربعة أوجه: وجه تعرفه العرب من كالمها، وتفسٌر َل ٌعذر أحد‬ ‫بجهالته، وتفسٌر تعرفه العلماء، وتفسٌر َل ٌعلمه إَل هللا تعالى.‬‫‪Imam Malik said that if a person tried to explain‬‬‫‪Allah’s book without being a scholar of the Arabic‬‬‫‪language, then I will give him an exemplary‬‬‫.‪punishment‬‬
  36. 36. Tafseer through intellectEvidence for it: ‫وهذا هو الذي دعا به النبً ملسو هيلع هللا ىلص َلبن عباس حٌث قال: الهم‬ ،‫فقهه فً الدٌن وعلمه التؤوٌل‬ .‫والذي عناه علً بقوله: إَل فهما ً ٌإتاه الرجل فً القرآن‬O Allah give him a deep understanding of thereligion and teach him the explanation of theQuran.Except the understanding that a person is givenabout the understanding of the Quran.
  37. 37. ‫‪Caution about explaining the Holy‬‬‫‪Quran through the use of intellect only‬‬‫وَل ٌجوز تفسٌر القرآن بمجرد الرأي واَلجتهاد من غٌر أصل‬ ‫قال تعالى وَل تقف ما لٌس لك به علم وقال وأن تقولوا على‬‫هللا ما َل تعلمون وقال لتبٌن للناس ما نزل إلٌهم أضاف البٌان‬ ‫إلٌه. وقال ملسو هيلع هللا ىلص من تكلم فً القرآن برأٌه فؤصاب فقد أخطؤ‬ ‫أخرجه أبوداود والترمذي والنسائً، وقال من قال فً القرآن‬ ‫بغٌر علم فلٌتبوأ مقعده من النار أخرجه أبوداود.‬ ‫قال البٌهقً فً الحدٌث األول: إن صح أراد وهللا أعلم الرأي‬ ‫الذي ٌغلب من غٌر دلٌل قام علٌه، وأما الذي ٌشده برهان‬ ‫فالقول به جائز‬
  38. 38. Tafsir by narration and tafsir by opinion ‫تفسٌر بالرواٌة‬ ‫تفسٌر بالرائ‬Majority of earlier Tafasir are through transmissionand give explanation of the verses of the HolyQuran through other verses, ahadith and validopinions of the learned Companions and followers.Our traditional commentators did express theiropinion but it was based upon their understandingand not without any basis.
  39. 39. ‫‪Unusual explanations‬‬‫‪• Rawafid‬‬‫‪• Batinia‬‬‫‪• Sufi‬‬ ‫مثل تؤوٌل الروافض، قوله تعالى مرج البحرٌن ٌلتقٌان إنهما‬ ‫علً وفاطمة ٌخرج منهما اللإلإ والمرجان ٌعنً الحسن‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫والحسٌن.‬
  40. 40. ‫?‪Can anyone do tafseer‬‬ ‫َل ٌجوز ألحد أن ٌتعاطى تفسٌر شًء من القرآن وإن كان‬ ‫عالما ً أدٌبا ً متسعا ً فً معرفة األدلة والفقه والنحوواألخبار‬ ‫واآلثار، ولٌس له إَل أن ٌنتهً إلى ما روي عن النبً صلى‬ ‫هللا علٌه وسلم فً ذلك.‬ ‫قال الشافعً رضً هللا عنه فً مختصر البوٌطً: َل ٌحل‬‫تفسٌر المتشابه إَل بسنة عن رسول هللا ملسو هيلع هللا ىلص أوخبر عن أحد من‬ ‫أصحابه أوإجماع العلماء،‬ ‫ومنهم من قال: ٌجوز تفسٌره لمن كان جامعا ً للعلوم التً‬ ‫ٌحتاج المفسر إلٌها وهً خمسة عشر علما ً‬
  41. 41. 15 requirements for a mufassir1 Knowledge of the Arabic language2 and 3. Grammar, ‫الصرف و النحو‬4 word derivation5,6,7. Rhetorical sciences: ‫معانىو بٌانو بدٌع‬8. Knowledge of different modes of recitation9. Knowledge of the principles of religion‫اصول الدٌن‬10. Knowledge of juristic sciences11. Knowledge of reasons for revelation and stories12. Knowledge of abrogation13. Jurisprudence14. Knowledge of Hadith15. Knowledge given specially by Allah،‫علم الموهبة‬
  42. 42. Issues of modernity in the interpretation of the Holy Quran• Where does revelation end and interpreation begin?• What distinguishes the divine voice from the human voices that transmit or interpret it?• What part does the humanity of the Holy Prophet, peace be upon him, play in the process of revelation?
  43. 43. Classical view point• The Quran has more need of the Sunnah than the Sunnah has of the Quran.• Ash Shafai: The primary function of the Sunnah is to clarify the Quran.• Opponents of Ash Shafai: The Quran explains everything and needs no supplement.• The opposite view point remained dormant for centuries only to be revived in the 19th and 20th century, perhaps due to the influence of the trends in the Western world.
  44. 44. Some modern trends in Tafsir• Syed Ahmad Khan: India late nineteenth and early twentieth century:Too heavy a reliance on hadith for theinterpretation of the Quran puts at risk thiseternal and universal quality. Hadith-based tafsirtends to limit the meaning of the Quran to aparticular historical situation, thus obscuring itsuniversality.
  45. 45. Some modern trends in Tafsir• Inayat Allah Mashriqi:The correct and the only meaning of the Quranlies, and is preserved, within itself, and a perfectand detailed exegesis of its words is within itsown pages. One part of the Quran explains theother; it needs neither philosophy, nor wit, norlexicography, not even hadith.
  46. 46. Some modern trends in Tafsir• Abd Allah Chakralwi:We should pray five times a day, not because ofhadith, but because they are proven from theHoly Quran.He considered adhan an innovation with nobasis in Quran.He modified the ritual recitations and he wouldallow no more than the obligatory number ofritual acts of prayer. Stand, bow and prostrate!
  47. 47. Some modern trends in Tafsir• The Egytpian SidqiThe authority of theHoly Prophet, peace be uponhim, is strictly limited to implementing te Quran.Since Muslims are instructed to shorten the prayerto one raka during danger, the normal minimumrequirement must be two raka only. Any additionalrakas offered by the Holy Prophet, peace be uponhim, were purely optional.Since the QURAN does not establish the preciseamount of Zakat, this is a matter of flexibility.
  48. 48. Modernist approach to the Holy Quran an exampleWhile most interpretations of the Quran tends to lean toward dogma or traditionalidealism to explain its verses Dr. Shabbir has totally done away with using all extrinsicsources allowing the Book to explain itself through the process of Tasreef (The Quranis a non-linear Book so some parts of the Book explains other parts of the Book infurther detail) thus allowing the reader to focus on the big picture of the Quranicmessage. Any rational being that has knowledge of the history of extrinsic sourcesused to explain the Quran by traditionalist such as hadith would easily acknowledgethe dubiousness of such sources and the troubles such sources can be when it comesto diverting the seeker from the correct path of enlightenment.
  49. 49. Mohammad Asad’s opinion about Jinns and Angles• In order to grasp the purport of the term jinn as used in the Qur’an, we must dissociate our minds from the meaning given to it in Arabian folklore, where it early came to denote all manner of “demons” in the most popular sense of this word. This folkloristic image has somewhat obscured the original connotation of the term and its highly significant – almost self-explanatory – verbal derivation.
  50. 50. An example ‫أعوذ باهلل من الشٌطان الرجٌم‬I most humbly seek shelter with God against the promptings of all evil sourcesincluding my own ego. [Shayitaan = Satan = The straying Ego = Selfish desires = Desirethat rebels against the higher controls of sound judgment = Emotions that overpowerPermanent Moral Values = Intrinsic or extrinsic evil prompting = Negative peerpressure = Violent emotions = Self-glorification = Anything distant from goodness andprogress = False pride = A rumor monger = Fiery temperament = Slanderer = Ahinderer of good= He who spreads corruption and disorder on earth = Anyone who impels othersinto violating Divine Commands = A hinderer of good = Bad companionship = Onewho deceives or charms people into violating Divine laws = Any being or influencethat alienates humans from the Creator = One who distances itself from Divine grace.2:14, 4:38, 4:60, 4:83, 4:119, 5:90-91, 6:43, 6:143, 7:200, 17:26-27, 22:3-4, 25:28-29,31:21, 67:5. In Hebrew, Satan = Adversary = One who plots against another
  51. 51. Another exampleJinn = Something hidden, rarely seen. So, afterusing Tasreef, Al-Jinn = The nomads. Jannahfrom the same root means a garden hidden infoliage. When the Jinns or nomads move todwell in towns and become civilized, they arereferred to as Ins
  52. 52. Another exampleAadam = Adam = Man. His wife = Woman. Udma= Ability to live together as a community.Aadam from Udma thus, indicates humankind.The word ‘Eve’ or Hawwa is not mentioned inthe Qur’an. She is described with dignity asMer‘a-til-Aadam = Adam’s Zaujah = Wife,Consort, Mate of Adam = Mrs. Adam
  53. 53. Another example(Now is related to you the creation of Adam or mankind, in allegorical terms; whenGod decided to create humans who would be given free will, and supremacy onearth.)Your Lord announced His Plan to the angels, “I am about to place on earth a newcreation that will have supremacy over it.” They exclaimed, “Will you place on itsuch creation as will cause disorder therein and shed blood! - Whereas we striveto manifest Your glory (in the Universe)!” He answered, “I know what you do notknow.” *God had programmed the angels (God´s forces in nature) with specifictasks that express the Divine will. He created humans through the process ofevolution and granted them the ability to make free choices. They may chooseto follow Divine Guidance or deviate from it (33:72). The “angels” were noteven remotely aware of any will other than God´s. The Qur´an metaphoricallyportrays the immense responsibility given to humans in the story of Adam. Freewill may be likened to the breathing into humans from the Divine Energy
  54. 54. Another example ‫قُل أُوحً إِلًَ أَناهُ استَمع نَفَر من الجن فَقَالُوا إِناا سمعنَا قُرآَنًا‬ ْ ْ َِ ِّ ِ ْ َ ِ ٌ َ َ ْ ‫ْ ِ َ ا‬ ‫عجبًا‬ َ َShabbir: A tribe of nomandsMohammad Asad: strangers who had neverbefore been seen by the people among and towhom the Quran was being revealed.They may have been Jews from distant parts ofwhat is now the Arab world, perhaps fromSyria or even Mesopotamia.
  55. 55. ‫ما ملكت ايمانكم‬• Shabbirtwo, three, and four (4:127). But, if you fear thatyou shall not be able to deal justly, then, youmust not take additional wives, andmay continue with what you already haveMohammad Asad: marry the slave girls.
  56. 56. Issue of head covering for women A PhD thesis from Al Azhar:Sheikh Mustapha Mohamed Rashed argued that Hijab is not an Islamic duty. He statedthat Hijab refers to the cover of the head, which is not mentioned in the Holy Quran atall. “Nonetheless, a bunch of scholars insisted vehemently that the veil is both anIslamic duty and one of the most important pillars of Islam,” he added.In doing so, the PhD candidate points out, “they deviated from the purposes of theIslamic law and “Sahih Atafsir” or the true interpretation. They rejected reasoning andrelied only on literal text.”According to Mohamed Rashed, these scholars de-contextualized the verses of theQuran and interpreted them in their very own liking, following some ancient scholars,as if what they said is sacred and is no subject to Ijtihad.The researcher continued that the scholars, who claim that Hijab is an important pillarof Islam, departed from “Al Minhaj Assahih,” or the true path, of interpretation andreasoning, which interprets the verses according to their historical context and thecauses of revelation. These scholars “interpreted the verses in their general sense,overlooking the causes of their revelation, intentionally or due to their limitedintellectual capacity resulted in psychological scourge.” Worse yet, they approachedhundreds of important issues in the same way.
  57. 57. Need for Ijtihad in tafseer• It is not forbidden to to use Ijtihad or personal judgments in interpreting the Holy Quran.• Ijtihad makes Islam flexible and elastic enough to guide Muslims in every time and age.• Ijtihad in tafseer is not only permissible it is a must for every generation of Muslims.• ‫كتَاب أَنزلنَاهُ إِلٌَكَ مبَاركٌ لٌَداباروا آٌََاتِه ولٌَتَذَكار أُولُو األ َْلبَاب‬ ِ ْ َ َِ ِ ُ ِ َ ُ ْ َْْ ٌ ِ ‫(92)ص‬
  58. 58. Need for Ijtihad in tafseer• Ijtihad in tafsir is not an unbridled and unconstrained studying of the words of the Holy Quran to come up with new meanings of the Quranic verses.• For over 14 centuries Muslims scholars have pondered over the meanings of the Holy Quran• The First Muslims were also the first recipients of the Holy Quran• To give a meaning to the verses of the Quran that contradicts the documented understanding of our Salaf is to say that they did not understand the Quran in the first place.• If this is the case then why did Allah SWT chose them to be the First Muslims?
  59. 59. Need for Ijtihad in tafseer• The meaning of the verses is fixed as determined by the sources but how that fixed meaning is reflected or applied in a certain place or time is the role of the scholar in making ijtehad.• Hence the principles outlined by the Holy Quran and as understood by the earliest Muslims are like a ready set of data, and it is within the constraints of that fixed meaning that the scholar must seek guidance for his own particular time..• J. Zarabozo- How to approach and understand the Quran
  60. 60. ‫‪Changing rules for changing times‬‬ ‫فال بد للمفتً والقاضً بل والمجتهد من معرفة أحوال الناس‬ ‫وقد قالوا ومن جهل بؤهل زمانه فهو جاهل‬ ‫لٌس للمفتً وَل للقاضً أن ٌحكما على ظاهر المذهب وٌتركا‬ ‫العرف‬‫قلنا من العمل بالعرف ما لم ٌخالف الشرٌعة كالربا ونحو ذلك،‬ ‫فال بد للمفتً والقاضً بل والمجتهد من معرفة أحوال الناس‬
  61. 61. ConclusionAt a deeper level the controversy is above humaninterpreters of the Quran and their authority. If Sunna isthe essential tool for understanding revelation, thenexperts on Sunna are likewise indispensable. But if theability to contextualize revelation is needed, then thosewho know the modern world will the most ableinterpreters of the Quran and knowledge of the traditionwill be counted superfluous.The deep sociological rifts between religious leadershipand western-educated intelligentsia, between religiousscholar and technocrat, are thus projected onto thespectrum of modern Muslim attitudes toward the Quranand its interpretation. Daniel Brown Rethinking tradition

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