Mind-Reading ComputerKESHAV MEMORIAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Presented By: Anitha
Contents Abstract Introduction What is mind reading? Why mind reading? How does it work? Advantages and uses Disadvantages and problems Conclusion References
Abstract researchers to pick up electrical currents from various parts of the brain. If we could learn toA computer can, in a very real identify brain waves generatedsense, read human minds. by specific thoughts orAlthough the dots gyrations commands, we might be ableare directed by a computer, the to teach the same skill to amachine was only carrying out computer. The machine mightthe orders of the test subject. even be able to react to thoseThe computer mind-reading commands by, say, moving atechnique is far more than a dot across a TV screenlaboratory stunt. Though . So far the S.R.I, computer hascomputers can solve been taught to recognize sevenextraordinarily complex different commands—up,problems with incredible speed, down, left, right, slow, fast andthe information they digest is stop.fed to them by such slow,cumbersome tools astypewriter keyboards orpunched tapes.The key to his scheme: theelectroencephalograph, adevice used by medical
Existing human-computer interfaces are mind-blind — oblivious to the user’s mental states and intentions. A computer may wait indefinitely for input from a user who is no longer there, or decide to do irrelevant tasks while a user is frantically working towards an Introduction imminent deadline. As a result,People express their mental existing computer technologiesstates, including emotions, often frustrate the user, havethoughts, and desires, all the little persuasive power andtime through facial cannot initiate interactionsexpressions, vocal nuances and with the user. Even if they dogestures. This is true even when take the initiative, like the nowthey are interacting with retired Microsoft Paperclip,machines. Our mental states they are often misguided andshape the decisions that we irrelevant, and simply frustratemake, govern how we the user. With the increasingcommunicate with others, and complexity of computeraffect our performance. The technologies and the ubiquityability to attribute mental of mobile and wearablestates to others from their devices, there is a need forbehavior and to use that machines that are aware of theknowledge to guide our own user’s mental state and thatactions and predict those of adaptively respond to theseothers is known as theory of mental states.mind or mind-reading.
user and to enable applications to initiate interactions with and on behalf of the user, without waiting for explicit input from that user. There are difficult challenges:What is mind reading?A computational model ofmind-readingDrawing inspiration from Processing stages inpsychology, computer vision reading systemand machine learning, theteam in the Computer Using a digital video camera,Laboratory at the University of the mind-reading computerCambridge has developed system analyzes a person’smind-reading machines — facial expressions in real timecomputers that implement a and infers that person’scomputational model of mind- underlying mental state, suchreading to infer mental states as whether he or she isof people from their facial agreeing or disagreeing,signals. The goal is to enhance interested or bored, thinking orhuman-computer interaction confused.through empathic responses, to Prior knowledge of howimprove the productivity of the particular mental states are
expressed in the face is is modeled using Dynamiccombined with analysis of Bayesian Networks.facial expressions and headgestures occurring in real time.The model represents these atdifferent granularities, startingwith face and head movementsand building those in time andin space to form a clearermodel of what mental state isbeing represented. Softwarefrom Nevenvision identifies 24feature points on the face andtracks them in real time.Movement, shape and colourare then analyzed to identifygestures like a smile oreyebrows being raised.Combinations of theseoccurring over time indicatemental states. For example, acombination of a head nod,with a smile and eyebrowsraised might mean interest.The relationship betweenobservable head and facialdisplays and the correspondinghidden mental states over time Why mind reading?
minds and react to our moods. How would that change our use of technology and our lives? We are working with a major car manufacturer to implement this system in cars to detect driver mental states such as drowsiness, distraction and anger. Current projects in Cambridge are considering further inputs such as body posture and gestures to improve the inference. We can then use the same models to control the animation of cartoon avatars. We are also looking at the use of mind-reading to support on- Monitoring a car driver line shopping and learning systems.The mind-reading computer The mind-reading computersystem presents information system may also be used toabout your mental state as monitor and suggesteasily as a keyboard and mouse improvements in human-present text and commands. human interaction. TheImagine a future where we are Affective Computing Group atsurrounded with mobile the MIT Media Laboratory isphones, cars and online developing an emotional-socialservices that can read our
intelligence prosthesis that How does it work?explores new technologies to Futuristic headbandaugment and improve people’ssocial interactions andcommunication skills.
The mind reading actuallyinvolves measuring the volumeand oxygen level of the bloodaround the subjects brain,using technology calledfunctional near-infraredspectroscopy (fNIRS).The user wears a sort offuturistic headband that sendslight in that spectrum into thetissues of the head where it isabsorbed by active, blood-filledtissues. The headband thenmeasures how much light wasnot absorbed, letting thecomputer gauge the metabolicdemands that the brain ismaking.The results are often comparedto an MRI, but can be gatheredwith lightweight, non-invasiveequipment.
like frustration." "Measuring mental workload, frustration and distraction is typically limited to qualitatively observing computer users or to administering surveys after completion of a task, potentially missing valuableWearing the fNIRS sensor, insight into the users changingexperimental subjects were experiences.asked to count the number ofsquares on a rotating onscreencube and to perform othertasks. The subjects were then A computer program which canasked to rate the difficulty of read silently spoken words bythe tasks, and their ratings analyzing nerve signals in ouragreed with the work intensitydetected by the fNIRS system mouths and throats, has beenup to 83 percent of the time. developed by NASA."We dont know how specificwe can be about identifyingusers different emotional Preliminary results show thatstates," cautioned Sergio using button-sized sensors,Fantini, a biomedical which attach under the chinengineering professor at Tufts. and on the side of the Adams"However, the particular area apple, it is possible to pick upof the brain where the blood-flow change occurs should and recognize nerve signalsprovide indications of the and patterns from the tonguebrains metabolic changes and and vocal cords thatby extension workload, which correspond to specific words.could be a proxy for emotions
"Biological signals arise when to themselves and the softwarereading or speaking to oneself correctly picked up the signalswith or without actual lip or 92 per cent of the time.facial movement," says Chuck Then researchers put the lettersJorgensen, a neuroengineer at of the alphabet into a matrixNASAs Ames Research Center with each column and rowin Moffett Field, California, in labeled with a single-digitcharge of the research. Just the number. In that way, eachslightest movement in the voice letter was represented by abox and tongue is all it needs to unique pair of number co-work, he says. ordinates. These were used to silently spell "NASA" into a web search engine using the program.Web search "This proved we could browse the web without touching a keyboard”.For the first test of the sensors,scientists trained the softwareprogram to recognize six words- including "go", "left" and"right" - and 10 numbers.Participants hooked up to thesensors silently said the words
Advantages and uses Mind ControlledWheelchairThis prototype mind-controlledwheelchair developed from theUniversity of Electro-Communications in Japan letsyou feel like half Professor Xand half Stephen Hawking—except with the theoreticalphysics skills of the former andthe telekinetic skills of thelatter.A little different from the Brain-Computer Typing machine, thisthing works by mapping brainwaves when you think aboutmoving left, right, forward orback, and then assigns that toa wheelchair command of
actually moving left, right, -- as well as for predictingforward or back. future dangerousness more generally. We are closer thanThe result of this is that you can ever to the crime-predictionmove the wheelchair solely technology of Minority Report.with the power of your mind.This device doesnt give you The day when computers willMIND BULLETS (apologies to be able to recognize theTenacious D) but it does allow smallest units in the Englishpeople who cant use other language—the 40-odd basicwheelchairs get around easier. sounds (or phonemes) out of which all words or verbalizedThe sensors have already been thoughts can be constructed.used to do simple web searches Such skills could be put to manyand may one day help space- practical uses. The pilot of awalking astronauts and people high-speed plane or spacecraft,who cannot talk. The system for instance, could simply ordercould send commands to rovers by thought alone some vitalon other planets, help injured flight information for an all-astronauts control machines, or purpose cockpit display. Thereaid disabled people. would be no need to search forIn everyday life, they could the right dials or switches on aeven be used to communicate crowded instrument panel.on the sly - people could usethem on crowded buseswithout being overheardThe finding raises issues aboutthe application of such tools forscreening suspected terrorists
would later are shown. Using computer algorithms and functional magnetic resonance imaging, or fMRI, the scientists were able to determine with 70 percent accuracy what the participants intentions were, even before they were shown the numbers. The popular press tends to over-dramatize scientific advances in mind reading. FMRI results have to account for heart rate, respiration, motion and a number of other factors that might all cause variance in the signal. Also, individual brainsDisadvantages and differ, so scientists need toproblems study a subjects patternsTapping Brains for before they can train aFuture Crimes computer to identify those patterns or make predictions.Researchers from the MaxPlanck Institute for Human While the details of thisCognitive and Brain Sciences, particular study are not yetalong with scientists from published, the subjects limitedLondon and Tokyo, asked options of either adding orsubjects to secretly decide in subtracting the numbers meansadvance whether to add or the computer already had asubtract two numbers they 50/50 chance of guessing
correctly even without fMRI may make you a criminal, areadings. The researchers mixture of biological factors,indisputably made exacerbated by environmentalphysiological findings that are conditions, may well do so.significant for future Looking at scientific advancesexperiments, but were still a like these, legal scholars arelong way from mind reading. beginning to question theStill, the more we learn about foundational principles of ourhow the brain operates, the criminal justice system.more predictable human beings For example, University ofseem to become. In the Dec. Florida law professor19, 2006, issue of The Christopher Slobogin, who isEconomist, an article visiting at Stanford this year,questioned the scientific has set forth a compelling casevalidity of the notion of free for putting prevention beforewill: Individuals with particular retribution in criminal justice.congenital geneticcharacteristics are predisposed, Its a tempting thought. If thereif not predestined, to violence. is no such thing as free will, then a system that punishesStudies have shown that genes transgressive behavior as aand organic factors like frontal matter of moral condemnationlobe impairments, low does not make a lot of sense.serotonin levels and dopamine Its compelling to contemplatereceptors are highly correlated a system that manages andwith criminal behavior. Studies reduces the risk of criminalof twins show that heredity is a behavior in the first place.major factor in criminalconduct. While no one gene
Max Planck Institute, should take the lessons ofneuroscience and bioscience science fiction to heart whenare not at a point where we deciding how to use newcan reliably predict human predictive techniques.behavior. To me, thats the The preliminary tests may havemost powerful objection to a been successful because of thepreventative justice system -- if short lengths of the words andwe arent particularly good at suggests the test be repeatedpredicting future behavior, we on many different people torisk criminalizing the innocent. test the sensors work onWe arent particularly good at everyone.rehabilitation, either, so even if The initial success "doesntwe were sufficiently accurate in mean it will scale up", he toldidentifying future offenders, we New Scientist. "Small-wouldnt really know what to vocabulary, isolated worddo with them. recognition is a quite differentNor is society ready to deal problem than conversationalwith the ethical and practical speech, not just in scale but inproblems posed by a system kind."that classifies and categorizespeople based on oxygen flow,genetics and environmentalfactors that are correlated asmuch with poverty as withfuture criminality.In time, neuroscience mayproduce reliable behaviorpredictions. But until then, we
ConclusionTufts University researchershave begun a three-yearresearch project which, ifsuccessful, will allow computersto respond to the brain activity
of the computers user. Userswear futuristic-lookingheadbands to shine light ontheir foreheads, and thenperform a series of increasinglydifficult tasks while the devicereads what parts of the brainare absorbing the light. Thatinfo is then transferred to thecomputer, and from there thecomputer can adjust itsinterface and functions to eachindividual.