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equine colic.types of colic, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and pervention by salam elayh
 

equine colic.types of colic, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and pervention by salam elayh

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equine colic, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention .

equine colic, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention .
antibiotics, analgesic and laxatives in colic treatment.
colic in horses.types of colic

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    equine colic.types of colic, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and pervention by salam elayh equine colic.types of colic, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and pervention by salam elayh Presentation Transcript

    • 1
    • Presented by: Salam Elayh; DVM Urmia University College of veterinary medicine 2014.5.5 2
    • 3  Not a disease  General term indicating abdominal pain  Every case should be taken seriously
    • 4 Stomach Small intestine Cecum Colon Small colon Rectum
    • 5 Several classification systems of equine colic have been described including a disease-based system classifying the cause of colic as:  Obstructive  Obstructive and strangulating  Non strangulating infarctive  Inflammatory (peritonitis, enteritis)
    • 6 1-luminal → sand colic 2-mural blackage→ neoplasia 3-extra mural blackage →large colon displasmen 4-functional→ paralytic ileus
    • 7 Infarction→ thromboembolic colic
    • 8 infection(salmonella , actinobacillus) → peritoneitis and enteritis
    • 9 Torsion Intussusception Diaphragmatic and Inguinal hernia
    • 10
    • 11
    • 12 Colic cases can also be classified on the basis of the duration of the disease: acute « 24-36 h), chronic (> 24- 36 h) and recurrent (multiple episodes separated by periods of > 2 days of .normality)
    • 13  Equine colic accurs world wide.  The incidence rate: 3.5-10.6 percent  Mortality: 2.5 percent  The case fatality rate:  6-13 percent
    • 14 1) intrinsic horse characteristics 2) Management those associated with feeding practices medical history parasite control
    • 15 Age Horses 2-10 years of age are 2.8 times more likely to develop colic that horses less than 2 year.
    • 16 Breed There is a consistent finding that Arabian horses are at increased risk of colic, but the reason for this apparently greater risk has not been determined.
    • 17 Environmental or feeding change Watering Housing change in the amount of physical activity
    • 18 Horses with a history of colic are 6 times more likely to have colic again Previous abdominal surgery are 5 times as likely
    • 19 Inadequate parasite control programs have been estimated to put horses at 2-9 times greater risk of developing colic.
    • 20 The features common to severe colic, and often present to a lesser degree in milder colics, are pain, gastrointestinal dysfunction, intestinal ischemia, endotoxemia and compromised cardiovascular function (shock )
    • 21 Distension of the gastrointestinal tract stimulation of stretch receptors and pain → inhibits normal gut motility and function → accumulation of ingesta and fluid further destination and pain
    • 22 Alterations to motility or absorptive function Examples spasmodic colic→ severe contraction of intestine Impaction → blockage of the intestine
    • 23 Ultimately → most forms of lethal colic involve some degree of ischemia of the intestine because of loss of barrier function
    • 24 ► because of restricted respiration by pressure on the diaphragm and reduced venous return to the heart because of pressure on the caudal vena cava ► endotoxemia and hypovolemia
    • 25
    • 26  stamping or kicking at the belly  looking or nipping at the flank
    • 27  pacing in small circles and repeatedly getting up and lying down
    • 28  rolling, and lying on the back
    • 29  Vomiting  Sweating is common  Abdominal destination
    • 30  ↑pulse rate with ↓pulse amplitude  Endotoxemia → bright red mucous Membranes  Terminal stages of disease→ cold, purple, dry mucous with CTR of more than 3 seconds and toxic line
    • 31
    • 32
    • 33
    • 34  Patient history and signalment  Physical exam  Rectal palpation  Naso-gastric intubation  Ultrasonography  Radiology  CBC, biochemistry  Exploratory surgery 
    • 35  Patient history and signalment  Physical exam  Rectal palpation  Naso-gastric intubation  Ultrasonography  Radiology  CBC, biochemistry  Exploratory surgery 
    • 36  All four quadrants of the abdomen should be  examined for at least 1 minute at each site.  Continuous, loud borborygmi→ intestinal hypermotility  Absence of sounds→ ileus
    • 'pinging‘ sound → the tightly gas-distended bowel near body wall 37
    • 38 Normal anatomy
    • 39
    • 40
    • 41
    • 42  All four quadrants of the abdomen should be  examined for at least 1 minute at each site.  Continuous, loud borborygmi→ intestinal hypermotility  Absence of sounds→ ileus
    • 43  The structure is often compressible, akin to  squeezing a fluid-filled tubular balloon, and slightly moveable. is suggestive of a small-intestinal obstructive lesion or anterior enteritis
    • 44  Gas and fluid distension of the large colon is evident as large (> 20 cm) taut structures often extending into pelvic canal. Tenial bands are often not palpable.  Impaction is evident as columns of firm ingesta. The most common site is the pelvic flexure
    • 45
    • 46
    • 47
    • 48 1-Ultrasonography 2-radiology 3-Course of the disease Spasmodic and gas colic: usually resolves within hours of onset. Horses with strangulating lesions have severe clinical signs and usually die within 24 hours of the onset of signs. Horses with non strangulating obstructive lesions : have longer courses, often 48 hours to 1 week
    • 49  Hematocrit and plasma total protein  blood leukocyte:  Combination of leukopenia and a left shift are consistent with the endotoxemia  Hyperkalemia → in horses with severe acidosis
    • 50 Hypokalemia → in horses with more long- standing colic  Hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia →severe colic  (GGT)→its activity is elevated in 50% of horses with right dorsal displacement of the colon (compression of bile duct).
    • 51 Serum urea nitrogen and creatinine Prerenal azotemia is common in horses Acid-base status: Most horses with severe colic have metabolic acidosis
    • 52  Abdominocentesis  The presence of intracellular bacteria, plant material and degenerate neutrophils is indicative of Gastrointestinal rupture
    • 53  Arterial systolic blood pressure →90 mmHg (12 kPa) having a 50% chance  below 80 mmHg→ fewer than 20%  Capillary refill time: 3 seconds or more→30%  HR: 8O/min →50% chance of survival  50/min → has a 90% chance
    • 54  The nature of the necropsy findings depends on the underlying disease
    • 55
    • 56
    • 57 1-Provision of analgesia 2-Correction of fluid, electrolyte and Acid- base abnormalities 3- Gastrointestinal lubrication or administration of fecal softeners 4-Treatment of underlying disease
    • 58
    • 59  A suitable regimen includes anaminoglycoside and a penicillin, possibly with metronidazole
    • 60  Preferably a balanced,  isotonic, polyionic  Fluid such as lactated  Ringer's solution.
    • 61
    • 62
    • 63  adequate parasite control  Feeding large quantities of forage  minimizing the amount of concentrate fed  providing dental care