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Bg english for animal science and aquaculture
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Bg english for animal science and aquaculture
Bg english for animal science and aquaculture
Bg english for animal science and aquaculture
Bg english for animal science and aquaculture
Bg english for animal science and aquaculture
Bg english for animal science and aquaculture
Bg english for animal science and aquaculture
Bg english for animal science and aquaculture
Bg english for animal science and aquaculture
Bg english for animal science and aquaculture
Bg english for animal science and aquaculture
Bg english for animal science and aquaculture
Bg english for animal science and aquaculture
Bg english for animal science and aquaculture
Bg english for animal science and aquaculture
Bg english for animal science and aquaculture
Bg english for animal science and aquaculture
Bg english for animal science and aquaculture
Bg english for animal science and aquaculture
Bg english for animal science and aquaculture
Bg english for animal science and aquaculture
Bg english for animal science and aquaculture
Bg english for animal science and aquaculture
Bg english for animal science and aquaculture
Bg english for animal science and aquaculture
Bg english for animal science and aquaculture
Bg english for animal science and aquaculture
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  • 1. HUA ENGLISH for Animal Science and Aquaculture Prepared by Nguyen Xuan Trach Hanoi University of Agriculture
  • 2. Introduction to the Course of English for Animal Science and Aquaculture This course of English is designed specifically for students of animal andaquacultural sciences at Hanoi University of Agriculture (HUA). The objective of thecourse is to help students to: • Get familiar with the key vocabulary usually used in animal and aquacultural sciences and use them appropriately in scientific writing and oral communication. • Identify the most common grammar phenomena used in academic English for effective reading comprehension and scientific writing. • Get used to the English writing styles in the literature of animal science andaquaculture, and apply them appropriately in scientific writing. The course consists of a series of lessons covering various topics, viz. Biology,Animal Anatomy, Biochemistry, Physiology, Nutrition, Genetics and Breeding,Reproduction, and Aquaculture. In each 5-teaching hour lesson, which is specified on atopic, students will study some of the key vocabulary and grammar phenomena whichare usually used in academic English. Students will take part in discussion on some ofthe important issues related to the topic of the lesson and compare their information andideas with fellow students. At the end of each lesson each student is required to write anassignment using some of the new vocabulary and structures they have studied in thelesson. Hanoi, 15 March 2007 Course designer Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nguyen Xuan Trach 2
  • 3. Lesson 1: Biology In this lesson you will study some of the key vocabulary we use when talkingabout biology. You will discuss some of the important issues involved and compare yourinformation and ideas with those of your fellow students. At the end of the lesson youwill write a short account of the biodiversity in our country or region using some of thenew vocabulary and structures you have studied in this lesson. After completing this unit you should be able to: • Define the key words introduced in this lesson and use them appropriately in agricultural writing. • Use active and passive voices in sentences appropriately. • Discuss issues related to biodiversity in our country or region using the vocabulary and grammar that you have learned.Key Vocabulary This section introduces the important words (key and technical vocabulary) thatwill be used in the lesson. The instructor will give examples using each of the termsproperly during the lecture. You should be sure that you understand these terms beforeyou continue to the Reading. accelerate (v) - làm tăng tốc habitat (n) - môi trường sống biodiversity -sự đa dạng sinh học identify (v) - xác định rõ (loài, biology (n) - sinh học giống cây, con) breed (n) - giống (cây, con). intensive agriculture - nông nghiệp thâm canh degrade (v) - phân giải, huỷ hoại irreplaceable (adj.) - không thể disappear (v) - biến mất thay thế, cực kỳ quan trọng diversity (n) - sự đa dạng organism - cơ thể sống domestication (n) - thuần hoá replace (v) - thay thế evolution (n) - tiến hoá selection - chọn lọc extinct (adj.) - tiệt chủng skill (n) - kỹ năng flourish (v) - nở rộ, phát triển tốt unprecedented (adj.) - chưa bao gene - gen di truyền giờ xảy ra genetic material - vật liệu di variety (n) - giống (cây trồng) truyền 3
  • 4. Grammar Verb Tenses The following reading introduces the Present Simple Tense. This is one of the sixmost common verb tenses in English. Others include the Present Continuous tense, theFuture Simple tense, the Future with ‘going to’, the Past Simple tense, and the PresentPerfect tense. These tenses describe when something happens. All of the sentences in thereading are in the ‘Present Simple Tense’. They describe things that happen every year,always, every day, usually or sometimes. The table below describes when to use each tense. Tense Example When? 1. Present Simple People eat rice every day 2. Present Continuous People are eating rice now 3. Future Simple People will eat rice in the future 4. Future with ‘going to’ People are going to eat rice in the future 5. Past Simple People ate rice in the past 6. Present Perfect People have eaten rice up to nowPresent SimpleUsed to describe things which happen every year, always, every day, usually orsometimes.Examples: 1. Most people in the Philippines eat rice. 2. She cooks rice everyday.Present ContinuousUsed to express an action in the present; something that is currently happening.Examples: 1. They are eating rice. 2. He is cooking rice for dinnerFuture SimpleUsed to express the future.Examples: 4
  • 5. 1. They will eat rice for breakfast. 2. I will cook more rice tonight. Future ‘with going to’Also used to express the future except you use the verb to be + going to. The meaning isthe same as the future simple.Examples: 1. They are going to eat rice for dinner. 2. She is going to cook more rice tomorrow.Past SimpleUsed to express a completed action in the past.Examples: 1. I ate rice for lunch. 2. They cooked rice.Present PerfectUsed to show that an action was completed sometime before the present time. Used toindicate that an action started in the past and continues to the present time.Examples: 1. She has eaten rice every day of her life. 2. They have cooked rice over a fire for years.Reading Biodiversity Around 1.4 - 1.75 million species of animals, insects, plants and other organismshave been identified. However, scientists believe that there are over 13.5 million morespecies which have not yet been identified. The diversity of life on earth is essential tothe survival of humanity, but this biological diversity is now being lost at anunprecedented rate. Natural habitats are being destroyed, degraded and depleted,resulting in the loss of countless wild species. Traditional crop varieties and animal breeds are being replaced with new ones thatare more suited to modern agriculture. When natural diversity is lost, so is irreplaceablegenetic material, the essential building blocks of the plants and animals on whichagriculture depends. These plants and animals are the result of 3,000 million years ofnatural evolution - and 12,000 years of domestication and selection. 5
  • 6. Of the thousands of plant species that can be used for food, only 15-20 are ofmajor economic importance. In fact, only a handful supply the dietary energy needs ofmost of the worlds population. However, since 1900, about 75% of the genetic diversityof agricultural crops has been lost. In India, there will soon be only 30-50 rice varietiescovering an area where 30,000 once flourished. Half of the animal breeds that existed inEurope one hundred years ago are now extinct. One quarter of the livestock breeds in therest of the world are now at high risk of loss. The traditional knowledge and skills ofindigenous peoples - who selected, bred and cultivated such varieties over thousands ofyears - are also disappearing. The loss of genetic resources has accelerated with thespread of intensive agriculture and high-yielding crop varieties to large parts of thedeveloping world, replacing the traditional diversity of crops with monocultures. Thevarieties being lost may contain genes that could be used to develop even moreproductive varieties or to improve resistance to pests.Discussion Discuss the importance of biodiversity in our country. Use some of the languageand grammar you have learned in this lesson. The following questions may help you getstarted. - What is biodiversity? - Which countries do you think have a lot of biodiversity, and which countries have little? - Why is the preservation of biodiversity considered to be so important? - How does the worlds biodiversity today compare with the biodiversity that existed a few hundred years ago? - What are the main factors affecting biodiversity in todays world?Assignment Write a short description of biodiversity in your country (about 100 words). Try touse at least 10 terms introduced in this lesson. Please try to use active and passivesentences. Email the description to your instructor for comments and feedback. The following questions may help you get started: - How many different types of animals do you think there are in your country? - What about insects / trees / birds / wild plant species? - Which areas of your country have the greatest number of living things which have not yet been touched by people? 6
  • 7. - Do you think these areas should be left in their natural state or should they beused by people? Why? 7
  • 8. Lesson 2: Animal Anatomy In this lesson you will study some of the key vocabulary we use when talkingabout anatomy. You will discuss some of the important issues involved and compare yourinformation and ideas with those of your fellow students. At the end of the lesson youwill write a short account of anatomy using some of the new vocabulary and structuresyou have studied in this lesson.After completing this unit you should be able to: • Define the key words introduced in this lesson and use them appropriately in scientific writing. • Use ………………….in sentences appropriately. • Discuss issues related to anatomy using the vocabulary and grammar that you have learned.Key Vocabulary This section introduces the important words that will be used in the lesson. Theinstructor will give examples using each of the terms properly during the lecture. Youshould be sure that you understand these terms before you continue to the Reading.Anatomy muscular systemGreek nervous systemhead reproductive systemchest respiratory systemsystems skeletal systemcirculatory system comparative anatomy histologydigestive system morphologyendocrine system Pathological anatomyexcretory system organs medicalimmune system surgicalintegumentary system gynaecological artisticlymphatic system superficial 8
  • 9. races physical anthropologyGrammar Active voice/Passive voice When sentences are constructed in passive voice, they often do not have an agent- they do not tell us WHO or WHAT caused the action. This can be because WHO orWHAT is not important, or because we already know WHO or WHAT. In passive voice, the emphasis is on what is done, not on who or what did it.Whereas, in the active voice, there is more emphasis on who is doing the action. Passive voice is very common in academic English, especially in writing. Active and Passive Voice Constructions Structure Active Voice subject + verb + object Farmers feed cattle object Passive Voice changes to + verb + 3rd subject to be verb Cattle are fed (by farmers)Using the above illustration, please note that: • The 3rd verb is often called the past participle. • In passive voice we often leave out who/what does the action (in this case, farmers) because we are more interested in what was done than who did it. Furthermore / In addition / MoreoverLook at the followig sentences: 1. The seed oil repels insects and nematodes. Furthermore, it acts as an antifeedent. (note the prefix: anti... means opposed to, against, preventing) 2. Its strong trunk and branches help it withstand strong winds. Moreover, it resists decay and insect attacks. 3. Neem oil can be used as a natural insectiide. In addition, neems makes a good fertilizer.Pelase note that: 9
  • 10. • Furthermore, In addition, and Moreover all mean also • All 3 devices have exactly the same meaning and usage. • That they are used to start sentences, give extra information and are followed by a comma (,).Reading Branches of Anatomy Anatomy (from the Greek ἀνατομία anatomia, from ἀνατέμνειν anatemnein, tocut up, cut open), is the branch of biology that deals with the structure and organizationof living things. It can be divided into animal anatomy (zootomy) and plant anatomy(phytonomy). Furthermore, anatomy can be covered either regionally or systemically,that is, studying anatomy by bodily regions such as the head and chest for the former, orstudying by specific systems. For the latter, the major body systems include circulatorysystem, digestive system, endocrine system, excretory system, immune system,integumentary system, lymphatic system, muscular system, nervous system, reproductivesystem, respiratory system, skeletal system. Major branches of anatomy include comparative anatomy, histology, and humananatomy. Animal anatomy may include the study of the structure of different animals,when it is called comparative anatomy or animal morphology, or it may be limited to oneanimal only, in which case it is spoken of as special anatomy. Pathological anatomy (ormorbid anatomy) is the study of diseased organs, while sections of normal anatomy,applied to various purposes, receive special names such as medical, surgical,gynaecological, artistic and superficial anatomy. The comparison of the anatomy ofdifferent races of humans is part of the science of physical anthropology oranthropological anatomy.Discussion Discuss the importance of anatomy in animal and veterinary sciences. Use someof the language and grammar you have learned in this lesson. The following questionsmay help you get started.AssignmentWrite a short account of anatomy as a subject in the training program at your faculty(about 100 words). Try to use at least 10 terms introduced in this lesson. Please try to use…………... Email the description to your instructor for comments and feedback. 10
  • 11. 11
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  • 13. Lesson 3: Biochemistry In this lesson you will study some of the key vocabulary we use when talkingabout biochemistry. You will discuss some of the important issues involved and compareyour information and ideas with those of your fellow students. At the end of the lessonyou will write a short account of the biochemistry using some of the new vocabulary andstructures you have studied in this lesson.After completing this unit you should be able to: • Define the key words introduced in this lesson and use them appropriately in scientific writing. • Use relative pronouns in sentences appropriately. • Discuss issues related to biochemistry using the vocabulary and grammar that you have learned.Key Vocabulary This section introduces the important words that will be used in the lesson. Theinstructor will give examples using each of the terms properly during the lecture. Youshould be sure that you understand these terms before you continue to the Reading. advance (n) tiến bộ mới extract (v) chiết suất, chắt lọc aging (n) sự lão hoá facet (n) khía cạnh biochemistry (n) hoá sinh function (n) chức năng cell (n) tế bào genetics (n) di truyền học chemistry )n) hoá học heredity (n) sự di truyền component (n) thành phần cấu tạo impact (n) tác động death (n) sự chết information (n) thông tin, tín hiệu due in large part to phần lớn nhờ vào interaction (n) sự tương tác ecology (n) sinh thái laboratory (n) phòng thí nghiệm energy (n) năng lượng matter (n) vật chất experimental (adj.) thuộc thí nghiệm medicine (n) y học expression (n) sự biểu hiện metabolism (n) sự trao đổi chất 13
  • 14. molecular (adj.) thuộc về phân tử science (n) ngành khoa học nutrition (n) dinh dưỡng structure (n) cấu trúc occur (v) xảy ra substance (n) chất, cơ chất reaction (n) phản ứng surroundings (n) môi trường xung quanh reproduction (n) sự sinh sản, tái tạo tissue (n) mô bào research (n) sự nghiên cứuGrammarReading The Goals of Biochemistry Biochemistry is a science which seeks to describe the structure, organization, andfunctions of living matter in molecular terms. What are the chemical structures of thecomponents of living matter? How do the interactions of these components give rise toorganized super-molecular structures, cells, multi-cellular tissues, and organisms? Howdoes living matter extract energy from its surroundings in order to remain alive? Howdoes an organism store and transmit the information it needs to grow and to reproduceitself accurately? What chemical changes accompany the reproduction, aging, and deathof cells and organisms? How are chemical reactions controlled inside living cells? Theseare the kinds of questions being asked by biochemists; the research for the answer is thestudy of the chemistry of life. Biochemistry can be divided into three principal areas: (1) the structuralchemistry of the components of living matter and the relationship of biological functionto chemical structure; (2) metabolism, the totality of chemical reactions that occur inliving matter; and (3) the chemistry of processes and substances that store and transmitbiological information. The third area is also the province of molecular genetics, a fieldthat seeks to understand heredity and the expression of genetic information in molecularterms. Biochemistry is an experimental science, and the remarkable recent advances inbiochemistry are due in large part to the development of powerful new laboratorytechniques. Biochemistry has had major impacts on medicine, agriculture, nutrition,ecology, and many other facets of life. 14
  • 15. Discussion Discuss the aim of biochemistry and its importance in animal and veterinarysciences. Use some of the language and grammar you have learned in this lesson. Thefollowing questions may help you get started. - What is biochemistry? - What is the aim of biochemistry? - What are the common questions being asked by biochemists? - What are the main areas of biochemistry?Assignment Write a short account of biochemistry as a subject in the training program at yourfaculty (about 100 words). You may also use the drawing below for writing your assay.Try to use at least 10 terms introduced in this lesson. Please try to use relative pronouns.Email your work to your instructor for comments and feedback. 15
  • 16. Lesson 4: Animal Physiology In this lesson you will study some of the key vocabulary we use when talkingabout animal physiology. You will discuss some of the important issues involved andcompare your information and ideas with those of your fellow students. At the end of thelesson you will write a short account of animal physiology using some of the newvocabulary and structures you have studied in this lesson.After completing this unit you should be able to: • Define the key words introduced in this lesson and use them appropriately in scientific writing. • Use ………………….in sentences appropriately. • Discuss issues related to animal physiology using the vocabulary and grammar that you have learned.Key Vocabulary This section introduces the important words that will be used in the lesson. Theinstructor will give examples using each of the terms properly during the lecture. Youshould be sure that you understand these terms before you continue to the Reading.Grammar Suffixes and PrefixesA suffix is a letter or a group of letters added at the end of a word to make another word.Example: ...dy added to the noun mud to make the adjective muddyA prefix is a letter or group of letters placed in front of a word to make another word.Example:un.. added to important to make unimportantLook at the following sentences:The hard wood is brownish.Young branches are yellowish. 16
  • 17. same as:The wood is quite brown, but not totally.The color of the young branches is similar to yellow.Please note that on the first two sentences, the suffix ...ish: • indicates similar to, nearly, rather, fairly, somewhat or quite • can be used to qualify many adjectives, especially colors.More examples:In parts of the Philippines, the most important use of neem is for reforestation.Please note the difference between:deforestation - the destruction or degradation of forests(The prefix de... means opposite or negative of)reforestation - planting trees in an area where the forest has been destroyed or degraded(The preifx re... means again)afforestation - planting trees to make a new forest in an area which did not have forestsin the pastReading Animal Physiology Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of themechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. Physiology has traditionally been divided into plant physiology and animalphysiology but the principles of physiology are universal, no matter what particularorganism is being studied. For example, what is learned about the physiology of yeastcells can also apply to human cells. Animal physiology is the study of how animals’ bodies function in theirenvironment. An understanding of the physiological problems animals face and how theysolve those problems can be achieved only in an evolutionary context. Knowledge ofcertain aspects of the natural history, morphology, behavior, and environment of ananimal is necessary to fully appreciate the importance of its physiological mechanisms. 17
  • 18. The study of animal physiology includes topics such as: gas exchange, feedingand digestion, circulation, metabolic rate, water and solute regulation, temperatureregulation, excretion of wastes, and movement. The comparative approach can help us todevelop a general evolutionary framework in which to address physiological problems.By comparing how different animals solve related problems in various environments, wecan begin to gain insight into physiological principles that apply across levels oforganisms and environments.Discussion Discuss the importance of the study of animal physiology in animal andveterinary sciences. Use some of the language and grammar you have learned in thislesson. The following questions may help you get started. - What is physiology? - What is animal physiology? - What are the main topics of the study of animal physiology?Assignment Write a short assay on a topic of animal physiology (about 100 words). Try to useat least 10 terms introduced in this lesson. You may describe the milk letdown reflexbased on the drawing given below. Email the assignment to your instructor for commentsand feedback. 18
  • 19. Lesson 5: Animal Nutrition In this lesson you will study some of the key vocabulary we use when talkingabout animal nutrition. You will discuss some of the important issues involved andcompare your information and ideas with those of your fellow students. At the end of thelesson you will write an assay on a topic of animal nutrition using some of the newvocabulary and structures you have studied in this lesson.After completing this unit you should be able to: • Define the key words introduced in this lesson and use them appropriately in scientific writing. • Use infinitives and gerunds in sentences appropriately. • Discuss issues related to animal nutrition using the vocabulary and grammar that you have learned.Key Vocabulary This section introduces the important words that will be used in the lesson. Theinstructor will give examples using each of the terms properly during the lecture. Youshould be sure that you understand these terms before you continue to the Reading.Grammar Verbs followed by infinitive Verbs followed by gerundSome verbs can be followed by other verbs.Examples: 1. I hope to arrive on Wednesday. 2. Do you enjoy studying English?It is important to know: • which verbs are always followed by the infinitive (to arrive) • which verbs are always followed by the gerund (studying) • which verbs can be followed by the infinitive or the gerundThese verbs are always followed by the infinitive: 19
  • 20. agree demand hope plan strive ask desire intend prepare tend attempt fail learn pretend try claim forget need refuse want decide hesitate offer seem wishExamples: 1. The Rockafeller and Ford Foundations decided to use semi-dwarf varieties. 2. Modern varieties tend to be shorter than traditional ones. 3. Plant breeders strive to keep ahead of the changing environment.These verbs must always be followed by the gerund: admit delay mind recall resume appreciate deny miss regret risk avoid encourage postpone report suggest cant help enjoy practice resent support consider finish quit resist promoteExamples: 1. The government delayed introducing the new variety as it wanted to conduct more trials. 2. Farmers who use high levels of pesticide risk being exposed to a variety of ailments. 3. We suggest doing this a different way.These verbs can be followed by either the infinitive or the gerund: begin continue like prefer cant stand hate love startExamples:Farmers in that area started to use improve varieties.Farmers in that area started using improved varieties.We should continue to study this problem.We should continue studying this problem.Many consumers prefer to buy familiar rice types.Many consumers prefer buying familiar rice types. 20
  • 21. Reading Macronutrients and Micronutrients Macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids) are required in relativelylarge quantities in the diets of animals. If meeting the energy needs of the organismwere the only reason for eating, carbohydrates alone would probably be a sufficient diet,but since other of lifes processes require other materials (and since animals are notableamong organisms for their inability to synthesize many of the materials required tosustain such processes), numerous types of macro- and micronutrients are required.Micronutrients include vitamins and minerals and are necessary but required in relativelysmall quantities. They have a variety of roles in the metabolism of animals. Vitaminsgenerally serve as coenzymes for metabolism. Minerals, including "trace" minerals havevarious functions in the tissues. For humans living in industrialized countries, the main difficulties relating tomacronutrients are excessive intake, particularly ingestion of processed carbohydratesand fats, which leads to obesity. In other regions of the world, dietary problems relativeto macronutrients are often due to inadequate quantities of essential amino or fatty acidsto allow for protein synthesis. Note that "essential" in this context relates to the necessityfor the material in the diet, not essential for the organism (all amino acids are essentialfor life for all organisms). Nine are essential for most animals (histidine, isoleucine,leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine). Careshould be exercised in diet selection: vegetarians should balance various types becauseplant tissues vary widely in composition. For example, bean proteins are deficient inmethionine and wheat in lysine (hence, they are complementary with respect to these twoessential amino acids; both should be eaten simultaneously since proteins cant be storedand it would be futile to eat one at one meal and one at the next).Discussion Discuss the importance of animal nutrition in animal and veterinary sciences. Usesome of the language and grammar you have learned in this lesson. The followingquestions may help you get started. - What is nutrition? - What are macronutrients and micronutrients? - What does “essential” mean in animal nutrition? - What are the essential amino acids? - What ware the roles of minerals and vitamins in animal nutrition? 21
  • 22. Assignment Write a short account of animal nutrition as a subject in the training program atyour faculty (about 100 words). Try to use at least 10 terms introduced in this lesson.Please try to use infinitives and gerunds in your writing. Email the work to yourinstructor for comments and feedback. 22
  • 23. Lesson 6: Animal Genetics and Breeding In this lesson you will study some of the key vocabulary we use when talkingabout animal genetics and breeding. You will discuss some of the important issuesinvolved and compare your information and ideas with those of your fellow students. Atthe end of the lesson you will write a short account of animal genetics and breeding usingsome of the new vocabulary and structures you have studied in this lesson.After completing this unit you should be able to: • Define the key words introduced in this lesson and use them appropriately in scientific writing. • Use relative pronouns in sentences appropriately. • Discuss issues related to animal genetics and breeding using the vocabulary and grammar that you have learned.Key Vocabulary This section introduces the important words that will be used in the lesson. Theinstructor will give examples using each of the terms properly during the lecture. Youshould be sure that you understand these terms before you continue to the Reading.adapt (v) thích nghi, thích ứng improvement (n) tiến bộ, cải tiếnbeef cattle bò thịt inbreeding (n) nhân giống cận huyếtbehavior (n) tập tính, hành vi livestock (n) gia súcbiometrician (n) nhà toán sinh học male (n) con đựcbiometry (n) sinh trắc học, toán sinh học mating (n) giao phốibreed association hội giống migrating people người di cưbreeder (n) nhà tạo giống pedigree (n) hệ phổ, hệ phảbreeding (n) nhân giống pioneer (v) khởi xướng, mở đầucaptive (adj.) (thuộc) bắt giữ principle (n) nguyên tắc, nguyên lýcastration (n) thiến progeny testing kiểm tra qua đời saucave paintings tranh vẽ trong hang động quantitative trait tính trạng số lượngcharacteristics (n) đặc điểm, đặc tính qualitative trait tính trạng chất lượngcoat color màu lông records (n) sổ ghi, hồ sơconformation (n) ngoại hình redistribution (n) phân bố lại, tái phân bốdairy cattle bò thịt reindeer (n) sơn dương, dê núidogs chó reproduction (n) sự sinh sảndomestication (n) sự thuần hoá resemblance (n) sự giống nhauefficiency (n) hiệu quả selection (n) sự chọn lọcgeneticist (n) nhà di truyền học sheep (n) cừugenetics (n) di truyền học species (n) loàigoat (n) dê survive (v) sống sót, sót lạihog (n) lợn temperament (n) khí chất, tính khíhorn (n) sừng trader (n) nhà buôn, thương giahorse (n) ngựa written documents tài liệu ghi chép 23
  • 24. Grammar Relative pronouns Look at the following sentences: Domestication was performed through controlled mating and reproduction ofcaptive animals. The animals were selected and mated based on their behavior andtemperament. Please note that: We dont want to repeat “animals” and thus we substitute therelative pronoun which to combine the two sentences into one, as shown below: Domestication was performed through controlled mating and reproduction of captiveanimals which were selected and mated based on their behavior and temperament. The relative pronouns: that (used for things) which (used for things) who (used for people) whom (used for people) whose (usually used for people - shows possession) where (used for places) Note: In speaking, that can be used for people, but not in formal, written English. Examples: 1. who (used for people) Look at these sentences: Robert Bakewell, who was an English animal breeder of the 18th century, isconsidered the founder of systematized animal breeding. 2. that (used for things) Look at these sentences: Judging from cave paintings that have survived, selection was also applied tosome qualitative traits such as coat color and the absence or presence of horns. 24
  • 25. Reading The Science of Animal Breeding The science of animal breeding is defined as the application of the principles ofgenetics and biometry to improve the efficiency of production in farm animals. Theseprinciples were applied to change animal populations thousands of years before thesciences of genetics and biometry were formally established. The practice of animalbreeding dates back to the Neolithic period (approximately 7000 BC), when peopleattempted to domesticate wild species such as reindeer, goats, hogs and dogs. Domestication was performed through controlled mating and reproduction ofcaptive animals which were selected and mated based on their behavior andtemperament. Judging from cave paintings that have survived, selection was also appliedto some qualitative traits such as coat color and the absence or presence of horns. Withoutwritten records, there is no certain knowledge of the evolution of animal breedingpractices, but written documents dating back more than 4000 years indicate that humansappreciated the significance of family resemblance in mating systems, recognized thedangers of intense inbreeding, and used castration to prevent the reproduction ofundesirable males. Progress in the performance of domesticated animals through theseselection practices was very slow; improvements were mainly due to animals adaptingbetter to their environments. Robert Bakewell, who was an English animal breeder of the 18th century, isconsidered the founder of systematized animal breeding. He was the first to emphasizethe importance of accurate breeding records, introduced the concept of progeny testing toevaluate the genetic potentials of young sires, and applied inbreeding to stabilize desiredqualitative traits. He also promoted concepts such as "like begets like," "prepotency isassociated with inbreeding" and "breed the best to the best." Bakewell and hiscontemporaries in Europe pioneered the development of diverse breeds of beef cattle,dairy cattle, sheep, hogs and horses. Most livestock breeds with pedigree herd books and breed associations wereestablished between the late 18th century and the second half of the 19th century. Color,conformation, geographical origin and some production characteristics were the mainfactors that differentiated these breeds. Wide geographical redistribution of animalpopulations was also an important factor in the formation of new breeds, as invadingarmies, migrating people and traders transported livestock to new lands. Animal breeding as a modern science belongs to the 20th century. Althoughnumerous geneticists and biometricians have made significant contributions to thedevelopment of this science, J.L. Lush of Iowa State University is considered the fatherof the modern science of animal breeding. Lush and his students developed majorscientific procedures applicable to the genetic improvement of farm animals. 25
  • 26. Discussion Discuss the importance of animal genetics and breeding in animal and veterinarysciences. Use some of the language and grammar you have learned in this lesson. Thefollowing questions may help you get started. - What is the science of animal breeding? - What are the milestones in the history of animal breeding? - How were wide animals domesticated? - What were the main factors in the formation of new breeds? - What does inbreeding mean? - Etc.Assignment Write a short account of animal genetics or animal breeding as a subject in thetraining program at your faculty (about 100 words). Try to use at least 10 termsintroduced in this lesson. Please try to use relative pronouns in your wrting. Send yourassignment to your instructor for comments and feedback. 26
  • 27. Lesson 7: Animal Reproduction In this lesson you will study some of the key vocabulary we use when talkingabout animal reproduction. You will discuss some of the important issues involved andcompare your information and ideas with those of your fellow students. At the end of thelesson you will write a short account of animal reproduction using some of the newvocabulary and structures you have studied in this lesson.After completing this unit you should be able to: • Define the key words introduced in this lesson and use them appropriately in scientific writing. • Use prepositional verbs and adjectives in sentences appropriately. • Discuss issues related to animal reproduction using the vocabulary and grammar that you have learned.Key Vocabulary This section introduces the important words that will be used in the lesson. Theinstructor will give examples using each of the terms properly during the lecture. Youshould be sure that you understand these terms before you continue to the Reading.birth (n) sinh đẻ menstruation (n) kinh nguyệtbirth canal đường sinh đẻ merge (v) hoà trộncervix (n) cổ tử cung morphogenesis (n) sự tạo thành hìnhcontraction (n) sự co bóp oogenesis (n) sự sinh trứngdilate (v) giãn nở ovary (n) buồng trứngembryo (n) phôi oviduct (n) ống dẫn trứngembryogenesis (n) sự hình thành phôi ovum/ova (n) trứngestrus cycle chu kỳ động dục penetrate (v) xuyến sâu vàoFallopian tube vòi Falop (ống dẫn trứng) propel (v) đẩy rafemale (n) con cái reabsorb (v) tái hấp thufertilization (n) sự thụ tinh receptacle (n) chỗ đựngfetus (n) thai reproductive system bộ máy sinh sảnflush (v) rửa trôi sperm (n) tinh trùnggreat apes (n) tinh tinh stationary (adj.) tĩnh tạiimplant (v) bám sâu vào transit (n) đi quain anticipation of xảy ra trước lúc uterus (n) tử cunginterval (n) khoảng thời gian vagina (n) âm đạomammal (n) động vật có vú womb (n) dạ conmature (adj.) thành thục zygote (n) hợp tử 27
  • 28. Grammar Prepositional Verbs and Adjectives Some verbs and adjectives always combine with a preposition. We call these‘prepositional verbs’ and ‘prepositional adjectives’. They are always followed by agerund.Prepositional Verbs approve of tán thành, chấp thuận insist on khăng khăng đòi, cố nài be better off khấm khá hơn keep on cứ vẫn tiếp tục count on hy vọng ở put off bỏ ra depend on phụ thuộc vào rely on dựa vào give up từ bỏ succeed in thành công về think about suy nghĩ về look forward to trông chờ think of nghĩ đến object to không thích, phản đối worry about lo lắng vềExamples: 1. Many subsistence farmers worry about being able to produce enough food for their families. 2. Many farmers have now given up cutting down the forest. 3. In some countries, farmers would be better off changing their agricultural techniques, and employing more modern methods of cultivation.Prepositional Adjectives accustomed to quen với intent on mải mê afraid of lo sợ về interested in thích thú capable of có khả năng về successful in thành công trong… fond of thích tired of chán ngấyExamples: 1. If better nutrient management techniques were employed, the land would be capable of producing much higher yields. 2. Many farming families are accustomed to keeping fish in their paddies. 3. Several areas are now interested in growing two, or even three rice crops per year.Adjectives followed by the infinitiveThe following adjectives are always followed by the infinitive. They are never followedby the gerund. 28
  • 29. ầmnxious khát khao, ước ao (làm) Ready sẵn sang (làm) Boring buồn tẻ Able có khả năng (làm) Dangerous nguy hiểm Usual thường (làm) Hard khó (làm) Common thông thường Eager háo hức, hăm hở (làm) Difficult khó (làm) Easy dễ (làm) Pleased vui lòng (làm) Good tốt (để làm) Prepared chuẩn bị (để làm) Strange lạ (khi làm)Examples: 1. Many farmers are anxious to achieve higher yields. 2. In general, it is easier to mechanize planting, pest management, and harvesting by planting one crop at a time. 3. Some areas are able to produce three rice harvests per year.Reading The Mammalian Female The female reproductive systemcontains two main divisions: the vaginaand uterus, which act as the receptaclefor the males sperm, and the ovaries,which produce the females ova. All ofthese parts are always internal. Thevagina is attached to the uterus throughthe cervix, while the uterus is attached tothe ovaries via the Fallopian tubes. Atcertain intervals, the ovaries release anovum (the singular of ova), which passesthrough the Fallopian tube into theuterus. If, in this transit, it meets withsperm, the sperm penetrate and mergewith the egg, fertilizing it. Thefertilization usually occurs in theoviducts, but can happen in the uterus itself. The zygote then implants itself in the wall ofthe uterus, where it begins the processes of embryogenesis and morphogenesis. Whendeveloped enough to survive outside the womb, the cervix dilates and contractions of theuterus propel the fetus through the birth canal, which is the vagina. The ova are larger than sperm and are generally all created by birth. They are forthe most part stationary, aside from their transit to the uterus, and contain nutrients for thelater zygote and embryo. Over a regular interval, a process of oogenesis matures one 29
  • 30. ovum to be sent down the Fallopian tube attached to its ovary in anticipation offertilization. If not fertilized, this egg is flushed out of the system through menstruation inhumans and great apes and reabsorbed in all other mammals in the estrus cycle.Discussion Discuss the importance of animal reproduction in animal and veterinary sciences.Use some of the language and grammar you have learned in this lesson. The followingquestions may help you get started.Assignment Write a short description of the reproductive system of the male (about 100words). Try to use the words given in the figures below. Please try to use …………...Email the description to your instructor for comments and feedback. 30
  • 31. Lesson 8: Aquaculture In this lesson you will study some of the key vocabulary we use when talkingabout aquaculture You will discuss some of the important issues involved and compareyour information and ideas with those of your fellow students. At the end of the lessonyou will write a short account of the development of aquaculture in your country usingsome of the new vocabulary and structures you have studied in this lesson.After completing this unit you should be able to: • Define the key words introduced in this lesson and use them appropriately in agricultural writing. • Use quantifiers with and without of correctly. • Discuss the impact of the importance of aquaculture to both the world economy and your countrys economy using the vocabulary and grammar that you have learned.Key Vocabularybackyard (n) - the area behind a housebay (n) - part of the sea or a lake enclosed by a curve of the shorebulk (n) - the largest part of somethingcage (n) - structure made of bars or wires in which animals are keptcapture (v) - to take as a prisoner, especially wild animals and criminalscarnivore (n) - animal that eats mainly meatcarp (n) - type of large, edible freshwater fish that lives in lakes and pondscoastal (adj.) - of areas of land next to the seadub (v) - to give something a nicknameenterprise (n) - a business, a commercial operationjeopardize (v) - to make danger, to threaten, to put at riskmainstay (n) - the main support for something, the most productive part/personoverstretched (adj.) - overused, used beyond sustainable limits 31
  • 32. overstretch (v) - to overuse, to use beyond sustainable limitsoysters (n) - edible shellfish which sometimes produce pearls inside their shellspose a threat (v) - to threaten, to put at risk, to make danger, to jeopardizeprawns (n) - type of edible shellfish like a large shrimpsalmon (n) - large fish with pinkish flesh, very expensive in most countriessound (adj.) - correct, appropriatetilapia (n) - very popular fish, easy to raise and dubbed the aquatic chickentiny (adj.) - very, very smalltoxicity (n) - the degree or level of being toxicvolume (n) - amount of space that something occupies, often expressed in cm2, m2,liters, etc.aquatic organisms - creatures and plants which live in watermolluscs - creatures which have a soft body, no backbone and usually a hard shell,e.g. snails and shellfishsaltwater fish - fish which live in seawatercarp - the cultivation of carp has a long tradition, particularly in Europe and Asia.overstocking - putting too many fish or animals in a limited areaorganic over-enrichment - too much organic mattermicrobial contamination - poisoned by tiny organismssilt - sand, mud, etc. carried by flowing watersiltation - the building up of silt in river, dams, canals, etc.sediment - material such as soil and gravel that settles to the bottom of a liquidsedimentation - the building up of sediments in rivers, dams, canals, etc. 32
  • 33. Grammar Quantifiers with and without ofThe following words are called ‘quantifiers. Notice that there is a form with ‘of’ and aform without ‘of’.Read the examples and notice the difference in usage.Examples: All: All silkworm raising in Thailand is done by women. All of: All of the silkworm raising in Thailand is done by women.i.e. 100% of silkworm raising Nearly all: Nearly all past research focused on monocultures. Nearly all of: Nearly all of the research in the past focused on monocultures. i.e. more than 85% of past research Almost all: Almost all past research focused on monocultures. Almost all of: Almost all of the research in the past focused on monocultures. i.e. more than 85% of past research Most: Most fish are caught in Asian waters. Most of: Most of our fish are caught in Asian waters. i.e. more than 50% of fish Many: Many new varieties become vulnerable to pests and diseases. Many of: Many of IRRI’s new varieties become vulnerable to pests and diseases. i.e. between 50% and 70% of new varieties Much: Much damage is caused by wind erosion. Much of: Much of the damage to the world’s soil is caused by wind erosion. i.e. between 50% and 70% of damage Some: In Thailand, some pest control work is done by women. Some of: Some of Thailand’s pest control work is done by women.i.e. between 10% and 60% of pest control work 33
  • 34. Only a few: Only a few species have been identified. Only a few of: Only a few of the total number of species have been identified. i.e. less than 10% of species No: No advances in research come without the efforts of scientists. None of: None of the advances in research come without the efforts of scientists. i.e. 0% of advancesReading Aquaculture Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic organisms, including fish, molluscs,crustaceans and aquatic plants. People have been farming fish for thousands of years. TheChinese raised fish in ponds some 3,000 years ago and the Romans farmed oysters inshallow, coastal bays. Today, aquaculture has become big business in Asia, LatinAmerica, North America and Europe. Smaller-scale activities, raising fish in villageponds, also take place in many African countries, while Thai, Indonesian, Chinese andFilipino farmers also farm fish in rice paddies for their own consumption.These enterprises - whether in large ponds, in sea cages or in tiny backyard ponds - holdmuch promise for meeting increasing food demands. In fact, with most capture fisheriesin decline, aquaculture is the best way to maintain and increase supplies of saltwater andfreshwater fish.Over half of all freshwater fish production comes from aquaculture. Asia accounted fornearly 87 percent of the worlds fish farming output in 1993: 63 percent of its share wasproduced by China, with India as the next biggest producer.The industry is overwhelmingly concentrated in the developing world, which accountsfor 85 percent of output by volume and 71 percent by value. Exports of high-valuespecies such as shrimp, prawns and salmon earn much-needed foreign exchange currencyfor these countries. Fish farming may increasingly be the only way for some poorcommunities, who rely on fish and shellfish for the bulk of their protein intake, tomaintain a healthy diet.In spite of this promise, aquaculture projects are vulnerable to disease and environmentalproblems. Overstocking and pollution have devastated some Asian and Latin Americanfreshwater operations. Nutrient and organic over-enrichment, the accumulation of toxicchemicals, microbial contamination, siltation and sedimentation all jeopardize expansion.Where aquaculture results in the degradation of coastal mangroves, the breeding groundsof many wild species, it poses a major threat to biological diversity. 34
  • 35. Better selection of production sites to safeguard the environment and sound managementtechniques can overcome most of these problems. FAO expects aquacultures output todouble in volume within the next 15 years.Fish provides 17 percent of the worlds animal protein; in some countries the figure is ashigh as 50 percent. With the fish harvest from the wild now dangerously overstretched,we may have to depend increasingly upon aquaculture to meet demand for fish in thefuture.Discussion Discuss the importance of aquaculture to both the world economy and yourcountrys economy. Use some of the language and grammar you have learned in thislesson. The following questions may help you get started. - In which parts of the world is aquaculture a very profitable business? - What about your country? How about your province? - What are the main benefits and constraints of aquaculture in yourcountry/province? - Why will aquaculture become an increasingly important agricultural activity inthe future?AssignmentWrite a short account of the development of aquaculture in your country(about 100words). Try to use at least 10 terms introduced in this lesson. Make use of the grammarstructure introduced in this lesson. Email the description to your instructor forcomments and feedback.The following questions may help you get started:In your area, how many people have fish ponds? Does your family have one?Do people in your area construct fish ponds by machine, or by hand?What are the comparative costs of each method?What advantages do farmers gain by having a fish pond?What are some of the problems? 35

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