The electrical impulse propagates from the AV node through the His bundle and Purkinje system to allow the ventricles to contract from the apex of the heart towards the base.
The QRS complex is due to ventricular depolarization, and it marks the beginning of ventricular systole. It is so large that it masks the underlying atrial repolarization signal. the ventricles to fill completely with blood.
While the ventricles continue contracting, the pressure in the ventricles (red) exceeds the pressure in the aorta and pulmonary arteries (green); the semilunar valves open, blood exits the ventricles, and the volume in the ventricles decreases rapidly (white).
As more blood enters the arteries, pressure there builds until the flow of blood reaches a peak.
The "c" wave of atrial pressure is not normally visible in the jugular venous pulse. Right ventricular contraction pushes the tricuspid valve into the atrium and increases atrial pressure, creating a small wave into the jugular vein. It is normally simultaneous with the carotid pulse.
After the peak in ventricular and arterial pressures (red and green), blood flow out of the ventricles decreases and ventricular volume decreases more slowly (white).
When the pressure in the ventricles falls below the pressure in the arteries, blood in the arteries begins to flow back toward the ventricles and causes the semilunar valves to close. This marks the end of ventricular systole mechanically.
Heart sounds- The second heart sound (S2, "dup") occurs when the semilunar (aortic and pulmonary) valves close. S2 is normally split because the aortic valve closes slightly earlier than the pulmonary valve.
Heart sounds- A third heart sound (S3) is usually abnormal and is due to rapid passive ventricular filling. It occurs in dilated congestive heart failure, severe hypertension, myocardial infarction, or mitral incompetence.