Influence of multimedia technology in english language teaching.


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Influence of multimedia technology in english language teaching.

  1. 1. Influence of Multimedia Technology in English Language Teaching. Presented by. K.SAKTHIVEL GRADUATE TEACHER (ENGLISH) GOVT HR SEC SCHOOL NADUPAIYUR KRISHNAGIRI TAMIL NADU-635112 CONTACT-9578986140 1
  2. 2. Content: Chapter-I Introduction English in India today Why English is important Teaching English as a second language Aims of teaching English as a second language Schooling in India 2
  3. 3. ELT in Tamil Nadu Problems faced by the vernacular medium students Multimedia Characteristics of multimedia computer assisted language teaching and learning Purpose of the study Chapter-II Technology in education Definitions for technology Technology and learning Need of educational technology Scope for educational technology Forms of educational technology Pedagogy and technology Chapter –III Teaching tools Importance of using teaching multimedia aids 3
  4. 4. Necessity of application of Multimedia technology to ELT Problem arising from application of multimedia technology in ELT Chapter –IV Methodology Analysis Conclusion. Influence of Multimedia Technology in English Language Teaching Chapter-I Introduction: 4
  5. 5. English Language Teaching is one of the fastest growing sectors in the world. The use of new technologies is an integral and driving component of this growth (White, 1988). Language teachers have been avid users of technology for a very long time for effective teaching. Gramophone records were among the first technological aids to be used by language teachers in order to present students with recordings of native speakers‟ voices, and broadcasts from foreign radio stations were used to make recordings on reel-to-reel tape recorders. Other examples of technological aids that have been used in the second language classroom include slide projectors, film-strip projectors, film projectors, videocassette recorders and DVD players. During the 1970s and 1980s standard microcomputers were incapable of producing sound and they had poor graphics capability. This represented a step backwards for language teachers, who by this time had become accustomed to using a range of different media in the foreign language classroom. The arrival of the multimedia computer in the early 1990s was therefore a major breakthrough as it enabled text, images, sound and video to be combined in one device and the integration of the four basic skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing. English in India Today: 5
  6. 6. Pre- Independence English occupied a very important place in India. It was the official language of the administration, medium of instruction and subject of study in the Indian schools and university level. Knowledge of English became a fashion of the day. It is an important foreign language that has attained the status of link language in different countries of the world. English language has occupied an important place in the education system of India. English was supreme in the pre-Independence India. It was the language of administration a compulsory subject as the school and colleges, and the medium of instruction for the subjects at the school, college and the university level. It occupied an important place in courts, commerce and industry. Besides being a link and library language I India, it is our major window on the modern world. The students‟ current needs for using English in daily life are restricted for making some enquires, taking examinations, producing occupational letters, application, complaint etc. The potential need could be determined by considering the role of English which plays outside schools. English is widely used for inter- state, 6
  7. 7. state centre, communication between government at the highest level of state administration, in business, industry, and banking. English is still the most favored medium of instruction and examination at the highest levels of university education. Proficiency in English will therefore be of very high utilitarian value for our students. Once they leave school, they go to higher seats of learning such as universities or technical institutes for advance studies or take up employment which will be an asset. Many social transactions in their daily life demand a good knowledge of English. These skills once acquired in schools will constantly be in use within and outside the educational setting. Why English is important: The English language is extraordinary adapted and receptive that it inherent with varied ease and readiness. It takes to itself all the materials from almost everywhere in the world, and has made the new elements of other language of other language its own. Academic English has a number of varieties, which is associated with particular academic subjects or disciplines like Arts, Sciences and Social sciences. It is common for scholars under each discipline to establish their own language, conversations and practices. 7
  8. 8. English has its dominance in almost all the major fields like Commerce, Computer, Science and Technology, Medicine, Agriculture etc. it is this growth that has made this language indispensable. Today, any corporate sector, especially IT companies would find their business curtailed if their employees cannot speak English. No nation today, however great or isolated, dares to rely on its indigenous language only countries like China and France have realized the need for English and have started to teach their young generation English. Hence, there is a great demand for English teachers in these countries. For a multilingual society like India, we need a binding factor to express ourselves. It is an accepted fact that an individual can function best through the language which he/she acquire naturally, which is commonly their mother tongue, and the individual aspiration of one‟s life can be fulfilled best, when one is allowed to function in one‟s mother tongue. However, it is a difficult problem to use regional language in each and every state, because translation of Government rules, orders about the regulations can be misleading. Hence, the Government of India stuck to English as link language in the country. 8
  9. 9. The early years of the 20th century have created a widespread increase not just in the speakers of the language but also in speaking Standard English. During earlier times, research was done and inventions were published in language like Latin, French, Germany and Russian. But now with a wider audience for English research publications, works are done in English rather than in any other language. Hence, translating these works and giving new names for these inventions has now become a hectic process in other languages, because there is an information time lag between English and these languages. It is for this reason that higher education is mostly provided in English, since all the words which are in these subjects will not have an exact meaning in native language. Hence, there is a growing need to study a foreign language for those who opt to pursue their higher studies. Teaching English as a second language: English is taught as a second language in almost all the schools in India. Second language acquisition in general understanding, speaks about the language that is used for learning in classroom contexts. There are a number of differences between an adult and a child learning a second language. The nonEnglish medium students are taught English in Tamil by unequipped teachers. Hence, the non-English medium students, when they enter colleges, have 9
  10. 10. problem with the language to cope with their studies. They need to develop the required language skills for participating in all the aspects of their college life, while they also have to strive hard to develop mastery over their content writing with other students as well. This skill is known as Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) by Cummins. Most of the students in India face this hindrance in learning. This is because a vast majority of them study in Government schools, where the medium of instruction is largely the mother tongue, and these are students, who belong to the category of first generation learners. In schools, English is taught through literary pieces like prose and poetry. Almost of the students fail to realize the importance of English. They realize it only at the time of their placements in the final year, but then it becomes too late. “English is destined to be in the next succeeding centuries more generally the language of the world than Latin was in the last or French is in the present age”. (Rajagopalan) Today English is the mother tongue of 75% of people, who belongs races and countries. No language, ancient or modern, can be compared with English in its geographical distribution. English has become a popular vernacular tongue since Europeans and non-Europeans all over the earth are making increasingly the use of English as their „second language‟, because for 10
  11. 11. them , English and information are interwoven; perhaps, one half of the mankind has chosen English to communicate with those, who do not speak their own language. The aims of teaching English as a Second language A teacher should know what his instructional task is and what he is trying to achieve by teaching English. A teacher without the knowledge of aims is like a ship which has no harbor to reach. The aims of teaching English in India is quiet different in compare with western countries. In India English is taught as a foreign language. Hence the main aim of teaching of English to help children acquire practical command of English so that it may be useful to them in everyday life. Practical common of English means that the Indian children should be able to read, speak, write and understand English. They should learn the language for the purpose of utility English is an important international language. According to Thompson and Whatt, there are four aims of teaching English to Indian school children as a second language. 11
  12. 12. 1. To understand simple spoken English 2. To understand simple written English 3. To speak simple, correct and idiomatic English 4. To write simple, correct and idiomatic English. Schooling in India: In India, a maximum number of students study in their mother tongue till their schooling. Later they join in colleges for higher studies, where the medium of instruction is mainly English. It is at this point that these students face a crisis. Many students are faced these daily challenges of learning a language other than their mother tongue. They find it very difficult to learn their subject in English. So, they start to memorize the terms and other things and they try to clear their exams. Hence, they lose their reasoning power. Once the exams are done, the students forget the things that they memorized and it gone once forever. This is because English is looked as foreign language to be taught as a subject and not as a language. ELT in Tamil Nadu: “The language agitation in Tamil Nadu was a much pro-English as it was anti-Hindi”. This quote speaks the attitude of the people of Tamil Nadu towards 12
  13. 13. Hindi and English. English has a special place in this state. Parents want their children to be in schools, where English is the medium of instruction, for they believe that the chances of their sons and daughters realizing their academic goals are high, when they have good proficiency in English. Since this has been the attitude of the majority of the people, irrespective of their positions in the society, there has been a great demand for English medium schools, and other private institutions that offer courses on spoken English. Even small towns and villages have been positively affected, and English medium schools have flourished because of this demand. But, students from economically backward families cannot afford to enroll themselves either in this institution or to get help from their parents; hence they study in Government-run schools. Students of regional medium schools are exposed to English language only for a maximum of forty minutes a day in their schools, because English is taught only as a language paper and not as a medium of instruction. And in their Board exams, these students are concerned only with the lines that are to be memorized, and question-answers that are to be reproduced in their exams. For these reasons, they rely on the simplified version given in the market guides. Hence, there is hardly any chance, where they would have practiced the language. So, when these students enter college, they 13
  14. 14. find difficult to learn their subjects, because mostly in colleges except their first language paper everything is taught in English. Problems faced by the vernacular medium students: The adoption of regional language as a medium of instruction in primary and secondary level has its repercussion on higher education, because of the well-known fact that at college level in our country, there are a few colleges, where the subjects are taught in the regional language and not in English. The Tamil Nadu Government adopted Tamil as medium of instruction for the students, learning Mathematics, physics Chemistry and Biology in schools under its control, through it runs a few English medium sections in each class from six to twelve. The other schools form a major chunk of school population in the state. English is given no more attention than other subjects to get promoted to higher classes. They do not seem to make any attempt to make the learners in these schools aware of the role of the English language in their future, especially in higher education and in jobs. Besides, no attempt seems to be made to use English as means of communication so that the learners are competent users of English by the time they enter their colleges. 14
  15. 15. When a student enters college from a regional medium school, his greatest difficulty is in adjusting himself to the medium of instruction, which is English. At times, lectures and professors are forced to use their mother tongue, though they are supposed to deliver their lectures in English. This is because the lecturers stuck to English fail to communicate with their students. As a result, there occurs a steady corrosion of learning and teaching English in colleges. Students from English medium schools are very good or at least far better in English than students from rural regional medium schools. Hence, in colleges where students are in a process of learning a second language and in a process of using it as a main stream language, they produce utterances in spoken and written form, which are mostly erroneous. Multimedia: The development of science and technology has push forward modern teaching Technology and caused the deep change of the educational idea. Multimedia plays an important role in all the stages of second language acquisition. Multimedia tools are used widely by second language learners. Multimedia can provide a sensory and real learning experience; it presents a greater potential for learning (Lindfors, 1987).Practice has proved that there is 15
  16. 16. incomparable advantage of teaching approach in the multimedia compared with traditional method. Modern Multimedia Teaching Technology has substituted the static, stiff teaching aids, and participated in object teaching, like injecting a stream of fresh blood into class instruction especially play guiding, amazing unique function on students‟ thinking in image, combination technique of the multimedia. Such as animation, audio-video, etc. Characteristics of Multimedia Computer Assisted Language Teaching and Learning: With constant popularization and development at full speed of multimedia technology that the computer used, the computer second language teaching of the multimedia has already become a kind of inevitable trend, and influenced all aspects of the second language teaching. The numerous scholars and teachers have already begun to explore it in this aspect. It gets to outstanding achievements. The key characteristic of the multimedia technology includes the diversification of information carrier, interaction, controlling and integrating aspects. The multimedia computer in English language teaching and 16
  17. 17. learning, as a kind of teaching way and supplementary means, has various kinds of characteristics. Purpose of the study: Multimedia is becoming indispensable in the classroom. It allows teacher to diversify their teachings, display more information, and enhance student learning. It helps them save time and energy; it allows for more attention to be paid to the teaching content. There are different multimedia tools available for effective teaching. The tools are, Audio Streaming PPT Animation And Video. The above tools are called as teaching aids which are all used by the teacher to explain the subject effectively to the students. At the same time the tools give them an enthusiastic mood to learn more in their subject and it helps to learn to 17
  18. 18. face situations and challenges. It broadens their level of acquiring knowledge in any field which they feel more interested. Through the tools one can learn proper Pronunciation and accent. It helps them to improve their writing skills, etc. There are different purposes for analyzing the multimedia tools. Some of them are: To decide whether the multimedia tool has had the efficacious effect To identify what the effect the multimedia tool has acquired in the beginning stage To justify future course of action To identify areas for development in a multimedia tool This study is to find out either the urban government school students or rural government school students uses more and in effective. Chapter-II Technology in Education 18
  19. 19. Technological development is an extension of man‟s power over nature. As Marshal Mcluhan explains, „A shovel extends man‟s arms; a bow and arrow extends his reach in another way, clothing extends his skin; an automobile extends his leg; telephone extends his voice and hearing; writing extends his memory and now computer extend man‟s central nervous system‟: (i) In the other words, technology is providing a man with powers which can possibly be attributed to superman. More-over technologies of today are undergoing many utility oriented trends. (ii) Firstly there is a trend towards miniaturization. Teachers are now getting transistorized units which are smaller, lighter and more compact. Lighter weight makes such equipments more portable, and portability in turn gives rise to flexibility in use. Secondly, there is towards simplicity. There is something like personality of a gadget. If the personality is complex, the users get scared. But once the device is simplified such that it is used easily, it becomes more valuable. Thirdly, there is a trend to combine various units now on the market. For example, the slide projector and tape recorder once two separate units. Now, we have tape-activated projectors are various kinds. In 19
  20. 20. this way, various types of two-in-ones and three-in-ones have come into being and are proving useful devices for class room or for individualized instruction. With the advent of computers not only many gadgets like electronic tutors, electronic data network, interactive cable television, video text have been developed but capabilities of existing media technologies can be enhanced to improve teaching-learning processes. Some of the standard definitions of Educational Technology are, As defined by Commission on Instructional Technology,USA, “Educational Technology is a systematic way of designing, implementing and evaluating the total process of learning and teaching in terms of specific objectives, based on research in human learning and communication and employing a combination of human and non-human resources to bring about more effective instruction”. According to the Association for educational communication and Technology, USA has defined as “Educational Technology is a complex; integrated process involving people, procedure, ideas, devices and organization 20
  21. 21. for analyzing problems and devising implementing, evaluating and managing solution to those problems, involve in all aspects of learning”. An overview of such definitions as given above would reveal that the educational technology is a systematic way, a process involving the application of a systematic way, the application of the scientific knowledge to improve the efficiency of the process of learning and instruction. In brief, ET (educational Technology) is developing a source of education which uses a host of methods, techniques and resources that assist the teachers and support the students in their effective learning. Technology and Learning Growing emphasis on enhancing students‟ self- directed learning focuses on individually and socially constructed meaning. To foster and support critical thinking and reasoning students must be given opportunities in the classroom to use technology. Technology fosters and supports a constructive approach to learning when used as a tool in the process of making meaning and supporting inquiry. Technology can facilitate the process of meaning making as well as the sharing of results. As classroom access to communication and information 21
  22. 22. technologies increases and as vast amount of information become available in digital format, students will need to be literate across a variety of communication technologies. Need of Educational Technology: There are many problems relating to education in India which need immediate attention and action. The major problem include large classes; heterogeneous classes with intra and inter-individual difference; lack of textbooks, source material and equipments; lack of provision of teaching aids and another hardware in schools, etc. these problems can be tackled effectively with the help of Educational Technology. Large number of students can be taught efficiently and effectively at low cost. Individual difference among students can be taken care of by programmed instruction which can be adjusted to the individual‟s pace of learning. There is need to supply human learning scientifically so that instruction can be designed and organized to facilitate student learning. This can be achieved with the help of ET. The process of instructional design and system approach can be used to fulfill this need. 22
  23. 23. To provide education to a large number of poor and deprived students at their door-steps, scattered over a vast area in the country, correspondence education is being offered. The distance education system supported by television, computer, etc. it can be used to provide quality education to large number of students with a lot of flexible and open system using appropriate media and technologies. Scope of Educational Technology: The concept of educational technology has undergone change. It not only includes use of media and technologies in Education, but also includes the designing the process of teaching and learning. It helps in creating and organizing learning environment which includes formulation of instructional objectives, curriculum planning and designing, its transactional strategies and evaluation of pupil learning and achievement. It also includes management of learning and overall education. Educational technology covers all level of schooling and also higher education including professional education like engineering, management, medicine and latest technology courses. Its utility in making teaching-learning more effective is now realized. 23
  24. 24. Educational technology can be utilized by all teachers with different subject specialization. It can apply across different subject areas with high effectiveness in bringing about desired learning outcomes. Educational technology is basically the application of systems approach to education, i.e, analyzing the process into serial steps which lead to achievement of goal and objectives. By using systems, economic, political and social can be established to make education a more powerful instrument for country‟s human resource development. Forms of Educational Technology: Education technology is a multifaceted concept. Over a period, it has taken several forms depending on the focal concern. The main forms of Educational Technology are follows: Teaching Technology Instructional Technology Behavioral Technology Teaching Technology: 24
  25. 25. Teaching Technology is that form of ET which increases the effectiveness of teaching. In order to make best use of the available resource, it is essential that all persons engaged in the teaching profession understand the mechanism and dynamism of teaching technology and provide education to their students. Instructional Technology: Instructional technology is that form of ET which focuses on behavior modification under certain learning conditions to optimize pupil learning. It takes care of the individual pupil‟s abilities and pace of learning. Programmed Learning is one of the contributions of this form of ET. Behavioral Technology: Behavioral Technology is another form of ET in which desired change in student‟s behavior is the main concern. Method and techniques are developed to make desired behavioral changes. B.F.Skinner has been a pioneer in behavioral technology. In fact, this form of ET includes the previous two forms- teaching and instructional technologies. It is based on the assumption that teacher behavior is both social and psychological; teacher behavior can be modified; 25
  26. 26. reward and punishment play an important role in behavior modification; and its observable and hence measurable, etc. Kinds of Educational Technologies: Hardware Approach Software Approach Hardware approach Educational Technology has two kinds as per the approach being used. The first kind is hardware. It is also known as “Technology in Education”. Under this kind of educational technology, hardware including equipments, machines such as projectors, TV and computer, etc is used to make education a more effective and powerful instrument of pupil development. Software Approach The second kind of Educational technology is called software. It is also known as “Technologies of Education”. Under this kind of educational technology, software aims at increasing the learning-teaching methods and strategy, evaluation, procedure, etc. These are based on psychological principles governing human behavior. 26
  27. 27. Pedagogy and Technology: The other concept of Educational Technology is “Technology of Education”. It emphasizes pedagogic functions of technology. The ET helps to provide various kinds of learning experiences. Print medium presents verbal and visual material, which generates new thinking and modifies perception of the learner. The output signals of most machines are auditory or visual or both. They provide vicarious experiences. These experiences are substitutionary in nature. The learner imagines his participation in the events are too big for the classroom (E.g.. Solar system); or too slow (E.g. the sequence of opening into flower); or too inaccessible (E.g. defusing bomb). With appropriate visuals the reality is controlled by making them smaller or bigger; slower or faster; and with recorded sound realism is further created by presenting original speech of a leader, sound effect. Not only this sound may be amplified, slowed down or confusing noise may be edited out. Educational technologies have been always keen to develop repressive devices so as to enable the learner to explore more freely, inform him about the consequences of his action and allow him to learn at his own pace. Computer technology is seen to be filling this gap. 27
  28. 28. Chapter –III Teaching tools/Aids Curriculum developers and instructional designers collaborate with skilled teacher and subject experts to create effective, integrated learning 28
  29. 29. strategies which strengthen teachers‟ professional skills, make optimal use of classroom time, and broaden student access to learning materials (Richards, 2001). The tools can be categorized into two, Visual Aids Audio Aids Visual Aids: There are visual aids like chalk-board, flannel board, bulletin board, flash cards, slides, charts, maps, sketches, models, animation and video etc. out of these black board and chalk are the commonest one. Audio aids: Software which is used for pronunciation practice, radio and tape recorder etc. Visual aids bring in the classroom and brighten up the class room atmosphere. They provide interest in the lessons and make the students to learn more their subject. Visual aids help the teacher to create situation for teaching the beginners. Audio helps in providing speech training to pupils. They enable the students to retain items for a longer time. Importance of using teaching Multimedia Aids: 29
  30. 30. Teaching aids are great assistance in teaching any subject, language and science, etc. During the time of language teaching the aids has given more prominent because of the following purposes. Variety: They provide variety and keep the class lively and in more interest. At the same time it provides the adequate knowledge and information regarding their subjects. Effective Teaching: By the use of the aids a teacher can teach lessons more effectively rather than simply make them understand. While teaching the teacher can create a new situation to think more about their subject to acquire knowledge and information. Concrete: Aids make things concrete by making an appeal to the senses. What makes an appeal to the senses reinforces memory and makes the lesson and the learning more interesting. Students learn their lessons with more interest and involve in various activities which are all conduct by the teacher. Provide interest and inspiration: Aids provide interest and inspire students to seek more knowledge, without interest no one is ready to learn anything. So interest is the primary thing for learning any language. At the same time inspiration is important to do further study. 30
  31. 31. Reduce teacher’s talking and discussion: Aids reduces teachers talking and discussion in the classroom while teaching. When a teacher shows a model or video, need not explain everything to the students because it provides them the enough knowledge to comprehend certain things. Forming language atmosphere: Audio-Visual aids help in creating the language in the class. When a second language video played in the classroom there will be different atmosphere appears, it allows the students to understand pronunciation, accent, stress etc. Reduce the over-dependence on mother tongue: The use of aids in a foreign language class helps the teacher to reduce the over-dependence on pupil‟s mother tongue. Here vernacular language does not receive more important. Necessity of Application of Multimedia Technology to English Language Teaching (i) To motivate students’ interest in their study Nowadays, the prevailing traditional teaching methods and situations are unpopular while multimedia technology featuring 31
  32. 32. audio, visual, animation effects naturally and humanly make us more access to information. In addition to this such characteristics as abundant-information and crossing time and space, multimedia technology provides a sense of reality and functions very well, which greatly motivates students‟ interest in study and their involvement in class activities. Students can experience the subject which strengthen him a knowledgeable one. (ii) To promote students’ communicative Capability Traditional teaching has less importance in the students‟ capacity to understand certain a language and hampers their understanding to structure, meaning and function of the language, and makes the students passive recipients of knowledge. So it is difficult to achieve the target of communication. With teachers‟ instructions leading students‟ thought patterns motivating students‟ emotions, the multimedia technology classes set in new-type internet classroom seek combination of teaching and learning and provide the students greater knowledge. The PPT English teaching can 32
  33. 33. activate students‟ thinking; the visual and vivid course ware transform English learning into capacity cultivation. And such inclass activities as group discussion, subject discussion, and debate can also provide more opportunities for communication among students and between teacher and students. So multimedia technology teaching has separate inspired students‟ positive thinking and communication skills in various social practices. (iii) To broaden students’ knowledge to acquire meaningful understanding to Western culture: The multimedia teaching can offer the students abundant information; the output of multimedia comprehensive English far more plentiful than textbooks, and it displays vivid cultural background, rich content and true-to-life language materials whish are much natural and closer to life. Not only could learners improve their listening capacity or ability, but also learn the 33
  34. 34. western culture. Acquiring information through various channels can equip the students with knowledge and bring about information-sharing among students and make them participate actively in class discussion and communication. The combination of human-machine communication and interpersonal communication leads to overall development of students‟ listening, speaking, reading and writing skills. (iv) To Enrich Teaching Effect: Multimedia teaching enriches teaching content and makes the best of class time. It breaks the “teacher- centered” teaching pattern and eventually improves class efficiency. It is very common that the school and university students have their leaning effectively. Always English classes are very large crowded more in classroom. During such circumstances, it is highly difficult for the students to have speaking communication. The utilization of multi-media sound lab materializes individualized and cooperative teaching. 34
  35. 35. The traditional teaching model predominantly gives prominence on teachers‟ instruction, and the information given was limited. On the contrary, multimedia technology goes beyond time and space, creates more vivid, visual, authentic atmosphere for English learning, induces the students‟ initiatives and economizes class time meanwhile increases class information. Problem arising from Application of Multimedia technology in English language teaching: (i) Major means Replaced by the assisting one The application of multimedia technology is an assisting aid to achieve the projected teaching effect. While, if fully dependent on multimedia devices during teaching, the teacher may be turned into slaves to the multimedia and cannot play the leading role in teaching. It is observed in practice that numbers of teachers are more active in multimedia technology application rather than traditional teaching, so that they are engaged in searching information and working out. In class, they are standing by the 35
  36. 36. computer and students are concentrating only on the screen, and therefore, there is no eye contact between the teacher and the students. CAT has played vital role in class, while both teachers and students are enslaved by the computer and its application and student‟s initiatives, originality, teachers‟ individualized art in teaching and teaching methods spoiled and restricted. The trend of modern information and technology appears to the extremity regardless of the essence of the traditional teaching. And hence, the notion of creative Education should be fully comprehended that modern educational techniques provides an assisting aids in teaching rather than a target; and that should not dominate class. With the assistance of a computer in teaching, teachers are supposed to fully utilize the academic syllabus and teaching material, to find out how much knowledge the students have gained. The multimedia information should be less and better adopted with less emphasis and breakthroughs in teaching. 36
  37. 37. (ii) Lack of Speaking Communication: For a time, it has been pronounced that English class should be carried only through English language. English language and English analysis by the teachers are more effective in conveying knowledge and information to the students from English pronunciation to understand, improving students‟ English thinking patterns and oral expression. Whereas, the introduction of multimedia technology featuring audio, visual, aids in teaching and they fulfill the requirements of the students and enhance their interest towards their subject, but it results in lack of communication between teachers and students, replacement of teachers‟ own voice by computer made sound will not give clear idea to the student, and teachers‟ analysis by visual image and students‟ few chances for speaking communication. With the favorable environment by the mutual communication between teachers and students vanishing away, and sound and image of multimedia affecting students‟ initiative to think and speak, English class becomes a show and students are made viewers rather than the participants of class activities. 37
  38. 38. (iii) Students’ Thinking Potential reduces: It appears that language teaching is different from other subjects, for language teaching does not require illustrations by various steps, rather, the tense and orderly the environment is framed through questions and answers between teachers and students. Teachers raise improvised and real-time questions and they guide the students to think to cultivate their capacity to identify and solve problems. Because of over-demonstration and pre-arranged order, the teaching lacks real-time effect and cannot feedback students‟ study so it ignores emphasis and importance in teaching; it also rejects instruction in students‟ thinking and appreciation to the beauty and essence of language; further it paid little attention to free learning atmosphere and the notion-“happy learning”. It is empty that multimedia plays a positive role in inducing students‟ thinking, inspiring their paths of thinking, strengthening their minds to discover, contemplate and problem solving. In this way, it should be noted that cultivation of students‟ thinking capacity 38
  39. 39. should be played major objective in teaching and multimedia never take up the students‟ time for thinking, analyzing and exploring questions. Teachers only can provide capacities of thinking and reasoning by the effective teaching and explaining. (iv) Theoretical Thinking Replaced by Imaginable Thinking: The process of cognition goes through perceptual stage and rational stage. It also applied to studying process. It is the hope that teachings made students adopt the outlook cognition from perceptual recognition to rational apprehension, and greatly leap from perceptual thinking to rational thinking. Therefore, it is the major objective in teaching to enrich the students‟ abstract thinking. The multimedia technology makes content more easily, and with its unique advantages, it could clarify the emphasis in teaching. While if the image and imagination in students‟ mind were merely displayed on the screen, their abstract thinking would be restricted and logical thinking would wasted away. At present the decreased students‟ reading competence has become a major concern for reason that textual words are replaced by sound 39
  40. 40. and image, handwriting by keyboard input. The over-application of multimedia technology would worsen the situation. (v) The Computer Screen can’t Substitute the Blackboard:. Most of the teachers take the computer screen as the blackboard. They have input exercises, questions, answers and teaching plans into the computer and display them step by step, without taking down anything on the blackboard or even the title of a lesson. It is known that teachers are supposed to stimulate situations based on teaching and make the students to communicate in English. In addition to this, traditional writing on blackboard is concise and teachers can make adjustment and amendment to it if necessary. Further, experienced teachers know well that a perfect courseware is an ideal project in mind, and that in practice, they need to enrich the content on the blackboard with emerging of new questions raised by the students. 40
  41. 41. Chapter-4 Methodology: In order to identify the usage of Multimedia technology between urban and rural students, for that a questioner was prepared for them to analyze the 41
  42. 42. usage of the technological aids. Twenty boys and six girls between twelve and thirteen years of age from various Government schools from krishnagiri city, this is for urban analyses and twenty five boys and five girls from rural Government school for rural analyses. The purpose is to determine that who gets more benefit between rural and urban students in terms of language acquisition, vocabulary building and comprehension and in promoting general ease with the language. Analysis: The result from the study shows that Group B has scored far better in usage of the technological aids than Group A, which consisted of twenty five boys and girls from rural school. Group B, which also consisted of twenty five boys and girls have given their answer in positive. They said that they are aware of different multimedia aids and often they get chance to use them. Then they know how to handle the aids. At the same time the students from rural area they have scored less percentage than the students of urban area. Their answer is that they don‟t get chance to use them for their studies. Almost 60% of the students from rural area they don‟t know even the names of the aids. 42
  43. 43. The study proves that the use of the aids in class rooms of the rural and urban schools. The students from urban utilize the aids well for their learning their language in effective manner. The audio- video aids caters two sense- the sense of sight (the children are able to see the action), and the sense of hearing (with which they listen to the sounds of the words) and, therefore, helping double reinforcement. The impact is quiet strong. Educational TV programme, instructional videos, and even some computerized games claim to help children develop language skills. Sound and action support each other. The more a child hears and sees, the more it can be competent in a language. The practice of audio aids and video aids not just helps in the improvement of vocabulary and writing skills; there is also a considerable in improvement in their overall development of their skills. Conclusion Audio- video aids are familiar terms in the realm of education. For some years, they have been widely used the aids for learning. The effective of audiovideo aids have been enthusiastically discussed and evaluated in this project. 43
  44. 44. Effective learning is secured only through effective teaching; audiovisual method of teaching should be used, as it creates in the student individual thinking, feeling and doing in life like situation and dynamic experiences in learning. This method can bring the child most effectively and economically the desired results. So for the present generation the students focus mainly on the easy way to understand or learn the language effectively. They feel that the technology provides great extent in learning. Recommendations: Multimedia tools which are available in the market are not tailor-made. Teacher should analyze them predictively and retrospectively to use them effectively in the classroom. Feedback from the students can be utilized to improve the efficiency of the teaching by the use of Multimedia tools. Multimedia tools should be used appropriately and frequently to increase the level of the teaching as well as learning. Sample Questioner. NAME: CLASS: 44
  45. 45. NAME OF THE SCHOOL: 1. Do you know existed Educational technology? a) Yes b) No c) May be 2. Are you aware of Educational technology which is presented? a) Yes b) No c) May be 3. Do you Educational software? a) Yes b) No c) May be 4. Ever you use the Educational software? a) Yes b) No c) May be 5. Do you have any experience of using the software? a) Yes b) No c) May be 6. Doesn‟t u have eager to use the software? a) Yes b) No c) May be 7. What kind of knowledge you learn through this software? 8. Whether the software fulfill your thirst of learning a) Yes b) No 9. Do feel any change after the prevailing method of learning? a) Yes b) No 45