What is a smart phone?A smart phone is one devicethat can take care of all ofyour handheld computing andcommunication needs in asingle, small package.
WHAT MAKES CELL PHONE A SMARTPHONE?• A smart phone is a combined cell phone andportable computer with preloadedapplications and an operating system that canrun downloaded programs. A smart phoneexpands on a cell phones capabilities byproviding Internet connectivity and onlinemessaging capabilities along withconventional voice communication servicesmain difference is that smart phone works onprinciple of cloud computing.
Layers of Smart phonesThehardware• use power-efficient ARM processors• have computer chips that provide functionality• have high-resolution image sensorsThe software• smartphones can be visualized as a software stack• The stack consist of these layers: kernel,middleware, application execution environment,user interface framework, application suite
The Software• Software for smartphones can be visualized as a software stack.The stack consists of the following layers:• kernel - management systems for processes and driversfor hardware• middleware - software libraries that enable smartphoneapplications (such as security, web browsing, messaging, etc.)• application execution environment (AEE) - applicationprogramming interfaces, which allow developers to create theirown programs• user interface framework - the graphics and layouts seen on thescreen• application suite - the basic applications users access regularly suchas menu screens, calendars and message inboxes
Operating systemsThe most important software in anysmart phone is its operating system(OS). An operating system managesthe hardware and software resources ofsmart phones
AndroidAndroid is a Linux-based operatingsystem designed primarilyfor touch screen mobiledevices such as smart phones
Symbian• Symbian OS is the operating system for morethan 100 different models of phones. Theoperating system consists of the kernel andmiddleware components of the software stack
IOS• iOS (previously iPhone OS) is a mobile operatingsystem developed and distributed by Apple Inc• it has been extended to support other Appledevices such as the iPod touch , iPad and AppleTV (second generation).• Unlike Microsofts WindowsPhone and Googles Android, Apple does notlicense iOS for installation on non-Applehardware.
Black berry OS• BlackBerry OS is a proprietary mobile operatingsystem developed by BlackBerry Ltd• The BlackBerry platform is perhaps best knownfor its native support for corporate email,through MIDP 1.0 and, more recently, a subset ofMIDP 2.0, which allows complete wirelessactivation and synchronization with MicrosoftExchange, Lotus Domino, or NovellGroupWise email, calendar, tasks, notes, andcontacts, when used with BlackBerry EnterpriseServer.
Other OS• Java• Garnet OS• Windows OS• LiMO• Upcoming OS ( Aliyun OS, FirefoxOS, Sailfish OS etc.. )
Network protocols• Smartphones use cell-phone network technology tosend and receive data (such as phonecalls, web browsing, file transfers, etc.). Developersclassify this technology into generations. The firstgeneration includes analog cell phone technology.Digital cell phones require more advanced protocols,which constitute the second generation. Betweengeneration two and three, network engineers createdprotocols that are more advanced than generationtwo’s digital technology but not so innovative that theyare a truly new generation. Developers refer to theseprotocols as generation 2.5.
GPRS• WHAT IS GPRS?General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) is awireless, packet-based communication service• GPRS can send and receive data at a rate of 114kilobytes per second• Generation three (3G) is the latest in networkcommunication technology. Protocols in 3Gtransmit data in terms of megabytes per secondrather than kilobytes (some as fast as 10 Mbps)
NAVIGATION• One of the most important aspects of how a smartphoneworks is the method in which navigation takes place. Moreoften than not, a smartphone makes use of a touch screenfeature in order for it to be manipulated. It is oftenequipped with a stylus so that information can directly beinputted. A smartphone is similar to a regular computerscreen except that it has a smaller version called a micro-browser, which is specifically designed to operate onportable devices with small screens. Users can also makeuse of a keyboard that contains all the parts of a traditionalcomputer keyboard.
TECHNOLOGY• Because a smartphone needs to connect with a serviceprovider, it also makes use of the digital radio technologyused by most mobile phones. The device works becauseinformation is transformed into binary data, which is aseries of ones and zeros that are compressed for easiertransmission. A smartphone is able to handle the amountof information it contains because it makes use of atechnology called frequency shift keying, which utilizes twofrequencies. Each frequency is dedicated completely to aparticular number in the binary series and switches fromeither one or zero to send the digital signal from the phoneto the transmission tower.
Flexible interfaces• The core services on smartphones all tie in to theidea of a multi-purpose device that caneffectively multitask. A user can watch a videoclip, field a phone call, then return to the videoclip after the call, all without closing eachapplication. Or he or she can flip through thedigital calendar and to-do list applicationswithout interrupting the voice call. All of the datastored on the phone can be synchronized withoutside applications or manipulated by third-party phone applications in any number of ways.
MEMORY• How a smartphone stores information is vital to how itworks because of the large amounts of data it has to dealwith. It is usually equipped with an internal memory and iscomplemented by a flash memory. The latter is an externaldevice used for additional space to contain informationstored in the smartphone. A flash memory is similar to ahard drive in a regular computer and makes use ofelectronic signals to create a binary series, which is used torepresent the data stored. The electrons found in the flashmemory receive a charge of electricity to show a value ofone. If a cell sensor in the memory card detects that thecharge is below 50 percent of its capability, then valueassigned to the information is a zero.
POWER• A smartphone works by getting its power from arechargeable battery. A battery is dischargedwhen the electrons move from negative topositive locations. In a rechargeable battery,electricity is used to transfer these electrons backinto their original places. The speed at which asmartphone restores its power depends on howmuch electrical current the charger allows toflow.