Storyboard on Computer Simulation<br />sakondra.moore@waldenu.edu<br />PhD in EducationSpecialization: Educational Technol...
Computer Simulation<br />
What is Computer Simulation?<br />Computer  Simulation is a computer model, or a computational model that  is a computer p...
The Need/Problem<br /><ul><li>Computer simulators provide hands-on experiments and  allowing students the opportunity to o...
Reduce barriers for media in the classroom
Alternative learning
Provide models for skill learning
Increase content knowledge
Games</li></li></ul><li>21st Century Skills<br />High-quality standardized test<br />Formative and summative Assessments<b...
 Computer Simulation Timeline<br />See attached http://sophia.javeriana.edu.co/~ochavarr/computer_graphics_history/histori...
Research<br />It all began in the 1960s with Ivan Sutherland of Stanford University experimented with computer graphics an...
Development<br /><ul><li>Finances
Resources
Quality Assurance
Flexibility</li></li></ul><li>Commercialization<br /><ul><li>Professional Development Trainings
Computer-based Trainings
Trial Software</li></li></ul><li>Innovation-Decision Process<br />
Knowledge<br /><ul><li>Creation
First Impression
Exploration
Internet</li></li></ul><li>Persuasion<br /><ul><li>Early adopters
Game ware/Software
Learning goals
Interactivity
Social connections for disabled
Curriculum
Internet games/software</li></li></ul><li>Games<br /><ul><li>Educational games today are designed to teach both standard-b...
Kids love to be creative with digital images , podcasting, etc.
Contextual
Students learn by trial and error
Exploring</li></li></ul><li>Enhancing Student Performance<br /><ul><li>Students learn best by hands-on experiments.
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Storyboard moores week 11 multimedia presentation

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Computer Simulation

Sakondra Moore
Educ-7101-2
Diffusion and Intergrationof Technology in Educat

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  • Greetings,From the Walden University Faculty, Staff, and entire student body. I am Sakondra Moore, a graduate student currently pursuing an Ed.S in Educational Technology.Today, I will introduce to you computer simulation. We are living in a society where children are born into a digital age meaning they are digital learners. Therefore, we as instructors must be able to teach them and relate to them correspondingly. It has been stated that instructors are afraid of technology. Well technology has changed to promote efficiency in communication and effectiveness in instruction to increase student achievement. Research has proven that students learn best when they are able to apply or relate skills taught with hands-on real life scenarios.
  • 1. Reflection- provides individual learning styles and 2.Benchmark-test simulation3. Measure against learning objectives4. Students have the opportunity to form connections5.Bridging theoretical knowledge with the real world6. Scaffolding, facilitated by the teacher
  • Support a balance of assessments, including high-quality standardized testing along with effective classroom formative and summative assessmentsEmphasize useful feedback on student performance that is embedded into everyday learningRequire a balance of technology-enhanced, formative and summative assessments that measure student mastery of 21st century skillsEnable development of portfolios of student work that demonstrate mastery of 21st century skills to educators and prospective employersEnable a balanced portfolio of measures to assess the educational system’s effectiveness at reaching high levels of student competency in 21st century skillshttp://www.p21.org/route21/index.php?option=com_content&amp;view=article&amp;id=30&amp;Itemid=18
  • The history of computer simulation dates back to World War II when two mathematicians Jon Von Neumann and Stanislaw Ulam were faced with the puzzling problem of behavior of neutrons. Hit and trial experimentation were too costly and the problem was too complicated for analysis. Hence, the Roulette wheel technique was suggested by the mathematicians. The basic data regarding the occurrence of various events were known, into which the probabilities of separate events were merged in a step by step analysis to predict the outcome of the whole sequence of events. With the remarkable success of the techniques on neutron problem, it soon became popular and found many applications in the business and industry. This was a time, in the post-war world, when new technologies, developed for military purposes during the war, began to emerge as new problem-solving tools in the world at large. At that time the field of computing was divided into two approaches: analog and digital. Analog computers were particularly suitable for problems requiring the solution of differential equations. Analog computers used electronic DC amplifiers configured as integrators and summers with a variety of non-linear, electronic and Electro-mechanical Components for multiplication, division, function generation, etc. These units were manually interconnected so as to produce a system that obeyed the differential equations under study. A great deal of ingenuity was often necessary in order to produce accurate, stable solutions. The electronics used vacuum tubes (valves), as did the early. The transistor was still some years in the future.
  • 1. 3D modeling used in science, architecture, computer games, motion pictures, and video games.2. Computer and Games are one of the U.S. top sellers ranking at sales over $7.4 billion dollars.3. Average user is 33 and majority womenComputer Simulated environments need to be prepared thoroughly. Therefore, enough funds need to be calculated in school budgets. Take into considerations the need of the students, the content area, class schedules, building in which classroom is located, time allotted for implementation, and infrastructure needs.
  • Professional Developments should be set for vendors, teachers, and administrators. There should be a minimum of two days for training. Day 1 should be the introduction of simulation software for content areas. Day 2 should be hands-on team experiments, administrative tasks, implementation tasks such as cost, and Introduction to structure of the software.
  • Rogers (2003) Innovation-Decision Process. Knowledge persuasionDecisionImplementationConfirmation2. I will discuss each one as it pertains to computer simulation in the upcoming slides
  • Many learning tools incorporated into the curriculums now are in the form of games or digital media technology.It makes learning more interesting and entertaining.Children remember better when the lessons are related to real world situations or entertainment.Children today are born into a digital media society so that is what their learning environment has to relate to.According to research, computer simulation increases student achievement.Computer simulation can be used to tell stories, interactive spreadsheets, mathemetics, and virtual tours in science
  • Games make classes engaging: fun, rewards, competitions, discovery, and social worth.Genre of games:Role playing AdventureMultiplayerAction Fighting
  • Computer Simulation helps student s develop analytical and decision-making skills
  • Computer simulation guides and training books will be provided for instructional purposes, including content area, objective, lessons, and activities.
  • Administrators and teachers need to have done research develop an understanding of the need of computer simulation and be prepared to present it to parents and other community officials if necessary.Teachers need to be prepared to introduce software to students.
  • Who would you expect to be (or who are) the innovators and early adopters in your field of work for the innovation you are exploring? What strategies are the most persuasive in convincing them to adopt the innovation? There are a large number of professors and corporate level personnel conducting research on computer simulation. Implementing new ways to enhance simulation in the workforce and training students how to use it at collegiate levels.
  • Who do you think would be (or who are) the laggards in terms of rejecting the innovation? What strategies would be best to help move them toward adoption? Computer Simulation will be excellent to implement in vocational schools, math, and science courses to facilitate real world experiments.
  • Scholarships
  • Which combination of perceived attributes would be best for helping your innovation meet critical mass in your industry? Complexity- parents who are technical literate will not understand the benefits iof computer simulation. Therefore, teacher must provide demonstrations Compatibility –the parent-teacher-student interaction where teachers provide demonstrations of software used for simulation in the classroomObservability- parent’s day where the parents can come into the classroom to see what students are working on
  • Do you believe a centralized or decentralized approach would work best for the adoption of the innovation you are proposing to the Board of Directors? The classical diffusion approach assumes a centralized research and development organization that makes most decisions about the innovation and its diffusion. The advantages of the centralized approach to technology development and dissemination are: a collectivity of technical experts devoted to improving the quality of the technology, coordinated efforts at technology transfer, and a limited ability to gain adoption of innovations not popular but important for societal well-being (e.g., seat belt requirements, anti-smoking campaigns, environmental protection laws, civil rights legislation). The decentralized diffusion approach entails technology development and dissemination from small firms, local entrepreneurs, and grass-roots organizations. The advantages of decentralized innovation development and diffusion are: advancement of needed changes in the social system (i.e., social movements regarding civil rights, feminism, environmentalism), encouragement of local initiative in small firms, local control of technology development, and motivation for self-reliance.
  • Who will you recommend as key change agents in your organization, and how can the seven roles of a change agent be used in your organization to effect positive social change? These people must first acknowledge the need for computer simulation, build a relationship with vendors, implement a plan of action, stabilize, and build a terminal relationship. (Rogers, 2003)The change agent influences clients&apos; innovation decisions in a direction deemed desirable by a change agency. Change agents act as linkers between the change agency and clients. The change agent: develops a perceived need for change, establishes an information exchange relationship (credibility), diagnoses problems, creates intent to change in the client, translates intent into action, stabilizes adoption and prevents discontinuance, and achieves a terminal relationship. Change agent success depends upon: change agent effort, change agency vs. client orientation, change agent empathy, homophily and change agent contact, change agent contact with lower status clients, effective use of paraprofessional aides, working with opinion leaders, and the client&apos;s evaluative ability to judge the innovation for themselves (the change agent should educate as well as diffuse). Teachers-we want to target teachers who are leaders, and content expertise. Teachers need to understand how the simulated activities connect to the curriculum standards. -What the goals are for each exercise and the benefits of the student-teachers should formulat a comfort zone before teaching it to students-teachers need to be technology friendlyAdministrators-should value technology and understand its worth to students as well as society, be team leaders, understand the need of teachers and how they react to change.StudentsBoard MembersSoftware Vendors
  • Has the innovation you are proposing to the Board already met critical mass in society? If it has not met critical mass, which of the four strategies for achieving critical mass do you recommend to the Board for your innovation?
  • Hands-on experience before college or military
  • Storyboard moores week 11 multimedia presentation

    1. 1. Storyboard on Computer Simulation<br />sakondra.moore@waldenu.edu<br />PhD in EducationSpecialization: Educational Technology<br />Educ 7101-2<br />Diffusion and Integration of Technology in Education<br />
    2. 2. Computer Simulation<br />
    3. 3.
    4. 4. What is Computer Simulation?<br />Computer Simulation is a computer model, or a computational model that is a computer program, or network of computers, that attempts to simulate an abstract model of a particular system. Computer simulations have become a useful part of mathematical modeling of many natural systems in physics, astrophysics, chemistry and biology, human systems in economics, psychology, social science, and engineering. (Wikipedia, 2010)<br />
    5. 5. The Need/Problem<br /><ul><li>Computer simulators provide hands-on experiments and allowing students the opportunity to observe, manipulate, and investigate phenomena that are normally inaccessible
    6. 6. Reduce barriers for media in the classroom
    7. 7. Alternative learning
    8. 8. Provide models for skill learning
    9. 9. Increase content knowledge
    10. 10. Games</li></li></ul><li>21st Century Skills<br />High-quality standardized test<br />Formative and summative Assessments<br />Balanced portfolios<br />
    11. 11. Computer Simulation Timeline<br />See attached http://sophia.javeriana.edu.co/~ochavarr/computer_graphics_history/historia/<br />
    12. 12. Research<br />It all began in the 1960s with Ivan Sutherland of Stanford University experimented with computer graphics and wrote a software program called SketchPad while working toward his doctoral degree making his computer manipulate engineering drawings.<br />
    13. 13. Development<br /><ul><li>Finances
    14. 14. Resources
    15. 15. Quality Assurance
    16. 16. Flexibility</li></li></ul><li>Commercialization<br /><ul><li>Professional Development Trainings
    17. 17. Computer-based Trainings
    18. 18. Trial Software</li></li></ul><li>Innovation-Decision Process<br />
    19. 19. Knowledge<br /><ul><li>Creation
    20. 20. First Impression
    21. 21. Exploration
    22. 22. Internet</li></li></ul><li>Persuasion<br /><ul><li>Early adopters
    23. 23. Game ware/Software
    24. 24. Learning goals
    25. 25. Interactivity
    26. 26. Social connections for disabled
    27. 27. Curriculum
    28. 28. Internet games/software</li></li></ul><li>Games<br /><ul><li>Educational games today are designed to teach both standard-based and 21st century skills.
    29. 29. Kids love to be creative with digital images , podcasting, etc.
    30. 30. Contextual
    31. 31. Students learn by trial and error
    32. 32. Exploring</li></li></ul><li>Enhancing Student Performance<br /><ul><li>Students learn best by hands-on experiments.
    33. 33. Students have different learning styles and levels.
    34. 34. Students are explorative!
    35. 35. Collaborative learning</li></li></ul><li>Decision<br /><ul><li>Trial software packages online and classroom
    36. 36. Instructor practitioners
    37. 37. Interviews with vendors and institutions
    38. 38. Literacy</li></li></ul><li>K-12 Implementation<br /><ul><li>Finances
    39. 39. Facilities
    40. 40. Support Resources
    41. 41. Curriculum
    42. 42. Virtual classroom for all grade levels
    43. 43. Science classes- models
    44. 44. Training Guides
    45. 45. Vendor Support Staff</li></li></ul><li>Communication Channel<br />
    46. 46. S-curve Adoption for Computer Simulation<br />
    47. 47. Promoting Computer Simulation in Education<br /><ul><li>Instructors are the most influential adopters for this innovation.
    48. 48. Administrators
    49. 49. Students</li></li></ul><li> Innovators & Adopters of Computer Simulation in the Education<br /><ul><li>Teachers
    50. 50. Students
    51. 51. College s & Universities
    52. 52. Businesses</li></li></ul><li>Laggards<br /><ul><li>Teachers
    53. 53. Administrators</li></li></ul><li>Strategies for Adoption<br />Incentives<br />Free software<br />Student Competitions<br />
    54. 54. Perceived Attributes<br /><ul><li>Complexity
    55. 55. Observability
    56. 56. Compatibility</li></li></ul><li>Centralized vs Decentralized Approach<br />A centralized approach will take place due to the proper training and resources that will be provided to implement computer simulation.<br />
    57. 57. Key Change Agents<br /><ul><li>Teachers
    58. 58. Administrators
    59. 59. Students
    60. 60. Board Members
    61. 61. Software vendors</li></li></ul><li>Critical Mass<br />Yes ! Computer Simulation has met its critical mass in society. <br />
    62. 62. Need of the innovation<br />
    63. 63.
    64. 64. Matching the innovation<br /><ul><li>Benefits
    65. 65. Cost
    66. 66. 24 hr Tech Support</li></li></ul><li>References<br />Aldrich, C. (2004) Simulations and the future of learning: an innovative (and perhaps revolutionary) approach to e-lear (Citations: 32) Retrieved from:<br />http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Paper/5453163<br />Reference for Business Encyclopedia of Business, 2nd ed. (2010). VIRTUAL REALITY COMPUTER SIMULATION. Copyright © 2010 Advameg, Inc. Retrieved from:<br />http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/encyclopedia/Val-Z/Virtual-Reality-Computer-Simulation.html<br /> <br /> <br />Sierra-Fernandez, J. L., & Perales-Palacios, F. J. (2003). The effect of instruction with computer simulation as a research tool on open-ended problem-solving in a Spanish classroom of 16-year-olds. Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 22(2), 119-140.<br />Educational Broadcasting Corporation. (2008) Games Central. Retrieved from: http://pbskids.org/cyberchase/games/liquidvolume/<br />
    67. 67. Route 21. (2007) Building 21st Century Skills Retrieved from: <br />http://www.p21.org/route21/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5&Itemid=2<br /> Strangman, N., & Hall, T. (2003). Virtual reality/simulations. Wakefield, MA: National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum. Retrieved [December 19, 2010] from http://aim.cast.org/learn/historyarchive/backgroundpapers/virtual_simula<br /> <br /> Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. (2010). Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from: <br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_simulation. December 19, 2010.<br />Woodward, J., Carnine, D., & Gersten, R. A. O. (1988). Teaching problem solving through computer simulation. American Educational Research Journal, 25(1), 72-86.<br />

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