Italian as a Romanian Language

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Dilbilim dersi için hazırlanmış olan İtalyan dili sunumu.

Italian language presentation prepared for linguistics lesson.
Şâkir Aşçı

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Italian as a Romanian Language

  1. 1.
  2. 2. <ul><li>Languages and dialects:Italian as a Romance language
  3. 3. Where is Italianspoken?
  4. 4. LanguageFamily
  5. 5. Dialects
  6. 6. OriginandHistory
  7. 7. OrthographyandBasicPhonology
  8. 8. BasicMorphology
  9. 9. ContactWithOtherLanguages
  10. 10. BorrowedWords
  11. 11. CommonWords
  12. 12. ExampleSentences
  13. 13. TongueTwisters</li></ul>Presentors: Ayşenur Sağdıç / Şâkir Aşçı<br />
  14. 14.
  15. 15. Where is Italianspoken?<br />IntheRepublic of Italy, theRepublic of San Marino, VaticanCity<br />SouthernFrance in theareaaround Nice, Corsica, thePrincipality of Monaco<br />SouthernSwitzerland<br />Croatia<br />Slovenia<br />
  16. 16. FamILY<br />TheRomancebranch of theIndo-Europeanlanguagefamily<br />Relatedlanguages<br />PortogueseFrancoProvençal<br />SpanishLadino<br />CatalanRomanian<br />FrenchOccitan<br />
  17. 17. Dialects<br />Theterm “dialect” in theItaliantraditionrefersto a group of sisterlanguages of ItalianandotherRomancelanguages, and not todifferentvarieties of thesamelanguage, as it does, forexample, in theEnglishtradition. <br />Somedialects in Italydiffersomuchfromthestandardlanguagethattheyaremutuallyunintelligiblewith it.<br />
  18. 18. SicilianandFriulianaresometimesclassified as Italiandialects, andsometimestheyareaccordedthestatus of seperatelanguages. Sardinian is usuallyclassified as a seperatelanguage.<br />
  19. 19.
  20. 20. ORIGIN AND HISTORY<br />Italian, liketheotherRomancelanguages, is a directdescendent of Latin, thelanguage of the Roman civilization, whicharose in what is nowItaly.<br />Itwasn’tuntilthe 13th and 14th centuriesthatthedialect of Tuscany, ormorespecifically, Florentine, begantopredominateoverthecompatingdialects as the norm forliteraryproduction.<br />
  21. 21. Thepredominance of Tuscan is due in parttothepoliticalandeconomicimportance of Tuscanyduringthisperiod; tothesuperiorquality of literaryproduction in thisdialect by sucheminentwriters as Dante, Petrarch, andBoccacciowhowrote in Tuscan; andtothelinguisticcharacteristics of theTuscandialectsthatcontaintraitsfound in boththenorthernandsoutherndialects.<br />
  22. 22. Some people saw the Italian language as a supraregionallingua cortigiana ( language of the courts), others saw it as a variety of contemporary Tuscan, and still others preferred 14th-century Tuscan as the Classical Italian language. It was the last group that overcame, supported by the literary and linguistic AccademiadellaCrusca, which published the first great dictionary of Italian in 1612.<br />
  23. 23.
  24. 24. OrthographyandBasicPhonology<br />Italianorthography is veryclosetoitsphonetic form. This is because of thepeculiarhistory of Italian, which has rendered it a relativelyconservativelanguage. Althoughmostsymbolsrepresent in a one-to-onefashionthesoundstheystandfor, certaingraphemes do representmorethanonesound: e[e]/[ɛ], o[o]/[ɔ], s[s]/[z],and z[ts]/[dz].<br />An accent mark is onlyusedtoindicate a word-final stressedvowel: <br />città (city),più (more), caffé (coffee), perché (because)<br />
  25. 25. Vowels can be longorshortdepending on syllablestructureand on theposition of stress. Longvowelsarefoundonly in nonfinal, open, stressedsyllables; vowels in allotherpositionsareshort.<br />There is an interestinganduniquephonologicalphenomenon in Italianknown as raddoppiamentofonosintattico ( phono-syntacticdoubling). This is a processwhereby a stressedvowel in word-final positiontriggerslengthening of theinitialconsonant of thefollowingword: <br /> a casa[akka:sa] (home)<br />metàtorta[metattorta] ( half a cake)<br />
  26. 26.
  27. 27. Thephonologicalsystem of Italian is relativelyconservative in that it has retainedmany of thecharacteristics of Latin withfewchanges.<br />Some of thechangesincludetheincrease in thenumber of vowelsfromfiveto seven, <br />Replacement of Latin’slexical (not predictable) vowellengthdistinctionswith a newsystem of vowellengthbased on prosodicstructure,<br />
  28. 28. Theloss of a totallypredictablesystem of stressassignment, <br />Theassimilation of obstruents(lacte > latte ‘milk’), <br />Thepalatalization of l followingstops<br />(clamare > chiamare ‘tocall’),<br />andrandomcasessonorization of intervocalicobstruents<br />(lacu > lago ‘lake’, butamicu > amico ‘friend’) <br />
  29. 29.
  30. 30. BASIC MORPHOLOGY<br />Italiannounsandadjectivesaremarkedforgender, eithermasculineorfeminine, andnumber, eithersingularorplural.<br />Masculinesingularnounstypicallyend in -o withtheplural form ending in -i.<br />Forexample;<br />amico = amici (boyfriend = boyfriends)<br />Femininesingularnounsend in -a withtheplural form ending in –e.<br />Forexample;<br />Casa=Case (house=houses)<br />
  31. 31. Italian is knownforitswidespreaduse of descriptivesuffixes. Oneormoresuffixes can be added.<br />Forexample;<br />Ragazzo = boyragazzino = small boy<br />Ragazzone = big boy ragazzaccio = bad boy<br />Theonlyremnant of case in Italian is found in thepronominalsystem; nominative, dativeandaccusativeforms of thepronounmaydifferforsomepersonsandnumbers.<br />Forexample;<br />Io = nominative, mi/me=oblique form<br /> Ha datoil regaloame. (Shegavethegifttome.)<br />
  32. 32. Italian verbs are traditionally classified into 3 conjugations according to the ending of the infinitive form.<br />They are ARE, ERE and IRE.<br />PRESENT INDICATIVE PARADIGM<br />parlAREcredEREsentIRE<br />Ioparlocredosento<br />Tu parlicredi senti<br />Lui/Lei parlacrede sente<br />Noiparliamocrediamosentiamo<br />Voiparlatecredetesentito<br />Loroparlanocredonosentono<br />
  33. 33. Thefutureandconditionaltenses of verbs of all 3 conjugationshave an additionalaffix(-er,or-ir)addedbeforetheinflectionalsuffix.<br />Generally, auxiliary ‘avere’ (tohave) is usedwithtransitiveverbs, whereasessere‘to be’ is usedwithergativeandreflexiveverbs.<br />Thepastparticipleverbconjugatedwith ‘essere’ mustagree in numberandgenderwiththesubject. (PassatoProssimo)<br />
  34. 34. BasicSyntax<br />The free word order system of Latin was replaced by a more fixed word order in Italian,generally Subject-Verb-Complement.<br />Chiaravedeilgattonelgiardino.<br />(Chiaraseesthe cat in the garden.)<br />Withinnounphrases, an adjectivegenerallyfollowsthenoun it modifies, whiledefiniteandindefinitearticles, demonstratives, ordinalandcardinalnumbers, possessives, andquantifiersregularlyprecedethenoun:<br />Studentiintelligenti - Intelligentstudents<br />
  35. 35. CONTACT WITH OTHER LANGUAGES<br />Since theItalianlanguage has such a well-documentedhistorydatingfromits Latin origin,wehave a nearlycompleterecord of wordsborrowedfromotherlanguages.<br />DuringtheRenaissance, Italianwasinfluenced by FrenchandSpanishandalsoDutchandGerman.<br />Today, Italian has numerouspartiallyandcompletelyintegratedEnglishloans.<br />rock/rock-accio = rock/hard rock<br />
  36. 36. BORRROWED WORDS<br />FromEtruscan: persona, taverna<br />FromOsco-Umbrian: bufalo, casa<br />FromCeltic: cammino,montone<br />FromGreek: melo, poesia<br />FromGermanic: guardia<br />FromArabic: limone, algebra<br />FromFrench: galleria<br />FromSpanish: complimento,flotta<br />FromGerman: brindisi<br />For Italianpronunciations, click here<br />
  37. 37. COMMON WORDS<br />Man:UomoLong:Lungo<br />Woman:DonnaSmall:Piccolo<br />Water:Acqua Sun:Sole<br />Life:VitaYes:Sí<br />Love:Amore No:No<br />Fish:PesceCat:Gatto<br />Big:GrandeDog:Cane<br />Tree:AlberoGood:Buono<br />Bird:UccelloBad:Brutto<br />For Italianpronunciations, click here<br />
  38. 38. EXAMPLE SENTENCES<br />Sonoturco. (Türk’üm.)<br />Ti voglioquolcosa. Sana bir şey sormak istiyorum.<br />Parlil’italiano? İtalyanca konuşuyor musun?<br />Possoparlarel’italiano e il tedesco. İtalyanca ve Almanca konuşabiliyorum.<br />Oggi ho pulito il bagno;domani puliró la cucina.<br />Dün banyoyu temizledim; yarın mutfağı temizleyeceğim.<br />Ha dato la vita per la pace, la libertà, la giustizia, la democrazia.<br />O hayatını; demokrasi, adalet özgürlük ve barış için verdi.<br />Mi piace ODTÜ molto. ODTÜ’yü çok seviyorum.<br />Posso aspettare fino a domani. Yarına kadar bekleyebilirim.<br />
  39. 39. EXAMPLE SENTENCES<br />Solo i morti hanno visto la fine della guerra. (Platone)<br /> Yalnız ölüler savaşın sonunu gördüler.<br />Oggi ho deciso di installare Pardus.Bugün Pardus kurmaya karar verdim.<br />Come insegnare ai nostri figli il rispetto delle diversità?<br />Çocuklarımıza, farklılıklara saygı göstermeyi nasıl öğretebiliriz?<br />Il volto è lo specchio dell'anima?Yüz, ruhun aynası mıdır?<br />L'amore richiede pazienza e un solo errore può distruggerlo.<br />Aşk sabır ister, yalnızca bir hata onu yıkabilir.<br />Il amore é la più impagabile sensazione del mondo.<br />Aşk dünyadaki en değerli duygudur.<br />
  40. 40. TONGUE TWISTERS<br />Sotto la panca la capra campa sopra la panca la capra crepa.<br />Upon the bench the goat lives, under the bench the goat dies.<br />Un pezzo di pizza che puzza nel pozzo del pazzo di pezza.<br />A piece of pizza that stinks in the well of the ragged fool.<br />Per te il prete perse trenta denti dentro un antro.<br />For you the priest lost thirty teeth inside a cave.<br />No, non ho un nonno.<br />No, Idon’thave a grandfather.<br />Se l'arcivescovo di Constantinopoli sidisarcivescoviscostantinopolizzasse, vi disarcivescoviscostantinopollizzereste come si è disarcivescoviscostantinopolizzato lui?<br />IfConstantinople'sarchbishopdesconstantinoplesarchbishopizeshimself, willyoudesconstantinoplesarchbishopizeyourself as he desconstantinoplesarchbishopizedhimself?<br />I topi non avevano nipoti.<br />The mice don't have any nephews. <br />Alsoseehttp://www.uebersetzung.at/twister/it.htm<br />

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