General Overview of The Victorian Era and Timeline


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General Overview of The Victorian Era and Timeline - Middle East Technical University, FLE 218 Novel Course Presentation

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General Overview of The Victorian Era and Timeline

  1. 2. <ul><li>Victorian Timeline </li></ul><ul><li>The Victorian Era </li></ul><ul><li>The Industrial Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Life in the Victorian Era </li></ul><ul><li>Social Class </li></ul><ul><li>Development in Science and Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Health and Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>The Victorian Novel and Major Authors </li></ul><ul><li>Women in Victorian Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy and Publication </li></ul>
  2. 4. <ul><li>1837 Victoria inherited the throne </li></ul><ul><li>from William IV </li></ul><ul><li>1842 The Mines Act stopped </li></ul><ul><li>children under 10 from working </li></ul><ul><li>in the mine s </li></ul><ul><li>1847 Factory Act limited working day of </li></ul><ul><li>children aged 13-18 to 10 hours </li></ul><ul><li>1848 Marx and Engels issue &quot; Communist </li></ul><ul><li>Manifesto“ </li></ul><ul><li>1850 Workhouse s opened to help th e people who had no money. In return for their labour, the workers were given a bed and basic food. </li></ul>
  3. 5. <ul><li>1851 The Great Exhibition opened at </li></ul><ul><li>Crystal Palace by Prince Albert </li></ul><ul><li>1854-6 Crimean War was fought by </li></ul><ul><li>Britain and France against Russia </li></ul><ul><li>1858 Indian Rebellion ( The British Parliament passed the Government of India Act which br ought India under British rule. ) </li></ul><ul><li>1859 Darwin: On the Origin of Species </li></ul>
  4. 6. <ul><li>1864 A law bans boys under 10 from </li></ul><ul><li>working as chimney sweeps </li></ul><ul><li>1876 Queen Victoria was crowned the </li></ul><ul><li>Empress of India </li></ul><ul><li>1880 The Education Act makes compulsory </li></ul><ul><li>schooling for all children between 5 and 10 </li></ul><ul><li>1891 Free education for every child aged 5 - 13 </li></ul><ul><li>1901 Queen Victoria died. Her son, Edward </li></ul><ul><li>VII, became k ing </li></ul>
  5. 7. <ul><li>Queen Victoria ( 1837-1901) </li></ul><ul><li>An age of transition </li></ul><ul><li>Thanks to industry and trade, </li></ul><ul><li>England became the wealthiest </li></ul><ul><li>nation </li></ul><ul><li>“ The sun never sets on England ” </li></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>Britain was unchallenged military power </li></ul><ul><li>Britain dominated Global trade and expanded as a colonial empire in India, Australia, Africa and Brazil </li></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>Factories were founded and mass production became important and profitable. </li></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>Railways, canals and steamships provided Britain with the transportation between Britain and its colonies . </li></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><li>Urbanization, poverty and child labour emerged. </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>Growth of the cities: Due to the industrialisation, people were flocking into cities to search for better lives. </li></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>The search for employment: Both unskilled and skilled people demanded work, so the wages were low. Life conditions were too hard. </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>Child Labour: Children had to work long hours and under difficult conditions to help the family budget. (chimney sweepers, coal miners etc.) </li></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>The housing shortage: Workers wanted to live nearby their working places because it was time-saving. As a result of these demands and overcrowded conditions, the housing became scarce and expensive; therefore, so many people preferred slum-housing. </li></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>Kellow Chesney made a description of </li></ul><ul><li>slum-housing in his book “ The </li></ul><ul><li>Victorian Underworld ” : </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Hideous slums, some of them acres wide, some no more than crannies of obscure misery, make up a substantial part of the, metropolis … In big, once handsome houses, thirty or more people of all ages may inhabit a single room,’ </li></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>Destitution: Many cases of death caused by starvation and destitution were reported. In 1850 , an inquest was held on a 38 year old man whose body was reported as being little more than a skeleton, and her child as a ‘skeleton infant’ . </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>Homeless children: There were children living with their families in these desperate situations but there were also numerous, homeless children living on the streets of London. </li></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><li>In her book “ The Victorian T own C hild ” , </li></ul><ul><li>Pamela Horn writes: </li></ul><ul><li>‘ In 1848 , more than thirty thousand 'naked, filthy, </li></ul><ul><li>ro amin g lawless and deserted children, in and </li></ul><ul><li>around the metropolis' ‘ </li></ul>
  18. 20. <ul><li>Children and crime: Many destitute children lived by stealing and t hey were seen as threat s to society. Something had to be done about them to preserve law and order. </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Mayhew argued that: </li></ul><ul><li>‘ since crime was not caused illiteracy, it could not be cured education … the only certain effects being the emergence of a more skilful and sophisticated race of criminals’ </li></ul>
  19. 22. <ul><li>Society’s attitude towards the poor: T his is clearly demonstrated in a hymn published in 1848 Cecil Frances Ale x ander: </li></ul><ul><li>“ The rich man in his castle, </li></ul><ul><li>The poor man at his gate, </li></ul><ul><li>God made them, high and lowly, </li></ul><ul><li>And order’d their estate ” </li></ul>
  20. 23. <ul><li>Prostitution : Beginning in the late 1840s , major news organizations, clergymen, and single women became increasingly concerned about prostitution, which came to be known as “ The Great Social Evil ”. </li></ul><ul><li>I n his landmark study, Prostitution , William </li></ul><ul><li>Acton reported that the police estimated </li></ul><ul><li>there were 8,600 in London alone in 1857 </li></ul><ul><li>and this number is too much to ignore . </li></ul>
  21. 25. <ul><li>The Victorian Age was a complex eracharacterized </li></ul><ul><li>by stability, progress and social reforms and also, </li></ul><ul><li>by great problems such as poverty, injustice and </li></ul><ul><li>social unrest .T hat’s why the Victorians felt obliged </li></ul><ul><li>t o promote and invent a rigid code of values that </li></ul><ul><li>reflected the world as they wanted it to be. </li></ul>
  22. 27. <ul><li>Working class - men and women who performed physical labor, paid daily or weekly wages </li></ul><ul><li>Middle class - men performed mental or &quot;clean&quot; work, paid monthly or annually </li></ul><ul><li>Upper class - did not work, income came from inherited land and investments </li></ul>
  23. 30. <ul><li>Photography </li></ul><ul><li>Tel e graph, telephone, cars, aircraft </li></ul><ul><li>Sewage system and water pipes in London </li></ul><ul><li>Water supply, gas network for heating and lighting </li></ul><ul><li>This study of natural history was most powerfully advanced by Charles Darwin and his theory of evolution first published in his book On the Origin of Species in 1859. </li></ul>
  24. 31. <ul><li>Medicine progressed during the Victorian period. </li></ul><ul><li>Ether, chloroform, nitrous oxide were used as a way of anesthesia. </li></ul><ul><li>In this way, operations such as dentistry cases became painless. </li></ul><ul><li>The Waterloo Teeth </li></ul>
  25. 32. <ul><li>Cholera, typhus and tuberculosis spreaded. </li></ul><ul><li>Homemade prescriptions, folk remedies and herbal medicine were used as a cure by the poors. </li></ul>
  26. 33. <ul><li>Types of entertainment depends on social classes. </li></ul><ul><li>Victorian Britain interested in theatre, opera, the arts, music and drama. </li></ul><ul><li>Gambling in casinos, drinking and prostitution were popular. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypnotism and ghost conjuring aroused curiosity. </li></ul><ul><li>Hobbies such as studies of birds, butterflies, seashells and wildflowers were also popular. </li></ul>
  27. 36. <ul><li>Victorian England was a deeply religious country. </li></ul><ul><li>A great number of people were habitual church-goers, at least once , every Sunday. </li></ul><ul><li>The Bible and religious stories w ere frequently and widely read by people of every class . </li></ul><ul><li>T owards the end of Queen Victoria's reign, the faith of the English people began to slacken . </li></ul>
  28. 37. <ul><li>Effects of realism </li></ul><ul><li>Major theme is the place of the individual in society, the desire of the hero or heroine for love or social position. </li></ul><ul><li>Impulse to describe the everyday world and recognize a large and comprehensive social world with a variety of classes </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on moral and theological absolutes </li></ul><ul><li>Strict rules in society and gloomy atmospheres </li></ul>
  29. 38. <ul><li>Long complicated plots ( full descriptions and expositions, multiplotting and several central characters ) </li></ul><ul><li>Deeper analysis of the characters who are blends of virtue and vice </li></ul><ul><li>Chronological structure </li></ul><ul><li>Closed form, a final chapter where the whole texture of events is explained and justified </li></ul>
  30. 39. <ul><li>Jane Austen – Pride and Prejudice , Emma, Sense and Sensibility </li></ul><ul><li>Charlotte Bronte – Jane Eyre , Wuthering Heights </li></ul><ul><li>Lewis Carroll – Through the Looking Glass , Alice’s Adventues in Wonderland </li></ul><ul><li>Sir Arthur Conan-Doyle – Sherlock Holmes </li></ul><ul><li>Jose ph Conrad – Heart of Darkness </li></ul>
  31. 40. <ul><li>George Eliot – The Mill on the Floss, Middlemarch </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Dickens – A Tale of Two Cities , Oliver Twist, Great Expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Elizabeth Gaskell – Cranford , Ruth, North and South </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Hardy – The Mayor of Casterbridge , The Woodlanders, Far from the Madding Crowd </li></ul>
  32. 43. <ul><li>First women’s college established in 1848 in London. </li></ul><ul><li>Changing conditions of women’s work created by the Industrial Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Bad working conditions and underemployment drove thousands of women into prostitution. </li></ul><ul><li>Sticked to the household and v iewed as property , and these attitudes gave birth to feminism. </li></ul>
  33. 45. <ul><li>By the end of the century, literacy was almost universal and c ompulsory national education required to the age of ten. </li></ul><ul><li>Thanks to technological developments, the rate of reading including newspapers, novels and periodicals increased. </li></ul><ul><li>Novels and short fiction were published in serial form. </li></ul>
  34. 46. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Barbara, D. (n.d.). Poverty and Families in the Victorian Era. </li></ul><ul><li>Shepherd, A. (n.d.). Overview of The Victorian Era. </li></ul><ul><li>Lombardi, E. (n.d.). Victorian Period - A Time of Change. </li></ul><ul><li>Fletcher, R. H. (1918). A History of English Literature. </li></ul>