Ece salford2011 v2


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Presentation for ECE 6th International Conference (2011)

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Ece salford2011 v2

  1. 1. Designing Social Constructivist Mobile Learning Activities for HEI Courses in Malaysia Sakina Baharom POSITION PAPER : ECE SALFORD 2011
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>> Mobile Network Penetration & Trend in HEIs (higher education institutions) </li></ul><ul><li>> Aim of the Study & Paper </li></ul><ul><li>> Definitions in the Study </li></ul><ul><li>> Social Constructivist (SC) in the Study </li></ul><ul><li>> Comparison of SC Frameworks </li></ul><ul><li>> SC Mobile Learning Environment Framework </li></ul>
  3. 3. Mobile Network Penetration 2010 Per 100 People ITU (Develop Countries) 116 MCMC (Malaysia) 119.2 Broadband (Per 100 people) Mobile Phones (Per 100 people) 2010 16.6 119.2 1 st Quarter 2011 17.3 121.0
  4. 4. Getting into the Trend <ul><li>The 2009 Horizon Report (Johnson, Levine, & Smith, 2009) rated mobile learning as a technology to watch in universities </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander (2004) & Wagner (2005) posited that it is difficult for universities to ignore emerging trends in mobile phone use amongst students as the device can be used as an ‘anytime and anywhere’ delivery mechanism </li></ul>Zawacki-Richter, Brown & Delport (2007) reported a survey of 88 universities from 27 countries on their expectation of mobile learning. One of the main concerns of these institutions was the impact of mobile technologies on teaching and learning .
  5. 5. Aim of Study & Paper <ul><li>Main study : To gain understanding of how mobile learning activities can support students’ learning in a Malaysian HEI </li></ul><ul><li>Aim of paper : To seek how social constructivist theory could be the base of the design mobile learning activities </li></ul>
  6. 6. Versatile & Portable Environment ? Adapted from Model of Learning Activity Design (Beetham, 2007)
  7. 7. Mobile Learning <ul><li>O’Malley et al (2003) defined mobile learning as “any sort of learning that happens when the learner is not at a fixed, predetermined location , or learning that happens when the learner takes advantage of the learning opportunities offered by mobile technologies ” </li></ul>
  8. 8. Mobile learning activities used in this study means activities that involve using a particular mobile phone application for students to support their learning Social constructivist learning environment is the design and implementation of the learning opportunities for HE students that are based on social constructivist principles
  9. 9. Social Constructivist Learning Theory <ul><li>Meaning making embedded within a context (Jonassen, 1999, Van de Veer, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningful learning occurs when individuals engage in social activities (Prat & Floden, 1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Patincsar (1998) SC “focus on the interdependence of social and individual process in the co-construction of knowledge” (pg345) </li></ul>Mobile learning is a student-centered activity yet also promotes social interaction within a context (Leung & Chan, 2003)
  10. 10. Knuth & Cunningham (1993) Pedagogical Goals Fosnot (1996) General Principles Jonassen’s (1999) Framework MY Summary Provide experience with knowledge construction process Learning proceeds towards the development of structures Constructive articulation and reflection Students to take ownership of their own learning Provide experience for multiple perspectives Learning activity that provides multiple point of views from various resources Learning in realistic & relevant contexts Disequilibrium facilitates learning Authenticity in complex and contextual situation Learning activity that is situated in a context Encourage ownership & voice in learning process Learning is not the result of development Active manipulation and observation Learning activity that permits students engagement Embed learning in social experience Dialogue within a community promotes further thinking Cooperation through conversation and collaboration Learning activity that promotes collaboration Encourage the use of multiple modes of representation Learning activity that accords for multiple media Encourage self-awareness of the knowledge construction process Reflective abstraction is the driving force of learning Intentional reflection and regulatory Learning activity that recognizes reflection
  11. 11. Another Layer of Comparison: Bonk & Cunningham (1998) social constructivist attributes MY SUMMARY Derived Mobile Learning Activities based on SC Students to take ownership of their own learning Lecturer explanations, support & demonstration Multiple viewpoints Learning activity that provides multiple point of views from various resources Multiple Perspective Based Activities Learning activity that accords for multiple media Authentic problems Learning activity that is situated in a context Contextual Based Activities Learning activity that permits students engagement Team choice & interest: Social dialogue & elaboration Collaboration and negotiation Learning activity that promotes collaboration Collaborative Based Activities Process and reflection Learning activity that recognizes reflection Reflective Based Activities
  12. 12. Multiple Perspectives Based Activities <ul><li>Dunlap & Grabinger (1996) Information does not come from only one source in a social constructivist learning environment, but rather through different types of information and even from different media . Different views can be received through various other types of sources. </li></ul><ul><li>EG: Course moblog could be created to place various types of information from ‘small-bites’ (short notes) of text to podcasts to eBooks. These various media of information could provide multiple perspectives for students on a content of the course. Students could also contribute to these sources. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Contextual Based Activities <ul><li>Duffy & Jonassen (1992) posited that learning activities “ should provide contexts and assistance that will aid the individual in making sense of the environment as it is encountered” (pg5). </li></ul><ul><li>This means that there could be activities designed to make use the multiple context the students are in. </li></ul><ul><li>EG: HE students could be asked to collect pictures and videos to enhance their ePortfolio which could also be as evidence of their field work. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Collaboration Based Activities <ul><li>Dunlap & Grabinger (1996) supported collaboration activities as they argued that through working in groups, students are able to refine their knowledge through argument, structured controversy and reciprocal teaching and learning, which could derived a shared-meaning of the content . </li></ul><ul><li>EG: The students could be placed in groups to complete a project and communicate with each other through different mobile communicative applications such as SMS & FB mobile. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Reflection Based Activities <ul><li>Bednar et al. (1992), “learning is a constructive processing which the learner is building an internal representation of knowledge , a personal interpretation of experience.” (pg30) </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is an active process in which meaning is developed based on the students’ thinking process. The process can be captured in the students’ reflective awareness of their own thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>EG: Mobile learning activity which allows reflections could be for the lecturers to send reflective questions through SMS to the HE students after each class. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Social Constructivist Mobile Learning Activities Framework Multiple Perspectives Based Activities Contextual Based Activities Collaboration Based Activities Reflection Based Activities
  17. 17. THANK YOU [email_address]