Maize

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Maize (Zea mays subsp.), known in some English-speaking countries as corn, is a large grain plant domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times. The leafy stalk produces ears which contain the grain, which are seeds called kernels. Maize kernels are often used in cooking as a starch. This document contain ...1. Structure and physiology,2. Varieties,3. Climate, soils and production areas,4. The sowing operation 5. Maintenance At crop establishment 6. Major Diseases of Maize 7. Major Insect Pest of Maize 8.Global Maize Production ,9Global Consumption of Maize and many more about Maize .

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Maize

  1. 1. Sakil.iubat@gmail.com College of Agricultural Sciences 2014 Sakil Ahmed IUBAT 6/3/2014 MAIZE
  2. 2. MAIZE Maize (Zea mays subsp.), known in some English-speaking countries as corn, is a large grain plant domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times. The leafy stalk produces ears which contain the grain, which are seeds called kernels. Maize kernels are often used in cooking as a starch. 1. Structure and physiology The maize plant is often 2.5 m (meters) (8 ft) in height, though some natural strains can grow 12 m (40 ft).The stem has the appearance of a bamboo cane and is commonly composed of 20 internodes of 18 cm (7 in) length. A leaf grows from each node, which is generally 9 cm (3.5 in) in width and 120 cm (4 ft) in length. Ears develop above a few of the leaves in the midsection of the plant, between the stem and leaf sheath, elongating by citation needed 3 mm/day, to a length of 18 cm (7 in) (60 cm/24 in being the maximum observed in the subspecies). They are female inflorescences, tightly enveloped by several layers of ear leaves commonly called husks. Certain varieties of maize have been bred to produce many additional developed ears. These are the source of the "baby corn" used as a vegetable in Asian cuisine. The apex of the stem ends in the tassel, an inflorescence of male flowers. When the tassel is mature and conditions are suitably warm and dry, anthers on the tassel dehisce and release pollen. Maize pollen is anemophilous (dispersed by wind), and because of its large settling velocity, most pollen falls within a few meters of the tassel. 2. Varieties Many forms of maize are used for food, sometimes classified as various subspecies related to the amount of starch each had: - Flour corn — Zea mays var. amylacea - Popcorn — Zea mays var. everta - Dent corn — Zea mays var. indentata - Flint corn — Zea mays var. indurata - Sweet corn — Zea mays var. saccharata and Zea mays var. rugosa - Waxy corn — Zea mays var. ceratina - Amylomaize — Zea mays - Pod corn — Zea mays var. tunicata Larranaga ex A. St. Hil.
  3. 3. Sakil.iubat@gmail.com - Striped maize — Zea mays var. japonica 3. Climate, soils and production areas 3.1 Temperature requirements The optimum temperature for maize growth and development is 18 to 32 °C, with temperatures of 35 °C and above considered inhibitory. The optimum soil temperatures for germination and early seedling growth are 12 °C or greater, and at tassel ling 21 to 30 °C is ideal. Low temperature is rarely a limiting factor for crop production. 3.2 Rainfall requirements Maize can grow and yield with as little as 300 mm rainfall (40% to 60% yield decline compared to optimal conditions), but prefers 500 to 1200 mm as the optimal range. Depending on soil type and stored soil moisture, crop failure would be expected if less than 300 mm of rain were received in crop. However, through practicing reduced tillage, maintaining ground cover or applying crop residues such as rice straw, the impact of drought can be greatly reduced by lowering soil temperature and surface evaporation. In one upland experiment maize yield was increased by 61% by simply adding crop residues to the soil (known as mulching). 3.3 Photoperiod Maize is grown globally from 50°N to 40°S, and from sea level up to 4000 m altitude. Maize is a short-day plant with 12.5 hours/day being suggested as the critical photoperiod. Photoperiods greater than this may increase the total number of leaves produced prior to initiation of tassel ling, and may increase the time taken from emergence to tassel initiation (Birch 1997). Day length increases from January to June and becomes shorter from July until December. Therefore, the same variety of maize planted between mid-May and early August may be slightly slower than if planted outside this period, when day length is less than 12.5 hours per day . 3.4 Soils The preference of most field crops is for fertile, well-drained loamy soils. Maize is relatively well adapted to a wide range of soils with pH 5.0 to 8.0. It does not do well in acidic soils. Aluminum toxicity could become a problem on soils with pH less than 5.0 (Al > 40%). Maize is moderately sensitive to salinity, which reduces uptake of nutrients and decreases total dry matter production. Hence, low soil water storage is more of a problem for maize .Maize yields vary a lot depending on the soil type where the crop is grown.
  4. 4. 4. The sowing operation 4.1 Planting time Maize is not as drought tolerant as some of the other upland crops such as beans so good soil moisture at sowing time is required before the crop is planted. It is recommended that there be at least 30 cm of wet soil throughout the soil profile before sowing. Because of this higher water requirement, the majority of corn is planted places where rainfall is more reliable and there is more of it. 4.2 Seed quality for planting It is important to test the germination and vigor of your planting seed before sowing. The following processes should be undertaken, First look at seed for signs of weathering, disease or physical damage and 2 weeks before sowing, it is advisable to do your own germination test in soil. Randomly select 400 seeds and sow at a depth of 5 cm in a in a container at home, If less than 70% germination after 7 days then seed should not be used .Seed should be plump and free from visible damage such as broken seed coats and chipped crowns. 4.3 Seedbed preparation Maize needs to be planted carefully and accurately to achieve the best germination and emergence possible. Seeds will be slow to emerge or fail to germinate if the soil is too wet. A good seedbed should consist of 5 to 7 cm of fine firm soil that is free from weeds. The soil should be kept free from weeds by hand chipping or spraying as required. The maize is then sown directly into the standing stubble without the associated costs of pouching. The soil much be mulched to reduce soil temperature, reduced surface evaporation and emergence of weeds. 4.4 Crop establishment It is important to plant maize seeds at an even depth of 2 to 5 cm into firm, moist soil to ensure good seed-to-soil contact for moisture uptake and subsequent germination. Plant density and row spacing are critical agronomic factors to get right when sowing maize to maximise yield. The highest yielding crops across the field is approximately 53 000 to 66 000 plants/ha. There should be 70-cm row spacings and 50 cm between hills 4.5 Fertilizers recommendations for sowing The use of fertilizer at sowing provides the seedling with the major nutrients required in the early stages of development. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are particularly important, and potassium (K) may also need to be applied before planting if levels are low.
  5. 5. Sakil.iubat@gmail.com DAP (diammonium phosphate) should be applied at or before sowing at up to 100 kg/ha which contains 18% N, 20% P and 1.6% S (sulfur). Fertilizers should be placed approximately 5 cm below and to the side of the seed. Alternatively, basal fertiliser can be broadcast 1 or 2 days before sowing to avoid burning the seed. Muriate of potash (KCl) contains 50% K and can be applied at 60to 100 kg/ha, can applied prior to final cultivation or may be broadcast before rain. 5. Maintenance At crop establishment 5.1 Weeding This is done at interval of 2 months until the harvesting time is due. During this period, the also removal of dead leaves. Strategies to weed control Feeding to livestock Good agronomic practice which includes making sure the crop seed used for sowing is clean and free of weed seeds and has a high germination percentage • Timely weeding • Grazing or burning 5.2 Watering Water the plant when needed or especially on land that has less water in the soil or less rainfall. 5.3 Fertilizer Apply fertilizer at matured stage when needed. Strategies to Fertilizer Application • Ringing • Broadcasting 6. Major Diseases of Maize It is difficult to determine the extent of maize yield losses as a result of disease. However, maize diseases can reduce yield potential, interfere with normal physiological development, lower grain quality and cause lodging, which affects harvest. The occurrence and impact of a disease depends on a number of factors such as climatic conditions and the health, abundance and varietal resistance of the host plant. It is important to identify diseases in order to implement management strategies during the season and for subsequent crops. Diseases can be difficult to identify and should be diagnosed by a suitable plant pathologist .
  6. 6. 6.1 Fusarium spp. (Stalk rot and ear rot) • Symptoms - These different species of fungi produce stalk rots, ear rots and seedling blights. - Whitish-pink cottony fungal growth develops on and between the kernels and sometimes on the silks. - Infected plants are weakened and can break easily during strong winds and rains. - Mycotoxins, which are harmful to humans and livestock, are also produced. • Management - These diseases can be controlled by the use of resistant varieties together with the use of optimum plant populations and nitrogen applications. 6.2 Maize dwarf mosaic virus • Symptoms - Light and dark green patches form a mosaic pattern on leaves, with some ring spots. Highly susceptible varieties may have many yellow leaves as well. - Plants infected early are very stunted, with significant yield loss. • Management The spread of the virus is due to aphids transmitting the virus from one infected plant to another. - Control volunteer grasses such as Johnson grass, which is a host for the virus. - Avoid having plants at seedling stage during peak aphid flight time. Grow more tolerant varieties. 6.3 Meloidogyne hapla (nematodes) • Symptoms - Patches of stunted, drought-stressed plants across the field. - Roots are stunted and have small nodule-like cysts and sometimes dark lesions. - The nematodes are too small to see and they live inside the roots. • Management - Control weeds, which may act as hosts for the nematodes in between crops.
  7. 7. Sakil.iubat@gmail.com - Clean equipment well before using on a different field as nematodes are spread by dirt, water and plant material. 6.4 Aspergillus flavus (aflatoxin) • Symptoms - Masses of yellow to dark green spores develop on kernels, which may be slightly enlarged. - Crop symptoms include terminal drought stress such as permanent wilting of the foliage, receding canopy cover between rows, and leaf drop. • Management - Aflatoxin is a fungus toxic to humans that affects maize kernels. - Its onset is encouraged by drought. - It affects not only the quality of the crop but also the safety of anyone who consumes affected kernels. - Growing maize during the MWS should decrease the chances of aflatoxin becoming a problem as there is reduced likelihood of drought during this period. - If growing maize in the early wet season (EWS), do not delay harvest. 6.5 Puccinia polyspora (corn rust) • Symptoms - Small round to oval, brown or orange pustules distributed uniformly over the upper leaf surface. Brown to black circles may appear around the pustules. - Severely affected leaves turn yellow and die early. - Ears on severely affected plants are much lighter than normal and the seeds are pinched and loose on the cob. • Management - Control volunteers and other grass weeds that may act as a host to the fungus. - Avoid planting two maize crops in a row. - Plant resistant varieties if available.
  8. 8. 7. Major Insect Pest of Maize The first step in managing insect pests is to identify the insect and determine the numbers present. Crops should be checked regularly to determine the extent of an insect infestation and assess the damage it is causing. This information can then be used to determine whether control is required and to decide on the most suitable management method . 7.1 Macrotermes (termites) • Insect description - Three separate genera of termites have currently been identified as a problem in maize crops, including Microtermes sp., Hypotermes sp., Globitermes sp. and Macrotermes gilvus. - Build short, broad based, dome shaped mounds in the field whilst the other species build their nests entirely below ground. - Termites are small, white and honey coloured insects with a soft body and live in colonies in the soil. - You will always find them in groups and the termites may be different sizes. - The workers are the smallest and soldiers are significantly larger. • Damage - Traditionally termites are fungus producers and they harvest plant material to feed the fungus which they then feed on themselves. - In Cambodia, the termites chew maize roots and dry the plant out, usually resulting in patches of crop death. - They may also tunnel up the inside of the stem, resulting in crop lodging and significant yield loss. • Management - Locate the queen and kill it or mix the soil with termiticides eg Termidor SC 7.2 Ostrinia furnacalis (maize borer) • Insect description - Young larvae are pink or yellow grey with black heads. - Older larvae are whitish and spotted. - Eggs are laid in clusters on the top side of the leaf or husk and turn black just before hatching. • Damage - Larvae mainly damage the maize ear, feeding soon after emergence, working on the silk channels. - They not only cause direct damage to the kernels but also allow infections to occur if conditions are conducive by ear-rot pathogens. • Management
  9. 9. Sakil.iubat@gmail.com - Spray with recommended insecticides such as - As larvae survive in the diapausing state in overwintering crop debris, exposing crop residue to direct sunlight or using crop residue for livestock feed or compost can reduce the incidence of diapausing larvae. - Pheremone and light traps can be used to trap adult moths. - Modifying sowing periods to avoid periods of heavy infestation can reduce crop damage. 7.3 Helicoverpa armigera (heliothis) • Insect description - Hatchlings are pale with dark heads. - As they grow, dark spots become clearer. - Medium larvae have lines running down their body and their colour varies depending on what they are eating. - White hairs are evident on their head and when medium sized, they develop a dark band on the fourth segment back from the head. • Damage - Larvae mainly damage the maize ear, feeding soon after emergence, working on the silk channels. - They do not only cause direct damage to the kernels but also allow infections to occur if conditions are conducive by ear-rot pathogens. • Management - Control measures include the growing of resistant varieties, weeding, inter-row cultivation, removing crop residues, deep autumn ploughing, winter watering to destroy the pupae, the use of insecticides or biological control through the release of entomophages such as Trichogramma spp. and Habrobracon hebetor. - Monitoring is possible by the use of sex pheromone traps 7.4 Spodoptera litura (armyworm) • Insect description - As larvae grow they develop obvious black triangles along each side of their body. - Larvae grow up to 3 cm long and are narrowest at the head. - Eggs are laid in clusters of up to 300. • Damage - Mass hatchings of armyworms begin feeding on leaves, scraping the surface off and creating a 'window pane' effect. - The damage becomes progressively worse, starting at the margins and moving inward, with the armyworms eating entire leaves or defoliating plants.
  10. 10. • Management - The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) may effectively control this pest. - Other forms of biological, horticultural, and cultural control that have been studied include: planting near derris and garlic plants, breeding resistant plants from wild plants. 7.5 Nezara viridula (green vegetable bug) • Insect description - Adults are 15 mm long and bright green all over. - Nymphs go through five different instar stages where they change colour and pattern. - They start by being orange and black, then black, red and yellow patterns develop and eventually green is dominant. • Damage - Adults and nymphs pierce and suck developing seeds and cobs, which may be lost, deformed or have dark marks on them. • Management - It may be possible to utilize trap-borders of preferred hosts such as Crotalaria (rattlepod) to attract and hold stink bug populations. - Stink bugs will usually remain on the plants where parasites can readily find them. - Insecticidal applications are usually not required, however sprays may be needed if stink bug populations are high . - Bio-Control such as Predation by the big headed ant, Pheidole megacephala, has been reported . 8. Harvesting • Traditionally, when red maize cobs have dried down and it is time for harvest, the cobs are handpicked, hand shelled and dried in the sun. • This is very labour intensive, which has a significant impact on the gross margin for maize. Another option is to machine harvest when moisture levels drop below 18% to 24% and then dry down to below 14% for delivery or storage. • Harvesting can be done with a machine called combined harvester or by hand. 9. Drying • After threshing, the maize kernels are dried in the sun either on mats, plastic tarpaulins or on a cement pad until the moisture content is below 11%, when the kernels are ready for sale. During the drying process the kernels are raked across the pad to ensure even drying. The moisture level in
  11. 11. Sakil.iubat@gmail.com maize must remain below 11% if the maize is stored for long periods, otherwise aflatoxin may develop, producing toxic side effects for consumers of the grain . 9.1 Drying methods - Plastic sheets - Concrete slab (Concrete slabs are usually 5 × 5 m or 10 × 10 m and can be enlarged depending on requirements ) - Machine drying . 10. Storing Maize Maize is packaged in sacks are place a warehouse where has a room temperature (25 degree Celsius). Maize are susceptible to a lot of pest during storage. The storage environment must be free from pest. The environment must not have too much moisture which can cause root of the maize. 11. Storage Pests Stored maize is susceptible to infestation by insect pests and attack by diseases and can also be damaged by rodents and birds. It is important to fumigate or periodically expose grain to the sun to kill storage insect pests such as the lesser grain weevil. Cleaning of the grain store to remove all traces of previous crop, preferably by disinfecting the structure before use, is important. It is also necessary to monitor the condition of the stored grain throughout the storage period for insect pests, disease, temperature and moisture. 11.1 Sitophilus oryzae (Lesser grain weevil) • Insect description - Adults are 2 to 3 mm long, with a long snout and four reddish spots on the wing covers. - The larvae spend all their time inside the grain. • Damage - Management of this insect is very important. - The larvae chew large irregular holes in the kernel and when adults emerge they make an irregular shaped hole about 1.5 mm in diameter. 11.2 Tribolium castaneum (red flour beetle) • Insect description - Adults are reddish brown with a flat, oval body 2.5- 4.0 mm long with wings. - Larvae are mobile in the grain sample. • Damage - Larvae prefer feeding on the grain germ.
  12. 12. - Damage is particularly serious in grains such as rice and wheat, which have either been dehusked or processed into other products. - When infestation is severe, these products turn greyish-yellow and become mouldy with a pungent odour . 11.3 Oryzaephilus surinamensis (saw- toothed grain beetle) • Insect description - Adults are 2.5 to 3.0 mm long, with a slim, grey body with distinct ridges on the thorax and teeth- like projections on each side. • Damage - Adult beetles of O. surinamensis can be seen moving rapidly over stored food, but the immature stages are inconspicuous. - They are a major pest of stored grain and milled products, as they can easily eat through packaging. 11.4 Araecerus fasciculatus (areca nut weevil) • Insect description - This is a fungus weevil that is a mottled dark brown all over its 3- to 5-mm long body. • Damage - Maize is a primary host of these grain-boring insects. Infestation may cause stored grain to be hollowed out or tunnelled by the larvae. - Adults bore circular holes when they emerge from the grain. - Adult feeding causes irregular ragged patterns of damage, particularly if feeding occurs on a commodity previously damaged by larvae. 12. Controlling Storage Pest • The best form of controlling storage pest of maize is by Fumigating with Phosphine. 13. Global Maize Production Maize is widely cultivated throughout the world, and a greater weight of maize is produced each year than any other grain. The United States produces 40% of the world's harvest; other top producing countries include China, Brazil, Mexico, Indonesia, India, France and Argentina. Worldwide production was 817 million tonnes in 2009—more than rice (678 million tonnes) or
  13. 13. Sakil.iubat@gmail.com wheat (682 million tonnes). In 2009, over 159 million hectares (390 million acres) of maize were planted worldwide, with a yield of over 5 tonnes/hectare (80 bu/acre). Production can be significantly higher in certain regions of the world; 2009 forecasts for production in Iowa were 11614 kg/ha (185 bu/acre).[58][Note 1] There is conflicting evidence to support the hypothesis that maize yield potential has increased over the past few decades. This suggests that changes in yield potential are associated with leaf angle, lodging resistance, tolerance of high plant density, disease/pest tolerance, and other agronomic traits rather than increase of yield potential per individual plant. Rank Country Production (Tonnes) 1. United States 333,010,910 2. Chine 163,118,097 3. Brazil 51,232,447 4. Mexico 17,629,740 5. Indonesia 20,202,600 6. India 17,300,000 7. France 15,299,900 8. Argentina 13,121,380 9. South Africa 12,050,000 10. Ukraine 10,486,300 14. Global Consumption of Maize Worldwide consumption of maize is more than 116 million tons, with Africa consuming 30% and SSA 21%. However, Lesotho has the largest consumption per capita with 174 kg per year. Eastern and Southern Africa uses 85% of its production as food, while Africa as a whole uses 95%, compared to other world regions that use most of its maize as animal feed.
  14. 14. Ninety percent of white maize consumption is in Africa and Central America. It fetches premium prices in Southern Africa where it represents the main staple food. Yellow maize is preferred in most parts of South America and the Caribbean. It is also the preferred animal feed in many regions as it gives a yellow color to poultry, egg yolks and animal fat. Maize is processed and prepared in various forms depending on the country. Ground maize is prepared into porridge in Eastern and Southern Africa, while maize flour is prepared into porridge in West Africa. Ground maize is also fried or baked in many countries. In all parts of Africa, green (fresh) maize is boiled or roasted on its cob and served as a snack. Popcorn is also a popular snack. 15. Hybrid seed production technology of maize Use of hybrid maize has resulted in the development of new enterprises like production, processing, sale and distribution. The seed industry consists of several components like research, production, quality control and marketing. The plant breeder who develops the strain provides specific genetical and morphological characters based on which the cultivar can b identified. Production of hybrid seed consists of 3 stages. 15.1 Breeder’s seed: It is directly controlled by the breeder. It is generally produced in limited area, either cy hand pollination or in isolation under the supervision of the breeder and monitored by a team. 15.2 Foundation seed: It consists of production of single crosses by sowing male and female parents in 2 : 4 row ratio. Detasseling is done in female rows after removing off-types, diseased and unwanted plants, if any. Certification are maintained under the guidance of monitoring team consisting personnel’s from the National seed corporation, seed Certification Agencies, breeders from agricultural universities and ICAR nominees. 15.3 Certified seed: Male and female single crosses are sown in2:6/2:8 ratio. Female plants are detasseled at appropriate time after removing all off-types, diseased and undesirous plants, if any. Certification standards are maintained as per norms under the guidance of the monitoring team (Table 2 and 3). The seed obtained on female rows is called the certified seed. It is labeled as hybrid seed and sold to the farmers for commercial cultivation. 15.4 Factors affecting maize seed production: Planting ratio: A uniform planting ratio of 2:4 for foundation seed production and 2:6 for certified seed production plots has been recommended. Maize inbred vary in respect of plant height, tassel
  15. 15. Sakil.iubat@gmail.com size, branches, the amount of pollen produced, and duration of pollen availability. Sometimes, this factor may pose problem to the producers. 15.5 Non-Synchronization of flowering: Good seed set in seed parent can be achieved by chronological adjustment of pollen shedding and silking (Nicking), and by prolongation of effective flowering period, planting design, efficient alteration of rows, planting ratio and staggered planting. Genetic drift: The danger of genetic change in cross pollinated crops like maize is prominent. Plants of different types, if permitted in a line, may be susceptible to selection resulting in complete shift in the average performance of a line over a period of time, if produces repeatedly in smaller plots. 15.5.1 Detasseling: All tassels must be removed from the female rows before they have shed any pollen. 15.5.2 Mutation: Seed under storage is reported to have increased frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and point mutations. 15.5.3 Mechanical admixtures: these can be avoided by taking due precautions at harvesting, seed setting, bagging and storing operations. 15.5.4 Roguing: Based on district and diagnostic characters furnished by the breeder, rouging has to be performed in seedling stage, flowering stage and at the time of harvesting by seeing the plant and ear characters. 15.5.5 Physiological maturity: The crop should be harvested at proper stage of maturity to minimize qualitative and quantitative losses. 16. Seed size: Grading of seed is important as it avoids smaller as well as under developed and damaged seeds. Smaller seeds had good germination, but under stress conditions their performance was significantly affected.
  16. 16. 17. Maize seed requirements 17. 1 Requirements in Bangladesh In according to farmers demand maize seed requirements of 2012-2013 were 5,840 MT and supply was 4,345 MT which is 74% of total demand. 17.2 Global maize seed requirements: All demand for maize crop has been shifting increasingly in the world particularly developing countries its requirements will also increase from 282 million ton in 1995 to 504 million ton in 2020. 18. Uses of Maize 18.1 Human food Maize and cornmeal (ground dried maize) constitute a staple food in many regions of the world. Maize is central to Mexican food. Virtually every dish in Mexican cuisine uses maize. On form of grain or cornmeal, maize is the main ingredient of tortillas, tamales, pozole, atole and all the dishes based on them, like tacos, quesadillas, chilaquiles, enchiladas, tostadas and many more. In Mexico even a fungus of maize, known as huitlacoche is considered a delicacy. Introduced into Africa by the Portuguese in the 16th century, maize has become Africa's most important staple food crop. Maize meal is made into a thick porridge in many cultures: from the polenta of Italy, the angu of Brazil, the mamaliga of Romania, to cornmeal mush in the U.S. (and hominy grits in the South) or the food called mealie pap in South Africa and sadza, nshima and ugali in other parts of Africa. Maize meal is also used as a replacement for wheat flour, to make cornbread and other baked products. Masa (cornmeal treated with limewater) is the main ingredient for tortillas, atole and many other dishes of Central American food. Popcorn consists of kernels of certain varieties that explode when heated, forming fluffy pieces that are eaten as a snack. Roasted dried maize ears with semihardened kernels, coated with a seasoning mixture of fried chopped spring onions with salt added to the oil, is a popular snack food in Vietnam. Cancha, which are roasted maize chulpe kernels, are a very popular snack food in Peru, and also appears in traditional Peruvian ceviche. An unleavened bread called makki di roti is a popular bread eaten in the Punjab region of India and Pakistan. Chicha and chicha morada (purple chicha) are drinks typically made from particular types of maize. The first one is fermented and alcoholic, the second is a soft drink commonly drunk in Peru. Corn flakes are a common breakfast cereal in North America and the United Kingdom, and found in many other countries all over the world.
  17. 17. Sakil.iubat@gmail.com 18.2 Alternative medicine Stigmas from female maize flowers, popularly called corn silk, are sold as herbal supplements. 18.3 Chemicals Starch from maize can also be made into plastics, fabrics, adhesives, and many other chemical products.The corn steep liquor, a plentiful watery byproduct of maize wet milling process, is widely used in the biochemical industry and research as a culture medium to grow many kinds of microorganisms. Chrysanthemin is found in purple corn and is used as a food coloring. 18.4 Bio-fuel "Feed maize" is being used increasingly for heating; specialized corn stoves (similar to wood stoves) are available and use either feed maize or wood pellets to generate heat. Maize cobs are also used as a biomass fuel source. Maize is relatively cheap and home-heating furnaces have been developed which use maize kernels as a fuel. They feature a large hopper that feeds the uniformly sized maize kernels (or wood pellets or cherry pits) into the fire. Maize is increasingly used as a feedstock for the production of ethanol fuel.Ethanol is mixed with gasoline to decrease the amount of pollutants emitted when used to fuel motor vehicles. High fuel prices in mid-2007 led to higher demand for ethanol, which in turn lead to higher prices paid to farmers for maize. This led to the 2007 harvest being one of the most profitable maize crops in modern history for farmers. Because of the relationship between fuel and maize, prices paid for the crop now tend to track the price of oil. 18.5 Ornamental and other uses Some forms of the plant are occasionally grown for ornamental use in the garden. For this purpose, variegated and colored leaf forms as well as those with colorful ears are used. Corncobs can be hollowed out and treated to make inexpensive smoking pipes, first manufactured in the United States in 1869. An unusual use for maize is to create a "corn maze" (or "maize maze") as a tourist attraction. The idea of a maize maze was introduced by the American Maze Company who created a maze in Pennsylvania in 1993Traditional mazes are most commonly grown using yew hedges, but these take several years to mature. The rapid growth of a field of maize allows a maze to be laid out using GPS at the start of a growing season and for the maize to grow tall enough to obstruct a visitor's line of sight by the start of the summer. In Canada and the U.S., these are popular in many farming communities. Maize kernels can be used in place of sand in a sandbox like enclosure for children's play. Additionally, feed corn is sometimes used by hunters to bait animals such as deer or wild hogs.
  18. 18. 18.6 Fodder Maize makes a greater quantity of epigeous mass than other cereal plants, so can be used for fodder. Digestibility and palatability are higher when ensiled and fermented, rather than dried. 19. Maize production and marketing in Bangladesh Maize is a versatile crop and is more nutritious than rice in terms of protein, phosphorus, fat content and also in trace elements like magnesium, potassium and sulphur. It has an insignificant coverage of only 0.2 per cent of rice and three per cent of wheat acreage. With the introduction of high yielding seeds, its area and production have been expanding fast and it reached the level of 65,000 tons in 1997/98 from cultivation of 15,000 hectares of land. Among different districts of the country, Dinajpur, Rangpur, Bogra, Kushtia, Chuadanga and Dhaka are observed to be more progressive in maize cultivation. Maize can be cultivated in all three seasons of the year but winter is deserved to be more predominant. In the currently undertaken field survey covering four maize villages pre- monsoon i.e. Aus season has the largest acreage under maize. Among these four villages, hybrid maize is more important in two commercial villages of Birganj in Dinajpur and Savar in Dhaka and the composite in two other traditional villages (Jessore and Syedpur). Hybrid yields 5.4 tons per hectare which is higher by 34% over the composite variety. Despite higher yields from hybrid seeds, farmers prefer composite seeds because of easy availability, lower price and known quality. Maize fits well-fitted in the existing cropping patterns of the country. The major cropping patterns with pre-monsoon maize at Birganj are: Potato + Maize + Local T. Aman/Fallow while at Jessore are Potato + Maize + HYV Aman. In Savar such pattern is Potato + Maize + HYV Aman. The winter maize has the practice of Maize + China Irri + Fallow at Jessore and Maize + Fallow + Local T. Aman at Syedpur. With the introduction of maize it substituted several crops of which HYV Boro and vegetables are more prominent at Birganj; while mustard, sugarcane, vegetables and wheat at Savar. In two other areas, maize substituted wheat. Such substitutions cover about half of the current maize land in the study villages. Some fallow land has also been brought under maize. Average household production of maize is only two tons, the highest being at Savar (three tons). The consumption of maize at household level is less than three per cent. Eighty per cent is sold to traders and the remainder goes directly to poultry farm and the feed mills. In the traditional village fresh maize cobs are sold to traders from fields, mainly for local consumption as roasted or boiled cobs. Some consumption of maize as flour for chapatis, is reported at Birganj. Maize growers are little interested in keeping stock for off-season sales because of price risk and possible fungal attack. Only 18% of maize growers kept stock amounting to 16% of their total production. Stocking is higher in Savar (28% of their production). All producers emphasized the need for proper drying before stocking. This is, however, difficult in earthen floor specially in the
  19. 19. Sakil.iubat@gmail.com monsoon season. The poultry farms and the feed mills generally do not stock maize beyond one month's requirement as they have a regular schedule of procurement. Small poultry farm owners buy broken grains instead of finished feeds usually once a week from the local market. The demand for maize as feed ingredient is growing fast in the country with the establishment of new poultry, dairy and fish farms. Annual increase in the number of poultry and dairy farms over the last six years ending 1997/98 is estimated to be 6850 and 3706 respectively. The present annual consumption of maize and wheat by poultry farms is observed to be 14 kgs by a bird at the ratio of 5:2 which however, varies depending on their relative prices. Poultry farms with an average capacity of below 5000 birds consume imported maize to the extent of only one-fourth of their requirements. The feed mills, on the other hand, use imported maize amounting to two-thirds of their grain consumption. Very rough estimates show that there is an annual requirement of 450 thousand tons of maize by poultry farms in the country against the present domestic supplies of only 65,000 tons. Poultry and dairy industries are thus, import-dependent despite having high potentials of domestic production (three million hectares). Provision of adequate price incentives to growers appears to be a major step towards increased production of maize in the country. The procurement programme of maize in 1997/98 by the Ministry of Food was quite satisfactory. Their existing rice godowns are adequate but the procurement officers are required to be extra- cautious about moisture content in maize which should by no means exceed 13.5%. The economics of production of maize and its competitive crops like wheat, potato, China-Irri paddy, mustard etc. suggest that the minimum price to growers should be above Tk. 6.00 per kg. under the existing cost-price configurations and the crop production technologies used.To encourage maize production, government institution through its procurement programme is essential at least in the initial stage. Along with the procurement programme, special credit supports may be extended to commercial farmers, traders, and the NGOs interested in maize stock for year-round supplies to the poultry farms and the feed mills. In this regard, the Department of Agricultural Marketing or the present Integrated Maize Promotion Project of the Ministry of Agriculture may act as a facilitator between the potential buyers and the sellers as many of the farms are not well aware of local supplies, their quality and prices. For increased commercial production, market supplies of hybrid seeds should be kept under constant quality inspection by some state agency like BADC and their sales prices should be kept lower as far as possible. Block farming by local maize growers like country's existing sugarcane cultivation in the mill zone may be organized through timely supplies of seeds, fertilizer and credit. It is also considered important to carefully study the economics of production of maize at a broader perspective of agricultural development as its expansion is going to substitute some of the major crops like jute, wheat, mustard and pulses whose growth in production is also essential to meet their growing demand in the country.
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