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# PMP : Precedence Diagram Method : Relationship Types | iZenBridge

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Making Project schedule using precedence Diagram Method (PDM) includes four types of dependencies or logical relationships. Many PMP® aspirants find Finish to start (FS) relationship easy to understand and practice with but other three confuses them a bit.

This presentation describes all four at detail.

• Finish-to-start (FS)
• Finish-to-finish (FF)
• Start-to-start (SS)
• Start-to-finish (SF)

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### PMP : Precedence Diagram Method : Relationship Types | iZenBridge

1. 1. © 2014 iZenBridge | CONFIDENTIAL PMP is a registered trademark of the Project Management Institute, Inc. Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) Four Types of Logical Relationships – PMP® Prep Topic Saket Bansal
2. 2. © 2014 iZenBridge | CONFIDENTIAL Dependencies Type of logical relationship between two activities defines how the depended activity is constrained by independent activity
3. 3. © 2014 iZenBridge | CONFIDENTIAL Dependent Watching Independent Independent Activity start or finish does not get impacted because of the relation Dependent Activity Start or Finish is influenced by the relation Activity A Activity B
4. 4. © 2014 iZenBridge | CONFIDENTIAL Predecessor and Successor A predecessor activity is an activity that logically comes before a dependent activity in a schedule. A successor activity is a dependent activity that logically comes after another activity on a schedule Independent / Predecessor Dependent / Successor Activity A Activity B
5. 5. © 2014 iZenBridge | CONFIDENTIAL Four Types of logical Relationships • Finish-to-start (FS) • Finish-to-finish (FF) • Start-to-start (SS) • Start-to-finish (SF)
6. 6. © 2014 iZenBridge | CONFIDENTIAL Two Digits / Four Types State of Independent (Activity A) Activity on which activity B is dependent on Constraint on Dependent activity (Activity B) applied on Finish (F) Start (S) Finish (F) Start (S)
7. 7. © 2014 iZenBridge | CONFIDENTIAL Four types of logical relationships S F/S Someone watching my finish F F/S S I can not finish until my predecessor condition is met I can not start until my predecessor condition is met Someone watching my start F FS SS FF SF
8. 8. © 2014 iZenBridge | CONFIDENTIAL Finish to Start (FS)
9. 9. © 2014 iZenBridge | CONFIDENTIAL Finish to start (FS) “A logical relationship in which a successor activity cannot start until a predecessor activity has finished.” Activity A Activity B FS Activity B is watching my finish date / time I can not start unit A Finishes
10. 10. © 2014 iZenBridge | CONFIDENTIAL Finish to start (FS) “A logical relationship in which a successor activity cannot start until a predecessor activity has finished.” Activity A Activity B FS Activity B is watching my finish date / time I can not start until A Finishes F S
11. 11. © 2014 iZenBridge | CONFIDENTIAL Example: Finish to Start Development Activity can not be started until design is finished. The design activity is expected to take 4 days and development will take 10 days Design : 4 (Independent) Development :10 (Dependent) Early Finish 4Early Start 1 Early Start 5 Early Finish 14 FS ES: Development = Early Finish Design + 1 = 4+1
12. 12. © 2014 iZenBridge | CONFIDENTIAL Example: Finish to Start + Lag Development Activity can not be started until one day after design is finished. The design activity is expected to take 4 days and development will take 10 days Design : 4 (Independent) Development:10 (Dependent) Early Finish 4Early Start 1 Early Start 6 Early Finish 15 FS + 1 ES: Development = Early Finish Design + 1 + Lag = 4+1 + 1
13. 13. © 2014 iZenBridge | CONFIDENTIAL Example: Finish to Start - Lead Development Activity can not be started until one day before design is finishing. The design activity is expected to take 4 days and development will take 10 days Design : 4 (Independent) Development: 10 (Dependent) Finish 4Start 1 Start 4 Finish 13 FS - 1 ES: Development = Early Finish Design + 1 - Lead = 4+1 - 1
14. 14. © 2014 iZenBridge | CONFIDENTIAL Start-to-start (SS)
15. 15. © 2014 iZenBridge | CONFIDENTIAL Start-to-start (SS) “A logical relationship in which a successor activity cannot start until a predecessor activity has started.” Activity A Activity B SS Activity B is watching my Start date / time I can not start until A Starts S S
16. 16. © 2014 iZenBridge | CONFIDENTIAL Example: Start-to-start (SS) The activity of marketing brochure preparation can not start until user documentation activity has started. The marketing brochure preparation activity is expected to take 4 days and user manual preparation will take 10 days User Docs:10 Brochure: 4 Early Start 1 Early Finish 10 Early Start 1 Early Finish 4 ES Brochure = ES: User Doc +/- Lag/Lead
17. 17. © 2014 iZenBridge | CONFIDENTIAL Finish-to-finish (FF)
18. 18. © 2014 iZenBridge | CONFIDENTIAL Finish-to-finish (FF) “A logical relationship in which a successor activity cannot finish until a predecessor activity has finished.” Activity A Activity B FF Activity B is watching my Finish date / time I can not Finish until A Finishes F F
19. 19. © 2014 iZenBridge | CONFIDENTIAL Example: Finish-to-finish (FF) User Documentation activity can not finish until development is finished. User Documentation will take 10 days where development will take 30 days. Development: 30 User Documentation : 10 Early Start 1 Early Finish 30 Early Finish 30 EF User Doc = EF: Development +/- Lag/Lead Early Start 21
20. 20. © 2014 iZenBridge | CONFIDENTIAL Start-to-finish (SF)
21. 21. © 2014 iZenBridge | CONFIDENTIAL Start-to-finish (SF) “A logical relationship in which a successor activity cannot finish until a predecessor activity has started.” Activity A Activity B SF Activity B is watching my Start date / time I can not Finish until A Starts S F
22. 22. © 2014 iZenBridge | CONFIDENTIAL Example Start-to-finish (SF) Support activity from development team can not finish until production support Activity is started . Production support is expected to start on day 15. Production Support Development Support: 10 Early Start 15 Early Finish 14 EF Development Support = ES: Production Support -1 +/- Lag/Lead
23. 23. © 2014 iZenBridge | CONFIDENTIAL Four Types of Logical Relationships • Finish-to-start (FS) • Finish-to-finish (FF) • Start-to-start (SS) • Start-to-finish (SF)