A motherboard is the central or primary printed
circuit board making up a complex electronic system,
such as a modern computers.
It is also known as a main board, base board, system
board, and planar board.
A motherboard, is like a backplane, provides the
electrical connections by which other components of
the system communicate.
Before the invention of microprocessors, computers were built in
mainframes, with components which were connected by a backplane that
had countless slots for connecting wires.
In old designs, wires were needed to connect card connector pins but, soon
they became a thing of past with the invent of PCBs.
The CPU, memory and other peripherals were all housed on this printed
During the late 1980s and 1990s, it was found that increasing the number of
peripheral functions on the PCB was very economical.
Hence, single Integrated Circuits (ICs), capable of supporting low-speed
peripherals like serial ports , mouse, keyboards, etc., were included on the
History of the MotherBoard:
By the late 1990s, they began to have full range of audio,
video, storage and networking functions on them. Higher
end systems for 3D gaming and graphic cards were also
Micronics, Mylex, AMI, DTK, Orchid Technology,
Elitegroup, etc. were few companies that were early
pioneers in the field of motherboard manufacturing but,
companies like Apple and IBM soon took over.
They offered high end, sophisticated motherboards that
included upgraded features and superior performance
over prevailing motherboards.
History of the MotherBoard:
The Motherboard takes care of the entire system one way or
The function of the computer motherboard is to act as the
main circuit board that connects and communicates to all the
devices and components attached.
The motherboard also facilitates the communication of
devices with each other.
Measuring the motherboard's speed can be difficult and
varies, depending on the CPU attached.
A motherboard has a maximum front side bus (FSB) speed,
for example, but a CPU with that speed as well must be used.
BIOS or basic input output and Boot memory also resides on the
BIO is a kind of software which works when we turn on the
BIO is also called a lower level program because it is installed in
The job of the BIOS is to act as a communication channel between
motherboard and software's.
It is this printed circuit which contains chips and many expansion
cards to facilitate your working.
It does not matter which ever component you attach to your
motherboard, the basic functioning of that device is dependent
upon on the main board.
Mother board also contains a chip set. This chip set is really
essential as it monitors the data flow in your personal
It guides the movement and flow of data through the buses.
Motherboard chipset guides the data towards the correct
paths and ultimately correct destinations.
Therefore it is mother board where you plug in your video
cards, memory, cache and cards.
Motherboards are not produced in only one shape and
size. The shape and the size of the mother board is adjusted
depending on the need of the manufacturers.
Other features and Functions
of Main Board
Components of the
There are Four types of MOTHERBOARD.
XT Stands for extended Technology. These are all old model
motherboard. In this motherboards, we find old model
processor socket LIF (Low Insertion Force) sockets, ram slots
Dimms and ISA (Industry Standards Architecture) slots, 12pin
Power Connector and no ports.
They have slot type processors, Dimms memory modules, ISA
slots for add-on card, and no ports.
There are connectors and add-on cards
Eg: Pentium-I, Pentium-MMX, Pentium -II
and Pentium-II Processors.
AT stands for Advanced Technology. Advanced Technology
Motherboards have PGA (Pin Grid Array) Socket, SD Ram
slots, 20pin power connector PCI slots and ISA slots. we find
the above components on AT motherboards.
Eg: Pentium-III Processors
Baby AT Motherboards have the combination of XT and AT.
They have both slot type processor sockets and PGA processor
sockets, SD Ram slots and DDR Ram slots, PCI slots and ISA
slots, 12 Pin power connector and 20Pin power connector and
Eg: Pentium-III and Pentium-IV
Baby AT Motherboard
ATX stands for Advanced Technology eXtended. latest
motherboards all are called as ATX motherboards. designed by
ATX form factor. In this motherboards, we find MPGA
Processor Sockets, DDR Ram slots, PCI slots, AGP slots,
Primary and secondary IDE interfaces, SATA connectors, 20pin
and 24 pin ATX power connector and Ports.
Eg: Pentium-IV, Dual Core, Core 2 Duo,
Quad Core, i3, i5 and i7 Processors.
Motherboards fail for a variety of
electrostatic discharges and
There are three types of
If the pc will not boot, it is catastrophic failure.This often
occurs within the first 30 days a motherboard is in use.
Component failure may occur as an intermittent
problem or a flaky connection between a device and the
motherboard. The most common causes of component
failure are electrical surges.
Ethereal symptoms are the most difficult ones to
diagnose. You may get intermittent problems or the
computer may reboot or you may get a blue screen of