If the objectives of the report have beenclarified, the writer will know the appropriate levelof technical language and the correct tone for thereadership. The style will be formal because reportsare formal documents. The report is now takingshape, although little or no formal writing has beenproduced. The format has been chosen, the materialorganized, the logical progression clarified and thesections prepared; then the writing of the report cannow begin.
All praise to almighty Allah who is mostbeneficent and merciful. Who enabled me to read andwrite, then to holy prophet Muhammad (PBUH), whogave the light of Islam to mankind.First of all I pay my deepest thank to AlmightyAllah, Who enabled me to complete this presentation. Ipray deepest thanks to my teacher Prof. Dr. MirzaShahid Baig. Also special thanks to my fellow SamiUllah Khan bahi and Umair Malik who helps me a lot.
1. Introduction.2.Technical Report.2.1 Introduction.2.2 Objective.3. Format.3.1 Title page.3.2 Summary.3.3 Table of Content.3.4 Introduction.3.5 Text body.3.6 Conclusions.3.7 References.3.8 Appendixes.4. References.
A technical report (ScientificReport) is a document that describesthe process, progress, or results oftechnical or scientific research or thestate of a technical or scientificresearch problem. It might alsoinclude recommendations andconclusions of the research.
• Technical reports are often prepared for sponsors ofresearch projects.• Technical reports are today a major source ofscientific and technical information. They areprepared for internal or wider distribution by manyorganizations.• There are no absolute rules about the details ofreport production, because every report must betotally adapted to the needs of its reader.• Flexibility and adaptation may be useful, but only tomake the report more accessible to the reader.
The objectives of a report identify exactly whatinformation it covers, for whom it is written and whyit should be produced; these objectives should be clearto the writer long before the process of writing starts.It is helpful to put down in note form theprecise details of the objectives and to check thesedetails regularly until the last stages of production.
• The reader is the most important person.• Keep the report as short as possible.• All references should be correct in all details.• The writing should be accurate.• The right diagram with the right labels should be inthe right place for the reader.• Reports should be checked for technical errors,typing errors.• The report should look as good as it is.
As material arrives, it should be put into one ofthree categories: Obviously important information which must go intothe report because it is completely relevant to theobjectives. Borderline information which might be useful to somereaders, or which might amplify or substantiate othermore important material. Information which is interesting (or not) to the writer,but which is not relevant to the objectives of the report.
The full format of a report can be asfollows: „ „ Title page. Summary. „ „ Table of Contents. „ „ Introduction/Scope. „ „ Procedure/ Body Text. „ „ Conclusions. „ „ Recommendations. „ „ References. „ „ Appendices.
The title page is the first page of the report properwhich the reader will see. It should contain :• The title and author’s name.• The report reference number and date, if available.• The company’s name and logo if desired.• A statement of copyright if needed, and no more.
The summary (sometimes referred to as theexecutive summary) provides a brief overview of thesubstance of the report; usually no more than half a page.It is not an introduction to the topic. The summary shouldoutline all the key features of your report, including thetopic, what you did and how you did it. The summarygives the most important findings of your research orinvestigation.
The contents page sets out the sections andsubsections of the report and their corresponding pagenumbers. It should clearly show the structural relationshipbetween the sections and subsections. A reader looking forspecific information should be able to locate theappropriate section easily from the table of contents.Number the sections by the decimal pointnumbering system.
The introduction provides the backgroundinformation needed for the rest of your report to beunderstood. It is usually half to three-quarters of a pagein length. The introduction includes:• The background to the topic.• A clear statement of the purpose of the report.• A clear statement of the aims of the project.
This is main part of the report, where you presentyour work. The introduction and conclusions act as aframe for the body only; therefore all the details of yourwork must be included here.The presentation of information should flowlogically so that the reader can follow the development ofyour project.
The conclusions section provides an effectiveending to your report. They must give some overallinsight into the value of your work in general andinform the reader of what the major impact of yourwork is.
A reference shows that information comesfrom another source and also gives the details ofthese sources.
Appendixes contain material that is too detailedto include in the main report, such as raw data ordetailed drawings. Usually each appendix must begiven a number and title.