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Robbins fom7 ch01
Robbins fom7 ch01
Robbins fom7 ch01
Robbins fom7 ch01
Robbins fom7 ch01
Robbins fom7 ch01
Robbins fom7 ch01
Robbins fom7 ch01
Robbins fom7 ch01
Robbins fom7 ch01
Robbins fom7 ch01
Robbins fom7 ch01
Robbins fom7 ch01
Robbins fom7 ch01
Robbins fom7 ch01
Robbins fom7 ch01
Robbins fom7 ch01
Robbins fom7 ch01
Robbins fom7 ch01
Robbins fom7 ch01
Robbins fom7 ch01
Robbins fom7 ch01
Robbins fom7 ch01
Robbins fom7 ch01
Robbins fom7 ch01
Robbins fom7 ch01
Robbins fom7 ch01
Robbins fom7 ch01
Robbins fom7 ch01
Robbins fom7 ch01
Robbins fom7 ch01
Robbins fom7 ch01
Robbins fom7 ch01
Robbins fom7 ch01
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Robbins fom7 ch01

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  • Managers work in organizations. We define organizations as A deliberate arrangement of people brought together to accomplish some are deliberate arrangements of people to accomplish a specific purpose. Examples include your college or university, the United Way, your neighborhood convenience store, the Dallas Cowboys football team, fraternities and sororities, the Cleveland Clinic and Nokia.
  • For simplicities sake, we can divide organization members into two categories: nonmanagerial employees and managers. Nonmanagerial employees do not oversee the work of others. Managers direct and oversee the activity of the people in the organization.
  • Managers are usually classified as top, middle or first-line. But be aware that they can have a variety of titles.
  • Management is a process of getting things done, effectively and efficiently, with through people. A process is a set of ongoing and interrelated activities. In our definition it refers to the primary activities or functions managers perform.
  • Henri Fayol, a French industrialist in the early twentieth century, proposed that all managers perform five management activities: plan, organize, command, coordinate and control. Today these management functions have been condensed to four.
  • Planning includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans to coordinate activities. Organizing includes determining what tasks need to be done and by whom. Leading includes motivating, directing the activities of others, and resolving conflicts. Controlling involves monitoring, comparing, and correcting work performance.
  • In the 1960s, Henry Mintzberg did an empirical study of chief executives and discovered that managers were engaged in a number of varied, un-patterned, and short-duration activities. He defined management by categorizing what managers do based on the managerial roles they perform at work.
  • Another way to describing what managers do is by looking at the skills they need in managing. Managers must possess four critical skills in managing. Conceptual skills, Interpersonal Skills, Technical Skills and Political Skills.
  • While the importance of managerial roles varies depending on a manager’s position within an organization, the differences are of degree and emphasis, not of function. As managers move up the organization, for example, they spend less time supervising and more time planning. All managers, however, make decisions and plan, lead, organize, and control. But the amount of time they give to each activity is not necessarily constant. In addition, the content of the managerial activities changes with the manager’s level. When measuring managerial performance in business, profit (the bottom line) is an unambiguous criterion. Even though not-for-profit organizations need money to survive, however, their managers do not live and die to maximize profits. Given this difference, managers working in profit and not-for-profit organizations must perform similar functions: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.
  • Let’s look at some of the reasons why you may want to understand more about management. Because we interact with others every day of our lives, an understanding of management offers insights into many organizational aspects. Many once thriving organizations no longer exist. You can distinguish between by good and poor management by studying management.
  • It’s important to study areas outside the business curriculum because other disciplines including humanities and social sciences affect management practice.
  • Managers everywhere are likely to have to manage in changing circumstances and the fact that management is changing.
  • Transcript

    • 1. 1Chapter Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education Managers and Management
    • 2. Learning Outcomes • Tell who managers are and where they work • Define management • Describe what managers do • Explain why it’s important to study management • Describe the factors that are reshaping and redefining management Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education 1-2
    • 3. Who Are Managers? Where Do They Work? • Organization – A deliberate arrangement of people brought together to accomplish some are deliberate arrangements of people to accomplish a specific purpose. • Common Characteristics of Organizations – Distinct purpose – People working together – A deliberate systematic structure 1-3Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
    • 4. 1-4Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
    • 5. How Are Managers Different from Nonmanagerial Employees? • Nonmanagerial Employees – People who work directly on a job or task and have no responsibility for overseeing the work of others. – Examples, associates, team members • Managers – Individuals in organizations who direct the activities of others. 1-5Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
    • 6. 1-6Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
    • 7. What Titles Do Managers Have? • Top Managers – Responsible for making decisions about the direction of the organization. – Examples; President, Chief Executive Officer, Vice- President • Middle Managers – Manage the activities of other managers. – Examples; District Manager, Division Manager • First-line Managers – Responsible for directing nonmanagerial employees – Examples; Supervisor, Team Leader 1-7Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
    • 8. What Is Management? • Management – The process of getting things done effectively and efficiently, with and through people • Effectiveness – “Doing the right things”, doing those tasks that help an organization reach its goals • Efficiency – Concerned with the means, efficient use of resources like people, money, and equipment 1-8Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
    • 9. 1-9Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
    • 10. What Do Managers Do? In the functions approach proposed by French industrialist Henri Fayol, all managers perform certain activities or functions 1-10Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
    • 11. Four Management Functions • Planning – Defining the organizational purpose and ways to achieve it • Organizing – Arranging and structuring work to accomplish organizational goals • Leading – Directing the work activities of others • Controlling – Monitoring, comparing, and correcting work performance 1-11Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
    • 12. 1-12Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
    • 13. What Roles Do Managers Play? Henry Mintzberg observed that a manager’s job can be described by ten roles performed by managers in three general categories • Interpersonal Roles – Figurehead, Leader, and Liaison • Informational Roles – Monitor, Disseminator and Spokesperson • Decisional roles – Entrepreneur, Disturbance Handler, Resource Allocator and Negotiator 1-13Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
    • 14. 1-14Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
    • 15. What Skills Do Managers Need? Robert Katz and others describe four critical skills in managing • Conceptual Skills – Used to analyze complex situations • Interpersonal Skills – Used to communicate, motivate, mentor and delegate • Technical Skills – Based on specialized knowledge required for work • Political Skills – Used to build a power base and establish connections 1-15Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
    • 16. Is The Manager’s Job Universal? The previous discussion describe management as a generic activity. In reality, a manager’s job varies with along several dimensions • Level in the Organization – Top level managers do more planning than supervisors • Profit vs. Nonprofit – Management performance is measured on different objectives 1-16Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
    • 17. Is the Manager’s Job Universal? (cont’d) • Size of the Organization – Small businesses require an emphasis in the management role of spokesperson • National Borders – These concepts work best in English-speaking countries and may need to be modified in other global environments 1-17Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
    • 18. 1-18Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
    • 19. 1-19Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
    • 20. Why Study Management? • All of us have a vested interest in improving the way organizations are managed • Organizations that are well managed find ways to prosper even in challenging economic times • After graduation most students become managers or are managed 1-20Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
    • 21. What Can Students of Management Learn From Other Courses? • Anthropology – The study of social societies which helps us learn about humans and their activities • Economics – Provides us with an understanding of the changing economy and competition in a global context 1-21Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
    • 22. What Can Students of Management Learn From Other Courses? (cont’d) • Philosophy – Inquires into the nature of things, particularly values and ethics • Political Science – The study of behavior and groups within a political environment • Psychology – The science that seeks to measure, explain and sometimes change the behavior of humans • Sociology – The study of people in relationship to their fellow human beings 1-22Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
    • 23. What Factors Are Reshaping and Redefining Management? Welcome to the new world of management! Today managers must deal with – Changing workplaces – Ethical and trust issues – Global economic uncertainties – Changing technologies 1-23Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
    • 24. Why Are Customers Important to the Manager’s Job? • Without customers most organizations would cease to exist • Today we’re discovering that employee attitudes and behaviors play a big part in customer satisfaction • Managers must create a customer responsive where employees are friendly, knowledgeable, responsive g to customer needs 1-24Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
    • 25. Why Is Innovation Important to the Manager’s Job? • “Nothing is more risky than not innovating” • Innovation isn’t just important for high technology companies but essential in all types of organizations 1-25Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
    • 26. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education 1-26 A Brief History of Management’s Roots History Module
    • 27. Early Management • Management has been practiced a long time. • Organized endeavors directed by people responsible for planning, organizing, leading and controlling have existed for thousands of years Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education 1-27
    • 28. Classical Approaches • Scientific Management – Frederick W. Taylor described scientific management as a method of scientifically finding the “one best way to do a job” Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education 1-28
    • 29. Other Classic Approaches • General Administrative Theory – focused on what constituted good management – Max Weber (pictured) described the bureaucracy as an ideal rational form of organization – Henri Fayol identified five management functions and 14 management principles Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education 1-29
    • 30. Behavioral Approaches • Early management writers included – Robert Owen, was concerned about deplorable working conditions – Hugo Munsterberg, a pioneer the field of industrial psychology – Mary Parker Follett recognized hat organizations could be viewed from both individual and group behavior. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education 1-30
    • 31. The Hawthorne Studies • Conducted at the Western Electric Company Works these studies: – Provided new insights into individual and group behavior in the behavior of people at work. – Concluded that group pressures can significantly impact individual productivity Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education 1-31
    • 32. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education 1–32 Quantitative Approaches • Quantitative Approach – Used quantitative techniques to improve decision making – Evolved from mathematical and statistical solutions developed for military problems during World War II – W. Edwards Deming and Joseph M. Duran ‘s ideas became the basis for total quality management (TQM)
    • 33. Contemporary Approaches • Focused on managers’ concerns inside the organization – Chester Barnard wrote in his 1938 book The Functions of the Executive that an organization functioned as a cooperative system – Fred Feildler first popularized the contingency approach (or situational approach) which says that organizations, employees, and situations are different and require different ways of managing Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education 1-33
    • 34. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education 1-34

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